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Encyclopedia > Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies

1800 – 1942
Location of Dutch East Indies
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942.
Capital Batavia (now Jakarta)
Government Colonial administration
History
 - VOC in Indonesia 1603 to 1800
 - Nationalisation of the VOC 1 January, 1800
 - Japanese occupation[1] March, 1942
 - Dutch recognition of Indonesian sovereignty 27 December 1949
This article is part of the
History of Indonesia series
See also:
Timeline of Indonesian History
Prehistory
Early kingdoms
Srivijaya (3rd to 14th centuries)
Tarumanagara (358-723)
Sailendra (8th & 9th centuries)
Kingdom of Sunda (669-1579)
Kingdom of Mataram (752–1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit (1293–1500)
The rise of Muslim states
The spread of Islam (1200–1600)
Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1518)
Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s to 1700s)
European colonialism
The Portuguese (1512–1850)
Dutch East India Co. (1602–1800)
Dutch East Indies (1800–1942)
The emergence of Indonesia
National awakening (1899–1942)
Japanese occupation (1942–45)
Declaration of Independence (1945)
National Revolution (1945–1950)
Independent Indonesia
Liberal democracy (1950–1957)
Guided Democracy (1957–1965)
Start of the "New Order" (1965–1966)
The "New Order" (1966–1998)
"Reformasi" era (1998–present)
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The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië; Indonesian: Hindia-Belanda) was the Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) had a presence in the Indonesian archipelago from 1603, when the first trading post was established, to 1800, when the bankrupted party was dissolved, and its possessions nationalised as the Dutch East Indies. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dutch_East_Indies_Company. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... The Dutch East India Company (VOC) had a presence in the Indonesian archipelago from 1603, when the first trading post was established, to 1800, when the bankrupted party was dissolved, and its possessions nationalised as the Dutch East Indies. ... This article is about the trading company. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... The Round Table Conference was held in the Hague from August 23 - November 2, 1949 between representatives of the Netherlands, Indonesia and the various states the Dutch had created in the Indonesian archipelago. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... Image File history File links Historyofindonesia. ... Main article: History of Indonesia This is a timeline of Indonesian history. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... The extent of Srivijayan Empire around 10th to 11th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taruma kingdom. ... Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... Former Sunda Kingdom The Sunda Kingdom was, according to primary historical records from the sixteenth century, a kingdom covering areas of present-day Banten Province, Jakarta, West Java Province, and the west of Central Java Province. ... This acticle concerns the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram. ... Kediri was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1042 to around 1222. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century Capital Malacca Language(s) Malay language Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan Parameswara Mahmud Shah of Malacca History  - Established 1402  - Portuguese invasion 1511 Currency Native gold and silver coins The Sultanate of Malacca was founded by Parameswara in 1402 and later married... The Sultanate of Demak was founded in the 16th century by Raden Patah (1475-1518), once a vassal of the declining Majapahit Empire. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... The Banten Sultanate (Indonesian: Kasultanan Banten) was a sultanate in Banten, founded in the sixteenth century. ... This article is about a historic kingdom on Java in what is now Indonesia. ... The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the islands of Indonesia. ... The Dutch East India Company (VOC) had a presence in the Indonesian archipelago from 1603, when the first trading post was established, to 1800, when the bankrupted party was dissolved, and its possessions nationalised as the Dutch East Indies. ... The Indonesian National Awakening is a term for the period in the first half of the twentieth century, during which people from many parts of the archipelago first began to develop a national consciousness as Indonesians.[1] In the pursuit of profits and administrative control, the Dutch East Indies were... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... The independece declaration announced by Sukarno The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The era of Liberal Democracy (Indonesian: Demokrasi Liberal) was the name for the period in Indonesian history from the dissolution of the United States of Indonesia and the return to a unitary state in 1950, following the Indonesian National Revolution, to the imposition of martial law and the introduction by... Guided Democracy was the political system in place in Indonesia from 1957 until the New Order began in 1966. ... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ... The Reformation (in bahasa Indonesia Reformasi) is the name commonly used for the present era in the history of Indonesia. ... Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942. ...


