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Encyclopedia > Dutch Republic
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History of the Netherlands
Ancient times
Germanic tribes
Roman Era
Migration Period
The Medieval Low Countries
Frankish Realm / The Franks
Holy Roman Empire
Burgundian Netherlands
Seventeen Provinces
Spanish Netherlands
Rise and Fall of the Dutch Republic
Eighty Years' War
United Provinces
The Golden Age
The Batavian revolution
From Republic to Monarchy
Batavian Republic
Kingdom of Holland
First French Empire
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Netherlands in Modern Times
Modern History of the Netherlands
Netherlands in World War II
Luctor et Emergo
The Dutch Fight against Water
The Miscellaneous Netherlands
Military history of the Netherlands
History of the Dutch language
Dutch literature
Dutch influence on military terms
Dutch inventions and discoveries
Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius
Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius
"United Netherlands" redirects here. For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands," see United Kingdom of the Netherlands.

The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (or "of the Seven United Low Countries") (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden/Provinciën; also Dutch Republic or United Provinces in short) was a European republic between 1581 and 1795, in the same location as the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands, which sees itself as a successor state. The Conspiracy of Julius Civilis, completed in 1661 by Rembrandt, the best-known painter of the Dutch Golden Age. ... Image File history File links Dutch_flag_and_hourglass. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... The Conspiracy of Julius Civilis, completed in 1661 by Rembrandt, the best-known painter of the Dutch Golden Age. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to the period when the dukes of Burgundy ruled the area, as well as Luxembourg and northern France from 1384 to 1477. ... The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt or Revolt of the Netherlands (1566[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) empire. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Dutch Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... The term Batavian revolution refers to the political, social and cultural turmoil that marked the end of the Dutch Republic at the end of the 18th century. ... From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modelled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... The First French Empire, commonly known as the French Empire or the Napoleonic Empire, covers the period of the domination of France and much of continental Europe by Napoleon I of France. ... Map of the kingdom United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830) (1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas and German: Vereinigte Königreich der Niederlande) were the unofficial names used to refer to a new unified European state created during the Congress of Vienna in... Preamble to the War During the period between the first and second World Wars the Netherlands, like other countries, suffered from the effects of the Great Depression after the Stock market crash of 1929. ... Blue:Areas below sealevel or vunerable to flooding, either by sea or by rivers. ... The Dutch- speaking people have a long history, the Netherlands as a nation-state dates from 1568. ... The history of the Dutch language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the 6th century AD with the High German consonant shift and growing social and political power of the Franks. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Historically, many Dutch military terms have been influential and adopted by many other languages all over the world. ... The Dutch people have a history and tradition in inventing and discovery, Dutch scientists and engineers have made a remarkable contribute to human progress as a whole. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3426x2550, 1247 KB) Map of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands Drawn by Joannes (or Johannes) Janssonius Part of his collection Belgii Foederati Nova Descriptio Published in Amsterdam in 1658 Map predates international copyright law, plus author has sadly deceased... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3426x2550, 1247 KB) Map of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands Drawn by Joannes (or Johannes) Janssonius Part of his collection Belgii Foederati Nova Descriptio Published in Amsterdam in 1658 Map predates international copyright law, plus author has sadly deceased... Map of the kingdom United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830) (1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas and German: Vereinigte Königreich der Niederlande) were the unofficial names used to refer to a new unified European state created during the Congress of Vienna in... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the six inhabited continents of the Earth. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ...

Contents

History

Before 1581, the area of the Low Countries consisted of a number of duchies, counties, and independent bishoprics, not all of them part of the Holy Roman Empire. Today that area is divided between the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and parts of France and Germany. The Low Countries in the 16th century roughly corresponded to the Seventeen Provinces covered by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. See Seventeen Provinces, for history and links to the earlier history of each of the provinces. For the southern provinces that did not secede from Spain in 1581, see the Spanish Netherlands. Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... The Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 was an edict, promulgated by The Emperor Charles V reorganizing the Seventeen Provinces. ... The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ...


Through marriage, war or sale, these states all ended up in the hands of the Habsburg emperor Charles V and his son, king Philip II of Spain. In 1568, the Netherlands, led by William of Orange, revolted against Philip II because of his efforts to modernize and centralize the devolved medieval government structures of the provinces, high taxes, and persecution of Protestants by the Catholic church. This was the start of the Eighty Years' War. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. ... Philip II of Spain. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... William I (William the Silent) William I, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584) was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. ... Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. ... Decentralisation (or decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt or Revolt of the Netherlands (1566[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) empire. ...


