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Encyclopedia > Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
Flag of Dutch Empire
A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. Dark green indicates colonies that either were, or originated from, land controlled by the Dutch West India Company, light green the Dutch East India Company.

The Dutch Empire[1] is the name given to the various territories controlled by the Netherlands from the 17th to the 20th century. The Dutch followed Portugal and Spain in establishing a colonial global empire outside of continental Europe. Their skills in shipping and trading and the surge of nationalism and militarism accompanying the struggle for independence from Spain aided the venture. Alongside the British, the Dutch initially built up colonial possessions on the basis of indirect state capitalist corporate colonialism, primarily with the Dutch East India Company. Direct state intervention in the colonial enterprise came later. Dutch merchants and sailors also participated in the surge of exploration that unfolded in the 16th and 17th centuries, though the vast new territories revealed by Willem Barents, Henry Hudson, Willem Janszoon and Abel Tasman in the Arctic and in Australasia/Oceania did not generally become permanent Dutch colonies. Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 26 KB) Summary Original Image:Holland_Empire. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... This article is about the trading company. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Corporate colonialism relates to the involvement of corporate bodies in the practice of colonialism or imperialism. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Willem Barents. ... No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... Willem Janszoon (c. ... Portrait of Tasman by J. M. Donald (1903) Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 - October 10, 1659), was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...


With Dutch naval power rising rapidly as a major force from the late 16th century, the Netherlands reigned supreme at sea, and dominated global commerce during the second half of the 17th century. A cultural flowering during the century is known as the Dutch Golden Age. The Netherlands lost many of its colonial possessions, as well as its global power status, to the British when the metropole fell to French armies during the Revolutionary Wars. The French centralized government in a Dutch client state during this "French period" from 1795 to 1814. The restored portions of the Dutch empire, notably the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Suriname remained under The Hague's control until the decline of traditional imperialism in the 20th century. The Netherlands are part of a federacy called the Kingdom of the Netherlands of which its former colonies Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles are also part. Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... The Metropole was the name given to the English metropolitan center of the British Empire, i. ... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Federation. ...

Contents

Commercial Origins

Main article: Dutch-Portuguese War

Following the founding of the Dutch East India Company (or VOC, from the Dutch Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) in 1602, the Dutch set about wresting control of Portugal's overseas possessions causing the Dutch-Portuguese War. Since 1580 the Portuguese had been allied to the Spanish under a united monarchy, and the Spanish in turn were embroiled in a fierce war against the Dutch, who had rebelled against their overlords. Although united under the same king, Spain and Portugal's overseas empires continued to be administered separately, and the overstretched and underdefended Portuguese possessions presented an easy target to the Dutch, who were particularly interested in taking control of the spice trade. Combatants ° Kingdom of Portugal (under Spanish Crown) ° Kingdom of Spain ° Kingdom of Cochin ° Maranhao Tupis ° Republic of the Seven United Provinces ° Kingdom of England ° Sultanate of Johore ° Kandyan Kingdom ° Kingdom of Kongo ° Kingdom of Ndongo-Matamba ° Rio Grande Tupis ° Nhandui Tarairiu Tribe ° Potiguar Tribe Commanders * Viceroy Pedro da Silva * High... This article is about the trading company. ... Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... Combatants ° Kingdom of Portugal (under Spanish Crown) ° Kingdom of Spain ° Kingdom of Cochin ° Maranhao Tupis ° Republic of the Seven United Provinces ° Kingdom of England ° Sultanate of Johore ° Kandyan Kingdom ° Kingdom of Kongo ° Kingdom of Ndongo-Matamba ° Rio Grande Tupis ° Nhandui Tarairiu Tribe ° Potiguar Tribe Commanders * Viceroy Pedro da Silva * High... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ...


Colonies

This article is about the trading company. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ...