It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the former Dutch East India Company that came under the administration of the Netherlands in 1800. During the nineteenth century, Dutch possessions in the archipelago and its hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest extent in the early twentieth century. Following the World War II Japanese occupation, Indonesian nationalists declared Indonesian independence in 1945. Following the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution, the Netherlands formally recognised Indonesian soverignty in December 1949. This article is about a type of political territory. ... This article is about the trading company. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Background: the Dutch East India Company

The Dutch East India Company (VOC) had been set up in the early seventeenth century to maximize Dutch trade interests in the Malay archipelago. By 1700, a colonial pattern was well established; the VOC had grown to become a state-within-a-state and the dominant power in the archipelago. Its method of indirect rule was to survive it. After the bankrupt company was liquidated on 1 January 1800, its territorial possessions became the property of the Dutch government. This article is about the trading company. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Indirect rule is a type of European colonial policy as practiced in large parts of British India (see Princely states) and elsewhere in the British Empire (including Malaya), in which the traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...


Establishing a hegemonic Indies empire

In an 1811 to 1816 interregnum, during the Napoleonic Wars, the British took over administration of several Dutch East Indies posts including Java before Dutch control was restored. The 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, ceded Dutch control of Malacca, the Malay Peninsula, and possessions in India to Britain in exchange for British settlements in Indonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra. The resulting delineation of borders between British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies remains today between Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively. The capital of the Dutch East Indies was Batavia, now known as Jakarta, still capital of the republic. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Anglo-Dutch Treaty refers to either of the following: Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 (Convention of London) Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 (Treaty of London) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... This page is about the capital city of Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


For most of the Dutch East Indies history, and that of the VOC before it, Dutch control over these territories was tenuous; only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become the boundaries of modern-day Indonesia. Although Java was under Dutch domination for most of the 350 years of the combined VOC and Dutch East Indies era, many areas remained independent for much of this time including Aceh, Lombok, and Borneo.[2] Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Gunung Rinjani from Gili Trawangan Lombok (1990 pop. ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ...

The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830

There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous Indonesian groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces.[3] In the seventeenth century the VOC had used its superior arms, and Buginese (from Sulawesi) and Ambonese (from Maluku) mercenaries to expand and protect its trading interests across the archipelago. During the Dutch East Indies era, the most prolonged conflicts were the Padri War in Sumatra (1821–38), the Java War (1825–30) led by Prince Diponegoro, and a bloody thirty-year war in Aceh. Although each resulted in an eventual Dutch ascendancy, Indonesians used Islam as a vehicle for opposition to the Dutch, which along with communism and nationalism, would be used to a much greater extent and eventual success in the twentieth century struggle for independence (see Indonesian National Revival and Indonesian National Revolution).[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,212 pixels, file size: 292 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artist: Nicolaas Pieneman Title: The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock 1830 oil on canvas 77 x 100 cm Rijksmuseum Amsterdam... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,212 pixels, file size: 292 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artist: Nicolaas Pieneman Title: The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock 1830 oil on canvas 77 x 100 cm Rijksmuseum Amsterdam... Pangeran Diponegoro (born Yogyakarta 1785- died Makassar 1855) was a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule. ... Baron Hendrik Merkus de Kock Hendrik Merkus, Baron de Kock (May 25, 1779–April 12, 1845) was a Dutch military general, minister and senator. ... The Java War was fought in Java between 1825 and 1830. ... This article is about ethnic groups of South Sulawesi. ... Ceram and Ambon Islands (Operational Navigation Chart, 1967) Not for navigational use Ambon City in 2001, showing heavy damage from fighting Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. ... Maluku redirects here. ... The Padri War (also called the Minangkabau War) was fought from 1821 to 1837, in West Sumatra between Dutch troops and the indigenous population. ... The Java War was fought in Java between 1825 and 1830. ... Pangeran Diponegoro (born Yogyakarta 1785- died Makassar 1855) was a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule. ... The Aceh War (also Achinese War) took place from 1873-1904 between the Netherlands and the people of Aceh in Sumatra as the Dutch attempted to colonize this independent state on the northern-most tip of Sumatra. ... The period of the Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival was a period in Indonesian history spanning from 1899 until the Japanese Invasion in 1942. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Disturbances continued to break out on both Java and Sumatra during the remainder of the 19th century, and between 1846 and 1849, expeditions to conquer Bali were largely unsuccessful. The Banjarmasin War in south east Borneo resulted in the Dutch defeat of the sultan. In Aceh, guerrilla leaders fought off Dutch invasion in what was the longest and bloodiest conflict from 1873 to Acehnese surrender in 1908. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence. Significant Indonesian piracy remained a problem for the Dutch until the mid-19th century.[2] The Aceh War (also Achinese War) took place from 1873-1904 between the Netherlands and the people of Aceh in Sumatra as the Dutch attempted to colonize this independent state on the northern-most tip of Sumatra. ...