In 1579, a number of the northern Netherlands signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defense against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Oath of Abjuration, the declaration of independence in which the provinces officially deposed Philip II. Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under control of Spain. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... The Oath of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe of July 26, 1581, was the formal declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king, Philip II. This point meant a climax in the Dutch Revolt, a point of no return, in which the Low Countries asserted they...


The United Provinces first tried to choose their own lord, and they asked the Duke of Anjou (sovereign from 1581-1583) to rule them. Later, after the assassination of William of Orange (July 10, 1584), Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England both declined the offer of sovereignty. However, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England (Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585), and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general. This was not a success, and in 1588 the provinces became a Republic. Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Henry III (French: Henri III) (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from May 30, 1574 until his death. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Treaty of Nonsuch was signed by Elizabeth I of England and the United Provinces on August 20, 1585 at Nonsuch Palace in Surrey. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (also referred to as Lord Leycester such as at the Lord Leycester Hospital. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ...


From an economic perspective, the Republic of the United Provinces completely out-performed all expectations; it was a surprise to many that a nation, not based on the church or on a single royal leader, could be so successful. This time period is known in Holland as the Golden Age. The Dutch dominated world trade in the 17th century, conquering a vast colonial empire and operating the largest fleet of merchantmen of all western nations. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanised region of Europe. The free trade spirit of the time — which some would argue was the Protestant spirit of the time — received a strong augmentation through the development of a modern — much better functioning — stock market in the Low Countries. The introduction to the Netherlands of this financial institution can be attributed to the Walloons, the French speaking Belgians.,[citation needed] They established a stock market first in Rotterdam and later in Amsterdam. In Amsterdam, the modernization of the financial institution took place, and the oldest stock market based on principles still in place in our world today is found here. While the banking system evolved in the Low Countries, it was quickly incorporated to the well-connected English, stimulating the English economic output. Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Dutch Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... The history of international trade chronicles the way that the flow of trade over long distances has shaped, and been shaped by history. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dutch Empire. ... Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The New York Stock Exchange A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... Rotterdam Location Coat of arms The coat of arms reads Sterker door strijd, i. ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 741,329 (1 August 2006) Demonym Amsterdammer Coordinates Website www. ...


The Republic of the United Provinces was officially recognized in the Peace of Westphalia (1648), and lasted until French revolutionary forces invaded in 1795 and set up a new republic, called the Batavian Republic, which would be replaced by the French-controlled Kingdom of Holland. The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modelled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ...


The Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names "United Provinces of the Netherlands" and "United Netherlands" are used. In 1815 it was rejoined with Austrian Netherlands, Luxemburg and Luik (before that the 'Southern provinces') to become the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in order to create a strong buffer state north of France. After Belgium became independent, the state finally became known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands, as it remains today. 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, also known as the Convention of London (one of several) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Provinces in London on August 13, 1814. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Luxembourg - a small country in west Europe Luxembourg (city) - the capital city of the country Luxembourg (district) - a district in the country Luxembourg, province of Belgium Luxemburg, Iowa - a city in the USA Luxemburg, Wisconsin - a village in the USA Luxembourg Garden, Paris, France Luxemburg Township, Minnesota - a township in... The city of Liège (Dutch: Luik, German: Lüttich) on the Meuse River is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège, of which it is the capital. ... Map of the kingdom United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830) (1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas and German: Vereinigte Königreich der Niederlande) were the unofficial names used to refer to a new unified European state created during the Congress of Vienna in... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ...


Between 1590-1712, the Dutch also enjoyed having one of the strongest navies in the world. This allowed for their varied conquests, including breaking the Portuguese sphere of influence on the Indian Ocean and on the Orient.


Politics

The republic was a confederation of seven provinces, which had their own governments and were very independent, and a number of so called Generality Lands. These were governed directly by the States-General (Staten-Generaal in Dutch). The States-General was seated in The Hague, and consisted of representatives of each of the seven provinces. A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... The Estates-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ...