Asia

Dutch East India Company and the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)

See also Dutch East India Company and Dutch East Indies In 1605, Portuguese trading posts in the Spice Islands of Maluku, Indonesia fell to the superior firepower of the Dutch. In 1619 a fortified base was established in Batavia (now Jakarta), and became the headquarters of the Dutch East Indies Company. Following the company's bankruptcy in 1800, Indonesian territory under its administration was nationalised as the Dutch East Indies. By the early twentieth the Netherlands had under its administration all the territory that now forms Indonesia. Indonesian independence was declared on 17 August 1945, and officially recognised by the Netherlands in December 1949 following the Indonesian National Revolution. This article is about the trading company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... This page is about the capital city of Indonesia. ... This page is about the capital city of Indonesia. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Dutch Ceylon (Sri Lanka)

Main article: Dutch Ceylon
Main article: Baldeus

The Dutch first landed in Ceylon in 1602, it was then under Portuguese control. Between 1636 and 1658 they managed to oust the Portuguese, initially at the invitation of local rulers. The Portuguese had ruled the coastline, though not the interior, of the island from 1505 to 1658. Buddhists, Hindus and Muslims had all suffered religious persecution under Portuguese rule; the Dutch were more interested in trade than in religious converts. The VOC proved unable to extend its control into the interior and only controlled coastal provinces. Ceylon remained a major Dutch trading post throughout the VOC period. Ceylon's importance came from it being a half-way point between their settlements in Indonesia and South Africa. The island itself was a source of cinnamon and elephants, which were sold to Indian princes. In 1796 the British seized control of the Dutch positions, at the urging of the ruler of Kandy. It was formally ceded in the treaty of Amiens. The Tamils and the Kandyan Kingdom collaborated and conspired with the Dutch rulers of Batavia (todays Jakarta in Indonesia). ... The King of Kandy , who had arrived at Batticaloa with his army on the 14th May, had in the mean- time several interviews with Westerwold, and after the fort was taken, they entered into a treaty by which the King and the Dutch entered into a firm alliance against their... Father Philippus Baldeus was a Dutch priest. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... The Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy Kandy (මහනුවර/ සෙංකඩගල in Sinhala, கண்டி in Tamil) is the name used by British invaders for the city of Senkadagala (Mahanuwara) in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and the United Kingdom. ...


Formosa (Taiwan)

See also Taiwan under Dutch rule and Fort Zeelandia (Taiwan) The Island Formosa and the Pescadores/ Johannes Vingboons/ ca. ... Overview of Fort Zeelandia in Tainan, Taiwan/ painted around 1635/ 73 x 103 cm/ The Hague National Bureau of Archives, Netherlands Fort Zeelandia (Chinese: 熱蘭遮城; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a fortress built over ten years from 1624–1634 by the Dutch Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, in the town of Anping (Tainan) on the...


The Dutch maintained a base, Fort Zeelandia, on Taiwan from 1624 until 1662, when they were driven away by Koxinga. The island itself was a source of cane sugar and deerskin. It was also a place where Dutch VOC merchants could trade with Chinese merchants from the mainland. Here they could buy the silk needed for the Japanese market. Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe... VOC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: A historic trade organization (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie); see Dutch East India Company A group of chemical compounds; see Volatile Organic Compounds Vehicle operating costs Voice of the customer Creative Voice file, a proprietary audio format developed by Creative...


Malacca

The Dutch captured Malacca on the west coast of Malaya (now West Malaysia) in 1641 from the Portuguese. In accordance with a treaty signed with stadtholder William V of Orange (then in exile in the United Kingdom) it was turned over to the British in 1806, during the Napoleonic wars. It was returned to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1816. It was then ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. State motto: Bersatu Teguh State anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya Capital Malacca Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob  - Ketua Menteri Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam History    - Malacca Sultanate 13th century   - Portuguese control 24 August 1511   - Dutch control 14 January 1641   - British control 17 March 1824   - Japanese occupation... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... William V, stadtholder of The Netherlands (March 8, 1748–April 9, 1806), also known as William V of Orange, was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. ... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ...


