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Encyclopedia > Duryodhana
Duryodhana as depicted in Yakshagana popular drama from Karnataka
Duryodhana as depicted in Yakshagana popular drama from Karnataka

In the Hindu epic the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. He was an avatar of the demon Kali who had bewitched the soul of Nala, forcing him to gamble away his kingdom. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Yakshagana artist wearing pagaDe, one type of head-wear. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... In Mahabharata Dhritarashtra was the son bore by Vichitraviryas first wife Ambika from Vyasa. ... GāndhārÄ« is a character in the India epic, the Mahabharata. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... The ten avatars of Vishnu, copyright BBT In Hindu philosophy, an avatar (also spelt as avatara) (Sanskrit: , ), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth. ... In Hinduism, Kali (Devnāgari: ; Gujarati: ; IAST: ; IPA:) is the reigning lord of Kali Yuga and nemesis of Sri Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Nala is a character in Hindu mythology. ...

Contents

Birth

When Dhritarashtra's queen Gandhari's pregnancy continued for an unusually long period of time, she beats her womb in frustration, at the envy of Kunti, the queen of Pandu who had given birth to Yudhisthira, the eldest Pandava. Due to her actions, a hardened mass of grey-colored flesh emerged from her womb. Gandhari was devastated, and worships Vyasa, the great Sage who had blessed her with one hundred sons, to redeem his words. The word Gāndhārī can mean more than one thing: Gāndhārī is a character in the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu is the son of Vichitravirya and his second wife, Ambalika from Vyasa. ... In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ...


Vyasa divides the flesh ball into one hundred equal pieces, and puts them in pots of ghee, which are sealed and buried into the earth for one year. At the end of the year, the first pot is opened, and Duryodhana emerges. Ghee in a jar Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Ghee Ghee (Hindi घी from Sanskrit ghṛta घृत sprinkled ) is a type of clarified butter important in Indian cuisine. ...


Literally, Duryodhana means "hard to conquer". His chariot bore a flag depicting a hooded cobra.


Omens

Dark omens surround his emergence from the pot, which are construed by royal brahmins to be the warning signs of a great disaster. Dhritarashtra's half-brother Vidura tells him that when such omens surround the birth of a child, it signals the violent end of that dynasty. Both Vidura and Bhishma counsel the king to abandon the child, but Dhritarashtra is unable to do so out of love and emotional attachment to his first-born. Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidūra) was a son of a maid-servant who served the Queens of Hastinapura, Queen Ambika and Ambalika. ... Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidūra) was a son of a maid-servant who served the Queens of Hastinapura, Queen Ambika and Ambalika. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ...


Development

Duryodhana's body is said to be made out of thunder, and he is extremely powerful. He is revered by his younger brothers, especially Dushasana. Learning martial skills from his gurus, Kripa, Drona and Balarama, he was extremely powerful with the mace weapon, and the equal of Bhima, the powerful Pandava in its use. Dushasana (Duśśāsana in IAST transliteration, and sometimes written Duhshasana and Dushyasana) was the second son of the blind king Dhritarashtra and Gandhari in the epic Mahabharata, and the younger brother of Duryodhana. ... Kripa, also often called Kripacharya, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahabharata. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Balarama, next to the river Yamuna. ... A development of the club, a mace consists of a strong, heavy wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ...


Karna

At the martial exhibition where the Kaurava and Pandava princes demonstrate their skills before their elders, their guru Drona and the people of the kingdom, a great and effulgent warrior, Karna appears and challenges Arjuna, who is considered by Drona to be the best of the warrior princes. But Karna is humiliated when Kripa asks him to ascertain his caste, as it would be inappropriate for unequals to compete. In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Kripa, also often called Kripacharya, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahabharata. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ...


Duryodhana immediately defends Karna, and makes him king of Anga so that he is regarded as Arjuna's equal. Karna pledges his allegiance and friendship to Duryodhana, as Duryodhana had rescued him from the source of continuing humiliation and hardship for him. Neither of them know that Karna is in fact Kunti's eldest son born to Surya. Map of the Mahajanapadas Earliest reference to Angas (अंग) occurs in Atharava Veda (V.22. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... In Hinduism, Surya (Devanagari: सूर्य, sūrya) is the chief solar deity,one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wife Aditi[1] ,in Nordics Tyr he is said to be the son of Dyaus Pitar. ...


A very intense bond of friendship develops between the two, and Duryodhana becomes very close to Karna. It is held that if there was one good quality in Duryodhana, it was his deep affection for his friend Karna. Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ...