Under the 1904–1909 tenure of governor-general J.B. van Heutsz, the government extended more direct colonial rule throughout the Dutch East Indies, thereby laying the foundations of today's Indonesian state.[4] Although relatively minor, Indonesian rebellions broke out, but control was taken off the remaining independent local rulers although their wealth and splendour under the Dutch grew;[5] southwestern Sulawesi was occupied in 1905–06, the island of Bali in 1906, and the Bird's Head Peninsula (West Papua), was brought under Dutch administration in 1920. This final territorial range would form the territory of the Republic of Indonesia proclaimed in 1945, with the exception of Netherlands New Guinea territory, which came under Indonesian administration in 1965. J.B. (Joannes Benedictus) van Heutsz (1851-1924), was appointed governor general of the Dutch East Indies in 1904. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... Birds Head Peninsula seen from space (false color) The Birds Head (Indonesian: Kepala Burung, Dutch: ) Peninsula or Doberai Peninsula is a large peninsula the makes up the northwest portion of the Province of West Irian Jaya, Indonesia, at . ... Map showing West New Guinea region The region of West New Guinea is the western half of the island of New Guinea or Papua, and has also been known as Irian Jaya or West Papua. ... Dutch New Guinea was a common name of western New Guinea while it was a colonial possession of the Netherlands. ...


Economic and social history

Dutch economic strategy for the colony during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries can be defined along three overlapping periods: the Cultivation System, the Liberal Period, and the Ethical Period. Throughout these periods, and until Indonesian independence, the exploitation of Indonesia's wealth contributed to the industrialisation of the Netherlands. Large expanses of Java, for example, became plantations cultivated by Javanese peasants, collected by Chinese intermediaries, and sold on overseas markets by European merchants. Before World War II, most of the world's supply of quinine and pepper, over a third of its rubber, a quarter of its coconut products, and a fifth of is tea, sugar, coffee, and oil. Indonesia made the Netherlands one of the world's most significant colonial powers.[2] The Cultivation System (Dutch: cultuurstelsel) was a Dutch government policy in the mid-nineteenth century which required that a portion of agricultural production in the colonial Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) must be devoted to export goods. ... The political character of colonial Indonesia changed greatly during the four decades of the 20th century from 1901 and ending with the Japanese Invasion and Occupation in 1942. ...


Despite increasing returns from the Dutch system of land tax, Dutch finances had been severely affected by the cost of the Java and Padri Wars. The Dutch loss of Belgium in 1830 brought the Netherlands to the brink of bankruptcy, and a concerted Dutch exploitation of Indonesian resources commenced. In 1830, a new Governor-General, Johannes van den Bosch, was appointed to make the Dutch East Indies pay their way. An agricultural policy of government-controlled forced cultivation was introduced to Java. Known as the Cultivation System (Dutch: cultuurstelsel); much of Java became a Dutch plantation, making it a profitable, self-sufficient colony and saving the Netherlands from bankruptcy. The Cultivation System, however, brought much economic hardship to Javanese peasants, who suffered famine and epidemics in the 1840s.[2] The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented the Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and the recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1945. ... Count Johannes van den Bosch Johannes, Count van den Bosch (February 2, 1780-January 28, 1844) was a Dutch Lieutenant General and politician. ...


Critical public opinion in the Netherlands led to much of the Cultivation System's excesses being eliminated under the agrarian reforms of the "Liberal Period". From 1870, producers were no longer compelled to provide crops for exports, but the Indies were open up to private enterprise, which developed large plantations. Sugar production, for example, doubled between 1870 and 1885; new crops such as tea and cinchona flourished, and rubber was introduced, leading to dramatic increases in Dutch profits. However, the resulting scarcity of land for rice production, combined with dramatically increasing populations, especially in Java, led to further hardships. Changes were not limited to Java, or agriculture; oil from Sumatra and Kalimantan became a valuable resource for industrialising Europe. Dutch commercial interests expanded off Java to the outer islands with increasingly more territory coming under direct Dutch government control or dominance in the latter half of the nineteenth century.[2] Map of Kalimantan (white color) and its subdivisions. ...