Deshima

Main article: Deshima

Initially the Dutch maintained a trading post at Hirado, from 1609–41. Later, the Japanese granted the Dutch a trade monopoly on Japan, but solely on Deshima, an artificial island off the coast of Nagasaki, Japan, from 1641 to 1853. During this period they were the only Europeans allowed into Japan. Chinese and Korean traders were still welcome, though restricted in their movements. View of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima (2003) Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki. ... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... View of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima (2003) Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


New Holland

The part of Australia now known as Western Australia was recognised as in the Netherlands sphere of control and known as New Holland. No formal claim was ever made through an attempt to settle the region, although much of the North West coast has Dutch names. There are many Dutch shipwrecks littered all along the coast, (such as the Batavia) that were wrecked on their way to the East Indies. By the time the British arrived they noticed that there were small pockets of the indigenous population with blonde hair and blue eyes. See the History of Western Australia for more information. Map of a part of New Holland made by William Dampier in 1699 New Holland is a historic name for the island continent of Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person... Map of a part of New Holland made by William Dampier in 1699 New Holland is a historic name for the island continent of Australia. ... For other uses, see Shipwreck (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Batavia see Batavia The Batavia was a ship of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), built in 1628 in Amsterdam, which was struck by mutiny and shipwreck during her maiden voyage. ... The indigenous peoples of Asia are the various groups identified as indigenous peoples within the region, as per the modern definition of that term. ... The human history of Western Australia spans between the first inhabitants arriving on the northwest coast about 55,000 years ago to events in the twentieth century. ...


South Africa

Main article: Cape Colony

In 1652 the Dutch East India Company established a refuelling station at the Cape of Good Hope, situated half-way between the Dutch East Indies and the Dutch West Indies. Great Britain seized the colony in 1797 during the Fifth Anglo-Dutch War, and annexed it in 1805. The Dutch colonists in South Africa remained after the British took over and later made the trek across the country to Natal. They were subjected in the Boer Wars and are now known as Boers. Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen), previously known as the Netherlands West Indies, are part of the Lesser Antilles and consist of two groups of islands in the Caribbean Sea that form an autonomous part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (none of the other Antilles use this term in... The painting Dutch attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. ... KwaZulu-Natal, often referred to as KZN, is a province of South Africa. ... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ...


The Americas

During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. ...

New Netherland

Main articles: New Netherland and New Amsterdam

New Netherland comprised the areas of the north east Atlantic seaboard of the present-day United States that were visited by Dutch explorers and later settled and taken over by the Dutch West India Company. The settlements were initially located on the Hudson River: Fort Nassau (1614–7) in present-day Albany (later resettled as Fort Orange in 1624), and New Amsterdam, founded in 1625 on Manhattan Island. New Netherland reached its maximum size after the Dutch absorbed the Swedish settlement of Fort Christina in 1655, thereby ending the North American colony of New Sweden. Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Fort Christina was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. ... New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ...


New Netherland itself formally ended in 1674 after the Third Anglo-Dutch War: Dutch settlements passed to the English crown and New Amsterdam was renamed New York. This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the state. ...


The treaty forged by the Dutch and English may, in a nutshell, be regarded as a cessation of hostilities and that each party would hold onto any lands held or conquered at the time of the Treaty of Breda ending the previous Second Anglo-Dutch War. There was no exchange of lands. Hence, the English held onto what had been an easily-conquered New Amsterdam of Peter Stuyvesant (including Manhattan Island and the Hudson River Valley), and the Dutch spoils included what is now Dutch Guiana or Suriname in South America as well as a small island in the East Indies (the Spice Islands) that was the home of the most valuable spice (if not substance) in the world: nutmeg. At the time nutmeg was much more valuable than gold. This island was the only place in the world where the nutmeg tree was found. At the time the Dutch were very pleased with getting the nutmeg isle and did not regret the loss of New Amsterdam. The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, July 31, 1667, by England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark. ... The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ... Pieter Stuyvesant is also the name of a Dutch cigarette brand from Imperial Tobacco. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ... It has been suggested that Legal drugs#Nutmeg be merged into this article or section. ...


Dutch West Indies

Main article: Netherlands Antilles

The colonization of the Dutch West Indies, an island group at the time claimed by Spain, began in 1620 with the taking of St. Maarten, and remains a Dutch overseas territory to this day, as part of the Netherlands Antilles. Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles are organized as two self-governing units whose legal relationship to the Kingdom of the Netherlands is controlled by the "Kingdom Charter." Saint Martin - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Saint Martin is a tropical island in the northeast Caribbean, approximately 150 miles east of Puerto Rico. ...