Duryodhana's affection and trust in Karna is exemplified by the following story. Once when Karna and Duryodhana's wife Banumathy were playing chess, Duryodhana entered the room. Banumathy noticed this and got up from the game and Karna who had not noticed Duryodhana's entry, pulled her back by tugging her saree. Duryodhana realised what had happened, and in order to assure Karna that he did not have any doubts about Karna's intentions in tugging the saree, Duryodhana himself held the saree up and thus eased the situation for both Banumathy and Karna[1].


In the Kurukshetra War, Karna is Duryodhana's greatest hope for victory. He earnestly believes that Karna is superior to Arjuna, and will inevitably destroy him and his four brothers. While devoted to Duryodhana, Karna knows that even though his skills are as good as, if not better than Arjuna's, he is incapable of killing Arjuna as he is protected by Lord Krishna. When Karna is killed, Duryodhana mourns his death intensely. Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ...


Evil tendencies and schemes

Although loved by all his family, Duryodhana and most of his brothers are seen as inferior to the Pandavas in their adherence to virtue and duty, and respect of elders. Duryodhana is mentored by his maternal uncle Shakuni, who desires the elevation of his sister's children at the expense of the Pandavas. Shakuni masterminds most of Duryodhana's plots to humiliate and kill the Pandavas. The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ...


Duryodhana is especially jealous of the Pandavas, knowing that Yudhisthira is his rival to the throne of Hastinapura. He also bore a deep hatred of Bhima, who dominates the Kauravas in sport and skill, with his immense physical power and strength. In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ...


Duryodhana attempts to murder Bhima by feeding him a poisoned feast, but Bhima survives due to his immense physical capacity and blessings from celestial Nagas. Duryodhana then plots with his evil counselor Purochana to set ablaze a house where the Pandavas were staying. Purochana is himself killed in the fire, but the Pandavas manage to escape. The nagas ( snake) are an ancient race of snake-humanoid beings first depicted in ancient Vedic Hindu mythology and oral folklore from at least 5000 B.C.E. Stories involving the Nagas are still very much a part of contemporary cultural traditions in predominantly Hindu (India, Nepal, and the island...


Usurping the kingdom

When the princes come of age, Yudhisthira is given half the kingdom and made king of Indraprastha, so as to avoid a clash with the Kaurava princes over the whole Kuru kingdom. Duryodhana becomes the prince regent of Hastinapura, and owing to the age and blindness of his father, he accumulates much control and influence, managing the state affairs himself with a coterie of his advisors that include his uncle Shakuni, brother Dushasana and friend Karna. In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ... The first city of Delhi is believed to be founded by the legendary Pandavas of the Mahabharata around 1400 BC. It was called Indraprastha. ... A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ... Dushasana (Duśśāsana in IAST transliteration, and sometimes written Duhshasana and Dushyasana) was the second son of the blind king Dhritarashtra and Gandhari in the epic Mahabharata, and the younger brother of Duryodhana. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ...


But Duryodhana remains jealous of Yudhisthira, owing to Indraprastha's prosperity and fame exceeding Hastinapura's. When Yudhisthira performs the Rajasuya sacrifice that makes him emperor of the World, Duryodhana is unable to contain his anger, which is intensified when Yudhisthira's queen Draupadi makes fun of him when he slips into a pool of water in the court. Draupadi. ...


The dice plot, and Draupadi's humiliation

Knowing that the Kauravas cannot rival the Pandavas in martial power, Shakuni devises a scheme to rob Yudhisthira of his kingdom and wealth by defeating him in a game of dice, which Shakuni is an expert at and Yudhisthira a complete novice. Unable to resist the challenge, Yudhisthira gambles away his entire kingdom, his wealth, his four brothers and even his wife, in a series of gambits to retrieve one by staking another. A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ...


The first time, the king Dhritarashtra and Vidura make Duryodhana re-establish Yudhisthira. But when the plot is repeated, Shakuni sets the condition that Yudhisthira and his brothers must spend thirteen years in exile in the forest before they may receive their kingdom back. The thirteenth year must be passed incognito, or else they would be condemned to repeat the term of exile. In Mahabharata Dhritarashtra was the son bore by Vichitraviryas first wife Ambika from Vyasa. ... Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidūra) was a son of a maid-servant who served the Queens of Hastinapura, Queen Ambika and Ambalika. ...


Duryodhana encourages his brother Dushasana to drag Draupadi into the court and strip her clothes, as she is now his property as Yudhisthira had gambled everything away to him. Dushasana attempts to strip Draupadi, who is mystically rescued by Krishna, who gives her an inexhaustible supply of sari. This article is about the Hindu deity. ... A sari / saree is the traditional female garment in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Maldives. ...


Nevertheless, due to this action Bhima swears that at the end of the exile, he would break Duryodhana's thigh(as Duryodhana asked Draupadi to sit on his thigh). A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ...