The provinces of the republic were Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelre, Overijssel, Friesland and Groningen. Each province was governed by the Provincial States and by a stadtholder (Stadhouder in Dutch). In theory, the stadtholders were elected and subordinate to the States-General. However, the princes of Orange-Nassau, beginning with William the Silent, were chosen as stadtholders of most of the provinces, and Zeeland and usually also Utrecht were always ruled by the Holland Stadtholder. There was a constant power struggle between the Orangists, who supported the stadtholders, and the Regent's supporters. Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... Capital Middelburg Queens Commissioner drs. ... Utrecht is the smallest province of the Netherlands, and is located in the center of the country. ... For the present province also called Guelders in English, see Gelderland. ... Flag of Overijssel Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch Oranje-Nassau), is a family that has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of the Fatherland) organised the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after... William I (William the Silent) William I of Orange-Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584), also widely known as William the Silent [Dutch: Willem de Zwijger], was born in the House of Nassau, and became Prince of Orange in 1544. ...


After the Peace of Westphalia several border territories were assigned to the United Provinces. They were federally governed Generality Lands (Generaliteitslanden). They were Staats-Brabant (present North Brabant), Staats-Vlaanderen (present Zeeuws-Vlaanderen), Staats-Limburg (around Maastricht) and Staats-Oppergelre (around Venlo, after 1715). The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... North Brabant (Dutch: Noord-Brabant) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium in the south, the Meuse River (Maas) in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west. ... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... Satellite image of the Scheldt delta Zeeuws-Vlaanderen is the part of the Netherlands on the left shore of the Scheldt river (here called Westerschelde), nr. ... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... Flag of Maastricht. ... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... Venlo ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ...


The States-General of the United Provinces were in control of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the Dutch West India Company (WIC), although some shipping expeditions were initiated by some of the Provinces, mostly Holland and/or Zeeland. Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ...


Influence

Numerous historians and legal scholars have noted that the framers of the U.S. Constitution were influenced by the Constitution of the Republic of the United Provinces, which had successfully provided a workable governmental framework in that country for more than two centuries. John Adams went so far as to say that “the originals of the two Republics are so much alike that the history of one seems but a transcript from that of the other.” Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was a politician and Founding Father of the United States of America who served both as that nations first Vice President (1789–1797), and as its second President (1797–1801). ...


Decline

Long term rivalry between the Republican Party and the Royalist or Orangist Party sapped the strength and unity of the country. Johan de Witt and his Republican Party did reign supreme for a time at the middle of the Seventeenth century (The Stadtholderless Period) until his overthrow and murder. After which, the Orangist returned with favour and stadtholdership. Johan de Witt (September 24, 1625, Dordrecht - August 20, 1672, The Hague) was a significant Dutch political figure. ...


War with France wrought great destruction for the country and burdened the Republic with huge debts. The War of Devolution and The War of Spanish Succession wore down the Republic. By the Eighteenth century, the Republic had ceased to be a land military power.


Fierce competition for trade and colony, especially from England, furthered the economic downturn of the country. The three Anglo-Dutch Wars and the rise of Mercantile Protectionism hurt Dutch shipping and commerce.


The establishment of Bank of England, at a time when the Dutch were fighting against the French on Dutch soil, meant that money could be borrowed from London at lower interest rates, and at greater reliability and protection. Gradually, London displaced Amsterdam as the leading European financial centre.

The Netherlands States in History

Seventeen Provinces (1477-1555)
United Provinces (1581-1795)
Southern Netherlands (1581-1815)
United States of Belgium (1790)
Batavian Republic (1795-1806)
Kingdom of Holland (1806-1810)
United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-1830)
Kingdom of the Netherlands (1830-present)
Kingdom of Belgium (1830-present)
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1815-present) The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany. ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ... The United States of Belgium or more rarely the United States of the Netherlands, (French États-Unis de Belgique, Dutch Verenigde Nederlandse Staten), was a confederation of the Southern Netherlands, that existed during the year 1790. ... From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modelled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... Map of the kingdom United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830) (1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas and German: Vereinigte Königreich der Niederlande) were the unofficial names used to refer to a new unified European state created during the Congress of Vienna in...

See also

The Conspiracy of Julius Civilis, completed in 1661 by Rembrandt, the best-known painter of the Dutch Golden Age. ... The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under control of Spain. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt or Revolt of the Netherlands (1566[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) empire. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Dutch Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... List of Grand Pensionaries of the province of Holland during the time of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands: Andries de Witt, 1619-1621 Anthonie Duyck (or Anthonis Duyck), 1621-1629 Jacob Cats, 1629-1631 Adriaan Pauw, 1631-1636 Jacob Cats, 1636-1651 Adriaan Pauw, 1651-1653 Johan de... Francis van Aarssens (1572-1641) was a diplomat and statesman of the United Provinces. ...

References

Reynolds, Clark G. Navies in History. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1998.


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