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Encyclopedia > Dutch colonization of the Americas
European colonization
of the Americas
History of the Americas
British colonization
Courland colonization
Danish colonization
Dutch colonization
French colonization
German colonization
Portuguese colonization
Russian colonization
Scottish colonization
Spanish colonization
Swedish colonization
Viking colonization

During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. Many of the Dutch settlements had been abandoned or lost by the end of the century, with the exception of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, which remain Dutch territory until this day, and Suriname, which became independent in 1975. Although there is some debate as to whether the prehistoric Clovis culture was European in origin, the first generally accepted European colonists were the Norse, starting, but then abandoning, a colonisation process. ... The history of the Americas is the collective history of North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. ... [[[[[ == [[Media: --71. ... Map of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with Courlands colonies marked The Duchy of Courland was the smallest nation to colonize the Americas with a short-lived colony in Tobago during the 1654-1659, and again 1660-1689. ... Denmark had a colonial empire from the 18th century until the 20th. ... North America The French established colonies across the New World in the 17th century. ... The German colonization of the Americas consisted of a failed attempt to settle Venezuela in the 16th century. ... Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ... After the discovery of northern Alaska by Ivan Fedorov in 1732, and the Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, and north-western shores of North America in 1741 during the Russian exploration conducted by Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov, it took fifty years until the founding of the first Russian colony in... The Darién scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama. ... Spanish conquest and colonization of America began with the arrival in America of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... The Swedish colonization of the Americas consisted of a 17th century settlement on the Delaware River in Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, and possessions in the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th century. ... The Vikings, or Norse, explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeast fringes of North America, beginning in the 10th century of the common era. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Map of America by Jonghe, c. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...

Contents


North America

New Netherland (New Amsterdam)

In 1602, the government of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands chartered the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) with the mission of exploring for a passage to the Indies and claiming any unchartered territories for the United Provinces. New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was the territory claimed by the United Provinces (the Netherlands) on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ... Dutch Revival buildings from the early 20th century on Pearl Street in lower Manhattan recall the Dutch origins of the city. ... This page is about the year. ... This article is about the Dutch United Provinces. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and Southeast Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Maldives...


In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson attempted to find a northwest passage to the Indies, instead discovering areas of current United States and Canada, among others giving his name to the Hudson River and Hudson Bay and claiming the surrounding land for the VOC. // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... . No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... View of the Hudson in the 1880s showing Jersey City The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river running mainly through New York State but partly forming the boundary between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ...


In 1614, Adriaen Block led an expedition to the lower Hudson in the Tyger, and then explored the East River aboard Onrust, becoming the first known European to navigate the Hellegat (now called Hell Gate) and to enter Long Island Sound. Block Island and Block Island Sound were named after him. Upon returning, Block compiled a map, the first to apply the name "New Netherland" to the area between English Virginia and French Canada, where he was later granted exclusive trading rights by the Dutch government. Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Blocks map of his 1614 voyage, with the first appearance of the term New Netherland Adriaen Block (1567–1627) was a Dutch private fur trader and navigator who explored the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614... The Tyger was the ship used by Dutch captain Adriaen Block during his 1613-1614 voyage to explore the East Coast of North America and the present day Hudson River. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... The Onrust was a Dutch ship that was built by Adriaen Block and the crew of the Tyger, which had been destroyed by fire. ... Hell Gate, shown in red, in a satellite photo of New York Harbor. ... Block Island, shown in red, off the coast of the State of Rhode Island Block Island is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, a fragment of glacial terminal moraine approximately ten miles off the coast of Rhode Island, of which it is part, and from which it is separated by... Block Island Sound, shown shaded in red, between the coast of the Rhode Island and Block Island. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Colony of Virginia was the English colony in North America that existed briefly during the 16th century, and continuously from 1607 until the American Revolution. ... New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ...