In 1898, the population of Java numbered twenty-eight million with another seven million on Indonesia's outer islands.[6]


In 1901 the Dutch adopted what they called the Ethical Policy, under which the colonial government had a duty to further the welfare of the Indonesian people in health and education. Other new policies included irrigation programs, transmigration, communications, flood mitigation, industrialisation, and protection of native industry. Political reform increased the autonomy to the local colonial administration, moving a degree from central control from the Netherlands, whilst power was also diverged from the central government to more localised governing units. Although far more progressive than previous policies, the humanitarian policies were ultimately inadequate. While a small elite of secondary and tertiary-educated Indonesians developed, the overwhelming majority of Indonesians remained illiterate. Primary schools were established and officially open to all, but by 1930, only 8% of school-aged children received an education. Industrialisation did not significantly effect the majority of Indonesians, and Indonesia remained an agricultural colony; by 1930, there were 17 cities with populations over 50,000 with a combined population of 1.87 million.[7] However, the education reforms, and modest political reform, resulted in the creation of a small elite of highly educated indigenous Indonesians, who promoted the idea of an independent and unified "Indonesia" that would bring together disparate indigenous groups of the Dutch East Indies. A period termed the Indonesian National Revival, the first half of the twentieth century saw the nationalist movement develop strongly, but also face Dutch repression.[2] The political character of colonial Indonesia changed greatly during the four decades of the 20th century from 1901 and ending with the Japanese Invasion and Occupation in 1942. ... Indonesias Transmigration program was an initiative to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the archipelago. ... The period of the Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival was a period in Indonesian history spanning from 1899 until the Japanese Invasion in 1942. ...


Removal of the colonial state

The invasion and occupation of Indonesia during World War II, brought about the destruction of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch state as they could, replacing it with their own regime. Although the top positions were held by the Japanese, the internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, nationalist leaders Sukarno and Hatta declared Indonesian independence. A four and a half-year struggle followed as the Dutch tried to re-establish their colony; although Dutch forces re-occupied most of Indonesia's territory a guerrilla struggle ensued, and the majority of Indonesians, and ultimately international opinion, favoured Indonesian independence. In December 1949, the Netherlands formally recognised Indonesian sovereignty. The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Mohammad Hatta (August 12, 1902 - March 14, 1980) was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


The 1949 agreement, however, left out Western New Guinea, which remained under the auspices of Netherlands New Guinea. The Indonesian government under Sukarno pressured for the territory to come under Indonesian control. Skirmishes took place between 1961 and 1962, including a brief naval engagement in 1962. The United States pressured the Netherlands to surrender it to Indonesia in August under terms negotiated in the New York Agreement. At the same time, the Australian government reversed its policy and supported Indonesian control of the area. It remains under Indonesian control, although resistance continues in various parts of the region. Western New Guinea is the Indonesian western half of the island of New Guinea and consists of two provinces, Papua and West Papua. ... Dutch New Guinea was a common name of western New Guinea while it was a colonial possession of the Netherlands. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ...


See also

  • History of Indonesia
  • Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented the Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and the recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1945. ...

References

General

  • Braudel, Fernand, The perspective of the World, vol III in Civilization and Capitalism, 1984
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A Modern History of Indonesia, 2nd edition. MacMillan, chapters 10–15. ISBN 0-333-57690-X. 
  • Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. 
  • Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet, pages 23–25. ISBN 1-74059-154-2. 

Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Friend (1942), Vickers (2003), Ricklefs (1991), Reid (1974), Taylor (2003)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet, pages 23–25. ISBN 1-74059-154-2. 
  3. ^ Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press, pages 3–4. ISBN 1-86373-635-2. 
  4. ^ Robert Cribb, "Development policy in the early 20th century", in Jan-Paul Dirkse, Frans Hüsken and Mario Rutten, eds, Development and social welfare: Indonesia’s experiences under the New Order (Leiden: Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 1993), pp. 225–245.
  5. ^ Reid (1974), p. 1.
  6. ^ Furnivall, J.S. (1939 [reprinted 1967]). Netherlands India: a Study of Plural Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 9. ISBN 0-521-54262-6.  Cited in Vicker, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press, p. 9. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. 
  7. ^ Reid (1974), p. 1.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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