Suriname

Captured by the Dutch from the English during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, Suriname and its valuable sugar plantations formally passed into Dutch hands in return for New Netherland with the signing of the Treaty of Westminster in 1674. It remained an overseas Dutch territory until independence was granted in 1975. The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ... The Treaty of Westminster was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Guyana

In the 16th century European settlers first arrived in this area of north South America, the Netherlands being the fastest to claim the land. Around 1600 was the first trade route established by the Dutch. Eventually the Netherlands planted three colonies to further mark the territory under the Netherlands rule; Essequibo (1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752). The British occupied Guyana in the late 18th century. The Netherlands ceded Guyana to the United Kingdom in (1814). South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Essequibo is the name of a Dutch colony founded in 1616 and located in the region of the Essequibo River. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Berbice is the Second largest of the three counties in Guyana and is known as the ancient county. ... Demerara was one of the original British colonies that was joined into the colony of British Guiana, now Guyana. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Brazil

In 1624 The Dutch captured and held for a year Salvador, the capital of the Portuguese settlements in Brazil. Salvador and Baía de Todos os Santos from space, April 1997 Salvador (in full, São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, or in literal translation: Holy Savior of All Saints Bay) is a city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the northeastern...


From 1630 to 1654, the Dutch West Indies Company controlled a long stretch of the coast from Sergipe to Maranhão, which they renamed New Holland, before being ousted by the Portuguese. A major character from the war was a mestizo named Calabar, who changed sides and changed the course of the fighting in favor of the Dutch, for a while. He was captured and executed by the Portuguese. Flag of Sergipe See other Brazilian States Capital Aracaju Largest City Aracaju Area 21,994 km² Population   - Total   - Density 1,712,786 77. ... Maranhão is one of the states of Brazil in the north-eastern region. ...


Virgin Islands

First settled by the Dutch in 1648, but annexed by England in 1672, later to be renamed the British Virgin Islands.


Tobago

'Nieuw-Walcheren' (1628–77), nowadays part of Trinidad and Tobago


West Africa

Europe

The Netherlands were granted control of the Southern Netherlands after the Congress of Vienna. The southern Netherlands declared independence in 1830 (the Belgian Revolution), and its independence was recognized by the Netherlands in 1839, giving birth to Belgium. As part of the Congress of Vienna, King William I of the Netherlands was made Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and the two countries united into a personal union. The independence of Luxembourg was ratified in 1869. When William III of the Netherlands died in 1890, leaving no male successor, the Grand Duchy was given to another branch of the House of Nassau. The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... For other men at some time in history called William I of Orange-Nassau, see William of Orange. ... Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy whose Head of State is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (or Grand Duchess of Luxembourg in the exceptional but twice occurred event of the sovereign being female). ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis of Orange-Nassau) (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau, Koning der Nederlanden en Groothertog van Luxemburg in Dutch) (February 19, 1817 – November 23, 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke... The royal House of Nassau is one of the most prominent dynasties in Europe. ...


Debate about the usage of the term "Dutch Empire"

  • ^ Usage of the term "empire" in relation to all of the overseas activities of the Dutch is debatable, because many of the colonies were in fact trading posts governed by two independent trade companies, the Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company. Only after 1815, when the British returned the colonies to the Dutch after occupation during the Napoleonic War, did the kingdom (and from 1848 onwards, the parliament) take charge of the administration of the colonies. Until recently Dutch historians were quite hesitant to use the words 'imperialism' and 'Empire'. Nowadays they use it, but mainly to refer to it in a more European aspect and most of the time only when looking at the period 1880–940. In 1968, a Dutch historian wrote for an English audience and said: "Dutch colonial policy was never dominated by visions of establishing a Dutch empire in Asia."[1]

See also

During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... This article is about the trading company. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  1. ^ S. L. van der Wal in: Bromley and Kossmann (1968).

Further reading

  • C.R. Boxer, The Dutch Seaborne Empire 1600–1800.
  • Charles Corn, The Scents of Eden: A History of the Spice Trade.
  • H.L. Wesseling, Imperialism and Colonialism: Essays on the History of Colonialism.
  • Rudy C. Andeweg & Galen A. Irwin, Governance and Politics of the Netherlands.
  • J.S. Bromley and E.H. Kossmann, Britain and the Netherlands in Europe and Asia.

External links


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The restored portions of the Dutch empire, notably the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), Suriname, and The Netherlands Antilles remained under The Hague's control until the decline of traditional imperialism in the 20th century.
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