After some early trading expeditions, the first settlement was founded in 1615: Fort Nassau, on Castle Island in the Hudson, near present-day Albany. The settlement served mostly as a trade post for fur trade with the natives and was later replaced by Fort Oranje (in English: Fort Orange) at present-day Albany. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch House of Orange-Nassau. Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. ... Location in New York Founded Incorporated 1614 1686  County Albany County Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Area  - Total  - Water 56. ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... Fort Orange (also Fort Oranje or Fort Oranije) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New York. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch Oranje-Nassau), is a family that has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of the Fatherland) organised the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after...


In 1621, a new company was established with a trading monopoly in the Americas and West Africa: the Dutch West India Company (Westindische Compagnie or WIC). The WIC sought recognition for the area in the New World - which had been called New Netherland - as a province, which was granted in 1623. Soon after, the first colonists, mostly from present-day Belgium and Germany, arrived in the new province. Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... Map of America by Jonghe, c. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... Netherland]] area, which included New Amsterdam, covered parts of present-day New York, Connecticut, Delaware, and New Jersey. ... New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was the territory claimed by the United Provinces (the Netherlands) on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ...


In 1626, Director-General of the WIC Peter Minuit "purchased" the island of Manhattan from Indians and started the construction of fort New Amsterdam. In the same year, Fort Nassau was built in the New Jersey area. Other settlements were Fort Casimir (Newcastle) and Fort Beversrede (Philadelphia). In 1655, the main settlement of New Sweden, Fort Christina, was captured after the Swedes had briefly occupied Fort Casimir. Large numbers of the inhabitants of these settlements were not Dutch, but came from a variety of other European countries, including England. Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Peter Minuit (1580 - 1638), born in Wesel, Duchy of Cleves (present-day Germany), was the Director General of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1633. ... Manhattan Borough,highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... Dutch Revival buildings from the early 20th century on Pearl Street in lower Manhattan recall the Dutch origins of the city. ... The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. ... State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey (D) Acting, Outgoing Jon Corzine (D) (Governor-Elect) Senators Jon Corzine (D) (Outgoing) Frank Lautenberg (D) Official language(s) None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378... New Castle is a city located in New Castle County, Delaware. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ... Events May 10 - English troops land on Jamaica March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a Swedish(-Finnish) colony in North America corresponding roughly to the networked region of urban sprawl around Philadelphia, containing such settlements as Finland, Lapland etc. ... Fort Christina was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. ...


A significant number of immigrants to New Netherland were Protestants of English or French Huguenot background, including the Louis Dubois colony, which settled New Paltz, making a private treaty with the local Native Americans to purchase a large tract of land from the Hudson River to the mountains. Later, under English rule, this self-governing colony, ruled by Dubois and 11 others on their unique duzine, continued to prosper and today the village boasts the oldest street in North America with the original stone houses. Louis Dubois was a Huguenot colonist to New Netherland, who founded, with his son and 10 other refugees known as the duzine, the village of New Paltz. ... New Paltz is both a village and town in the U.S. state of New York. ...


In 1664, English troops under the command of the Duke of York and Albany (later James II of England) attacked the New Netherland colony. Being greatly outnumbered, Director-General Peter Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam, with Fort Orange following soon. New Amsterdam was renamed New York (from James's English title), Fort Orange was renamed Fort Albany (from James's Scottish title). Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Prince Andrew, the current Duke of York since 1986 Duke of York is also a small island in Papua-New Guinea, see Duke of York (island) The title Duke of York is a title of nobility usually given to the second son of the British monarch, unless the title is... James II of England and VII of Scotland ( 14 October 1633–16 September 1701 ) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... Peter Stuyvesant, ca. ... Dutch Revival buildings from the early 20th century on Pearl Street in lower Manhattan recall the Dutch origins of the city. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje ... State nickname: The Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Rodham Clinton (D) Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² or 54,556 square miles (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje ... Fort Albany may refer to: Fort Albany, Ontario in Canada a fort established by the British on the current site of Albany, New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The loss of the New Netherland province led to the Second Anglo-Dutch War during 1665-1667. This conflict ended with the Treaty of Breda in which the Dutch gave up their claim to New Netherland in exchange for Suriname. The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... Events March 4 - Start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, July 31, 1667, by England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark. ...


