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Encyclopedia > Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed village church of St. Laurens, the Netherlands.
The Dutch Reformed village church of St. Laurens, the Netherlands.

The Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk; NHK) was one of many branches of churches coming out of the Protestant Reformation in Europe in the sixteenth century. While the Dutch Reformed Church was based in the Netherlands, other churches of the Reformation began in France, Switzerland, Germany, Hungary, England, and Scotland. Like some of the churches in these other countries, the theology and practice of the Dutch Reformed Church was based on the teachings of John Calvin and the many other Reformers of his time. Since a 2004 merger, the church has formed a part of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, PKN). Image File history File links Hervormdekerkanna. ... Image File history File links Hervormdekerkanna. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... The Protestant Church in the Netherlands (Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, PKN) is an organisation created on 1 May 2004 from the merger of the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk, NHK), the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland, GKN) and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom...

Contents

History

The Dutch Reformed Church was the oldest Reformed church in the Netherlands and before the demise of the Dutch Republic enjoyed status as the 'public' or 'privileged' church. Contrary to popular belief it was never a state church, although the law demanded that every person in a public position should be a communicant member of the Dutch Reformed Church. Relations between governments and the Church were fairly intimate. The Dutch Reformed Church was the main successor to the congregations which came into existence during the Reformation. In this age of religious violence and persecution, most leaders of the Dutch Reformed congregations fled abroad and the first synod of 23 Dutch Reformed leaders was held in the German city of Emden in October 1571. The Synod of Emden is generally considered to be the starting point of the denomination. The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Emden is a city and seaport in the northwest of Germany, on river Ems. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... They Synod of Emden was a gathering of 29 exiled Calvinist Church leaders (Ministers and Authors) who were to become the founders of the Dutch Reformed Church. ...


The first Synod on Dutch soil was held in Dordrecht in 1578. This synodical meeting is not to be confused with the better known 'Second Synod of Dordt' during which Arminians were expelled from the church and the Canons of Dordt were added to the Confessions. (The older doctrinal statements being the Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism). These three confessional documents were called the Drie formulieren van Enigheid (Three Forms of Unity) but as it turned out most splits and conflicts in the church were to be brought about by disagreement over the substance and interpretation over these doctrinal standards. Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... The Synod of Dort met in the city of Dordrecht in 1618-1619, as a national assembly of the Dutch Reformed Church, to which were invited representatives from the Reformed churches in eight foreign countries. ... Arminianism is a Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. ... The Canons of Dort is one of the confessional standards of the Netherlands. ... The Confession of Faith, popularly known as the Belgic Confession, following the seventeenth-century Latin designation Confessio Belgica. ... The Heidelberg Catechism is a document taking the form of a series of questions and answers, for use in teaching Reformed Christian doctrine. ...


The government of the Dutch Republic, which had instigated the Arminians' expulsion, subsequently prohibited the Reformed Church from assembling synodically, and no Synod was held in the Netherlands until the demise of the Republic.


Further Reformation

The seventeenth- and early eighteenth century is the age of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie (best translated in English as the Further Reformation, a movement of piety and desire to apply the teachings of the Reformation to Dutch homes, churches, and society of that day. The main protagonists of the Nadere Reformatie were Wilhelmus à Brakel and Gisbertus Voetius. Less well known authors include Bernardus Smytegelt and Jodocus van Lodensteyn. These authors are still read, whether in Dutch or in translation, among various Reformed Christians throughout the world. Nadere Reformatie is a Dutch term that refers to a period of church history in the Netherlands, following the Reformation, from roughly 1600 until 1750. ... Nadere Reformatie is a Dutch term that refers to a period of church history in the Netherlands, following the Reformation, from roughly 1600 until 1750. ... Gisbertus Voetius (Voet) (March 3, 1589 — November 1, 1676) was a Dutch theologian. ...


Regulation church

When the Kingdom of the Netherlands was established in 1815 the organisation of the Dutch Reformed church was to become more centralized than ever. The historical church organisation was swept aside by the 'Regulations' imposed by the new government and the church was put under royal control with its Synod being personally nominated by the King until 1852. It wasn't until 1853 that Church and State became fully separated. April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Twentieth century

The Dutch Reformed Church remained the largest church body in the Netherlands until the middle of the twentieth century when it was overtaken by the Roman Catholic Church. The rapid secularization of the Netherlands in the sixties hit the mainstream Protestant church very hard. From the sixties onward, a number of attempts were made to effect a reunion with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (the "Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland"), which finally succeeded in 2004.


Protestant Church in the Netherlands

The Dutch Reformed Church had 2 million members organised in 1350 congregations when it merged with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Evangelisch-Lutherse Kerk in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) in 2004 to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, PKN). The Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Dutch: Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland, in short Gereformeerde kerk) was the second largest protestant church in the Netherlands until it merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands in 2004. ... Synod Seal of the Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1818-2004) The Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Evangelisch-Lutherse Kerk in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) was a denomination in the Netherlands which existed from 1818 to 2004. ... The Protestant Church in the Netherlands (Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, PKN) is an organisation created on 1 May 2004 from the merger of the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk, NHK), the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland, GKN) and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom...


Controversies

The church has undergone numerous schisms throughout its history. The first schism in 1618 led to the Remonstrant church. Other significant schisms include the Afscheiding (The Separation) in 1834, and the Doleantie (the Sorrow) led by Abraham Kuyper in 1886. Remonstrants, the name given to those Dutch Protestants who, after the death of Arminius, maintained the views associated with his name, and in 1610 presented to the states of Holland and Friesland a remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of departure from stricter Calvinism. ... Abraham Kuyper (October 29, 1837, Maassluis – November 8, 1920 The Hague; name officially Kuijper) was a Dutch politician, journalist, statesman and theologian. ...


The 2004 merger (see above) has led to a new schism in which a number of congregations and members of the original Dutch Reformed Church separated to form the Hersteld Hervormde Kerk ('Restored Reformed Church'). Estimations of their membership vary from 35,000 up to 70,000 in about 120 local congregations served by 88 pastors. They disagree with the plural constitution of the merged church which they allege contains partly contradicting Reformed and Lutheran confessions. This group also opposes blessing of same-sex unions in Christian churches or ordination of women. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The blessing of same-sex unions is currently an issue about which some Christian Churches are at present in disagreement with the traditional views. ... In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ...


Dutch Reformed churches abroad

Southern Africa

The Dutch Reformed Church gave rise to several Reformed denominations in South Africa, including the Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk, the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk, the Gereformeerde Kerk, the Afrikaanse Protestantse Kerk and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa. David Bosch, a teacher of liberation theology and missiology and author of Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission (1991) was a member of the Reformed Church in South Africa. The Nederduits Gereformeerde Church is a Dutch Reformed Church from the Netherlands which took root in South Africa, where it is the oldest and largest of several Dutch Reformed Churches. ... The Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa was formed by the union of the black and coloured Dutch Reformed mission churches. ... David Jacobus Bosch (born December 13, 1929 in Cape Province, South Africa and died 1992) was a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, married to Annemie and author of Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission (1991) - a major work on post-colonial Christian mission. ... In Christianity, liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... Missiology, or mission science, is the area of practical theology which investigates the mandate, message and work of the Christian missionary. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Dirk Van der Hoff was an important founding member of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa. This does not cite any references or sources. ...


America

The Dutch Reformed Church expanded to the Americas in the early 1600s as the Netherlands started colonies there and became the first official denomination in the colonies. The Reformed Church in America (RCA) is the direct descendant among the several churches in the United States of Dutch Reformed heritage. By far the largest of these (with about the same membership as the RCA) is the Christian Reformed Church in North America (CRCNA). Other smaller such denominations are the Free Reformed Church, the Netherlands Reformed Church, and the Protestant Reformed Church. In Canada, the largest such denomination is the CRCNA. Former presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Martin Van Buren were affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church. The Reformed Church in America (RCA) is a mainline Reformed Protestant denomination that was formerly known as the Dutch Reformed Church. ... The Christian Reformed Church in North America (CRCNA or CRC) is a Protestant Christian denomination which follows Reformed Calvinist theology. ... Free Reformed Churches may refer to the following churches associated with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Liberated): Free Reformed Churches of Australia Free Reformed Churches of South Africa It may also refer to the unrelated Free Reformed Churches of North America Category: ... The Netherlands Reformed Church can refer to three distinct Christian denominations: Dutch Reformed Church Netherlands Reformed Churches Netherlands Reformed Congregations Category: ... The Protestant Reformed Churches in America (PRCA) are a denomination of 27 churches and almost 6000 members in the United States and Canada. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ...


Sri Lanka

The Dutch Reformed Church expanded to Ceylon (original name of Sri Lanka) in the beginning of the 17th century. Through the VOC (Dutch East Indian Trading Company) the Dutch church was copied and installed in Ceylon in 1642. As of 2007, the Dutch Reformed Church of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) remains a small but active reformed community.[citation needed] (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... VOC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: A historic trade organization (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie); see Dutch East India Company A group of chemical compounds; see Volatile Organic Compounds Vehicle operating costs Voice of the customer Creative Voice file, a proprietary audio format developed by Creative... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dutch Reformed Church - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (701 words)
The Dutch Reformed Church or Netherlands Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk (NHK)) is a historical denomination of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin.
It was the oldest Reformed church in the Netherlands and before the demise of the Dutch Republic enjoyed status as the 'public' or 'privileged' church.
The historical church organisation was swept aside by the 'Regulations' imposed by the new government and the church was put under royal control with its Synod being personally nominated by the King until 1852.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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