From 1673 to 1674, the territories were once again briefly captured by the Dutch in the Third Anglo-Dutch War, only to be returned to England at the Treaty of Westminster. Events The English Test Act was passed. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... The Battle of Texel, 11–21 August 1673 by Willem van de Velde, the younger, painted 1683, depicts a battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... The Treaty of Westminster was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Caribbean

Netherlands Antilles

Dutch colonization of Sint Maarten began in 1620 although the ownership of the island changed hands at least 16 times before 1816, when it was permanently split between France and the Netherlands. St. ... Events September 6 - English emigrants on the Mayflower depart from Plymouth, England for the future New England and arrive at the end of the year. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Several other islands were captured and fortified to prevent Spanish attacks in the ongoing Dutch war for independence from Spain and to exploit timber and salt resources:

The Netherlands Antilles remains an overseas territory of the Netherlands, although it was granted self-rule in 1954. In 1986, Aruba was granted autonomy, separately from the other islands. Curaçao and Bonaire are two Caribbean islands This article is about an island in the Caribbean Sea. ... View of Saba from the sea Iguana - Booby Hill Storm coming - view from Booby Hill Saba (pronounced SAY-ba) is a small (13 sq. ... Map showing location of Sint Eustatius relative to Saba and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin Sint Eustatius (also Saint Eustace and Statia), pop. ... Bonaire Island from space, March 1996 Bonaire is an island in the Netherlands Antilles. ... St. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Virgin Islands

The Dutch established a base on St. Croix in 1625, the same year that the British did. French Protestants joined the Dutch but conflict with the British colony led to its abandonment before 1650. The Dutch established a settlement on Tortola in 1648 and later on Anegada and Virgin Gorda. The British took Tortola in 1672 and Anegada and Virgin Gorda in 1680. A separate article treats the several rivers known as the St. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... Tortola is the largest and most populated of the British Virgin Islands. ... Unlike the other British Virgin Islands, Anegada is a flat atoll. ... Huge boulders litter the beach at The Baths Virgin Gorda is the second-largest of the British Virgin Islands. ...


Tobago

The Netherlands made numerous attempts to colonize the island in the 17th century. Each time, the settlements were destroyed by rival European powers. Dutch settlements on Tobago existed: Tobago is an island in the southern Caribbean Sea, part of the nation of Trinidad and Tobago. ...

  • 1628–1637 destroyed by Spanish
  • 1654–1666 conquered by British and destroyed by French
  • 1672 destroyed by British
  • 1676–1677 destroyed by French

South America

Suriname

The European colony in Suriname was founded in the 1650s by Lord Willoughby, the governor of Barbados. This colony was captured by the Dutch under Abraham Crijnsen during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. On July 31, 1667, by the Treaty of Breda the Dutch offered New Netherland (modern New York City) in exchange for their sugar factories on the coast of Surinam. In 1683 Suriname was sold to the Dutch West India Company and came to be known as Dutch Guiana. The colony developed an agricultural economy based on African slavery. The way the Dutch colonists treated their black slaves was horrendous, even for the timeframe, with families being deliberately broken up. During the Napoleonic Wars, England controlled Suriname from 1799 until 1816, when it was returned to the Dutch. The Netherlands granted Suriname independence on November 25, 1975. Political instability resulted in large numbers of Surinamese moving to the Netherlands. Significant Events and Trends World Leaders King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670). ... The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, July 31, 1667, by England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark. ... New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was the territory claimed by the United Provinces (the Netherlands) on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ... New York City, officially named the City of New York, is the most populous city in the United States, the most densely populated major city in North America, and is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... The Republic of Suriname, more commonly known as Suriname or Surinam, (formerly known as Netherlands Guiana and Dutch Guiana) is a country in northern South America, in between French Guiana to the east and Guyana to the west. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...


Guyana

The Dutch West Indian Company built a fort in 1616 on the Essequibo River. The Dutch traded with the Indian peoples and, as in Suriname, established sugar plantations worked by African slaves. While the coast remained under Dutch control, the English established plantations west of the Suriname River. Conflict between the two countries meant parts of the region changed hands a number of times, but by 1796 Britain had control of the region. The Netherlands ceded the colonies of Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice to Britain in 1814. The Essequibo River is the longest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon. ... In general use, sugar is taken to mean sucrose, also called table sugar, or saccharose, a monosaccharide which is a white crystalline solid. ... The Essequibo River is the longest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon. ... Demerara was one of the original British colonies that was joined into the colony of British Guiana, now Guyana. ... Berbice is the Second largest of the three counties in Guyana and is known as the ancient county. ...


Brazil

From 1630 onward the Netherlands came to control almost half of Brazil, with their capital in Recife. The Dutch West India Company set up their headquarters in Recife. The governor, Johan Maurits invited artists and scientists to the colony to help promote Brazil and increase immigration. The Portuguese won a significant victory at the Second Battle of Guararapes in 1649. By 1654, the Netherlands had surrendered and returned control of all Brazilian land to the Portuguese. Meaning reef in Portuguese; Recife, population 1. ... John Maurice of Nassau (Dutch: Johan Maurits van Nassau, 1604-1679) was a count of Nassau-Siegen. ... Battle of Guararapes Conflict Date February 18, 1649 Place Pernambuco, Brazil Result Portuguese victory The Second Battle of Guararapes was a conflict between Dutch and Portuguese forces in 1649 at Pernambuco that ended in a resounding Portuguese victory and was one of the final nails in the coffin of Dutch...


Chile

In 1600 the city Valdivia was conquered by a Dutch pirate: Sebastian de Cordes. He left the city after some months. // Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned at the stake for heresy July July 2 - Battle of Nieuwpoort: Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeat Spanish forces under Archduke Albert in a battle on the coastal dunes. ... Melbourne, Australia by night For alternate meanings see city (disambiguation) A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... Valdivia is a city in southern Chile, founded by Pedro de Valdivia, located at the confluence of the Calle Calle, Valdivia and Cau Cau rivers, some 15 km east of the coastal town and bay of Corral. ...


Then in 1642 the VOC and the WIC sent a fleet of some ships to Chile to conquer the city of Valdivia, and the goldmines of the Spanish. The expedition was conducted by Hendrick Brouwer, a Dutch general. Everything was going well in the beginning, in 1643 Brouwer conquered the island Chiloe and the city Valdivia. Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ...


But on the 7th of August of 1643 Hendrick Brouwer died on a decice. The vice-general Elias Herckmans took control. There were two things he did wrong: First, he let the Indians know that he was looking for gold, thus ending their cooperation. Secondly, he was soft to his men, eventually causing them to start a mutiny. General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ...


Because of this the Dutch left Chile and their newly conquered city, and returned to Dutch Brazil.


See also;

Former Dutch colonies
Aruba (current) | Berbice | Brazil (part) | Cape Colony | Ceylon | Demerara | Deshima | Dutch East Indies | Dutch Guiana | Essequibo | Dutch West Indies or Netherlands Antilles (current) | Netherlands New Guinea | New Netherland (New Amsterdam, New Sweden) | New Zealand (part) | Smeerenburg | Taiwan | Tobago | Travancore | Virgin Islands (part)
See also: Dutch colonisation of the Americas | Dutch East India Company | Dutch West India Company | New Holland

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dutch colonization of the Americas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1361 words)
During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations.
Dutch colonization of Sint Maarten began in 1620 although the ownership of the island changed hands at least 16 times before 1816, when it was permanently split between France and the Netherlands.
The Dutch established a settlement on Tortola in 1648 and later on Anegada and Virgin Gorda.
New Netherland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (887 words)
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was the territory claimed by the United Provinces (the Netherlands) on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century.
The Dutch policy was to require formal purchase of all land that they settled, although the principle of land ownership was not one that the existing inhabitants recognised, likely resulting in misunderstandings.
Dutch Portuguese Colonial History (http://www.colonialvoyage.com/)Dutch Portuguese Colonial History: history of the Portuguese and the Dutch in Sri Lanka (Ceylon), India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, Brazil.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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