World emperor

During the exile, Duryodhana attempts to humiliate Yudhisthira by flashing his wealth and prowess in their forest of exile. He is however caught in a conflict with the Gandharva king Chitrasena, who captures him. Yudhisthira asks Arjuna and Bhima to rescue Duryodhana, who is humiliated. Setting his mind to die, Duryodhana pledges to fast unto death.


During his fast, Duryodhana is mystically taken to a gathering of powerful Daitya and Danava beings, who inform him that he was born as a result of their tapasya, and his mission was to destroy the purpose of the Devas and Krishna upon earth. The demonic beings assure him that powerful demons had been incarnated as his allies, making his defeat impossible. Encouraged, Duryodhana returns to Hastinapura. In Hinduism, the Daityas were the children of Diti. ... Danava is a American progressive hard rock band from Portland, Oregon most famous throughout the underground for there 70 sabbath-esque guitar/bass combo and sythesizers. ... Tapasya is a principle of austerity or willingness to bear suffering in Hinduism and related religions such as Buddhism and Jainism. ... It has been suggested that Deva (tribe) be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ...


Karna now embarks upon a worldwide military campaign to subjugate kings and impose Duryodhana's imperial authority over them. Bringing tribute and allegiance from all the world's kings, Karna helps Duryodhana perform the Vaishnava sacrifice to please Vishnu, and crowns himself World emperor, as Yudhisthira did with the Rajasuya. Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ...


The Kurukshetra War

At the end of the exile term, Duryodhana refuses to return Yudhisthira's kingdom, despite the counsel of Bhishma, Drona, Vidura and even Krishna, whom he attempted to kidnap. Although Dhritarashtra criticizes his son, he tacitly desires that Duryodhana, and not Yudhishitra remain Emperor. This article is about the Hindu deity. ...


Making war inevitable, Duryodhana gathers support from powerful kings and armies. The most legendary warriors - Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, Ashwathama, Shalya, even though most of them were critical of him - are forced to fight for Duryodhana. He ends up amassing a larger army than his rivals. Bheeshma makes his vow. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Kripa, also often called Kripacharya, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahabharata. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Ashwatthama was the son of guru, Dronacharya. ... King Shalya was the brother of Madri, the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva. ...


In the war, Duryodhana repeatedly eggs on the invincible Bhishma and Drona to forward his cause, even though his main hope is Karna. He asks Drona to capture Yudhisthira alive, so that he may blackmail the Pandavas into surrender, or force Yudhisthira to gamble again. He also participates in the brutal and unethical murder of Arjuna's son Abhimanyu. Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अभिमन्यु, abhimanyu) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ...


But he is repeatedly frustrated when the Pandavas succeed in downing the two Kuru legends, and is emotionally distraught when Arjuna slays over one million Kuru soldiers in one day and kills Jayadratha, the king of Sindhu over the killing of Abhimanyu. And all along, Bhima is steadily slaying his brothers, increasing his misery and bringing him closer to defeat. For other uses, please see Arjun. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Jayadratha (Sanskrit: जयद्रथ) is the king of Sindhu. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अभिमन्यु, abhimanyu) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ...


Duryodhana's hopes are finally shattered when Karna is killed by Arjuna after an intense and legendary battle. After making some final desperate efforts, he flees the battlefield and hides in a lake, within which he survives by his mystic powers of yoga. He re-emerges after Ashwathama and Kripa encourage him to face his destiny with courage. Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Ashwatthama was the son of guru, Dronacharya. ... Kripa, also often called Kripacharya, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahabharata. ...


Gandhari's blessing and the fight with Bhima

Queen Gandhari is distraught when she hears that all her sons save Duryodhana have been slain. Despite knowing that Duryodhana was wicked and his cause unrighteous, she decides to help him win. Asking him to bathe and enter her tent naked, she prepares to use the great mystic power of her eyes, blind-folded for many years out of respect for her blind husband, to make his body invincible to all attack in every portion.


But when Krishna, who is returning after paying the queen a visit, runs into a naked Duryodhana coming to the tent, he mockingly admonishes him for his intent to appear so before his own mother. Knowing of Gandhari's intentions, Krishna criticizes Duryodhana, who sheepishly covers his groin before entering the tent. This article is about the Hindu deity. ...


When Gandhari's eyes fall upon Duryodhana, they mystically make each part of his body invincible. She is shocked to see that Duryodhana had covered his groin, which were thus not protected by her mystic power.


When he faces the Pandava brothers and Krishna alone, Yudhisthira offers him the option of fighting any of the Pandava one-on-one. If he defeated that Pandava, Yudhisthira would hand the kingdom to Duryodhana, despite having won the wider war.


Out of pride, Duryodhana picks his archnemesis Bhima instead of any of the other Pandava brothers who would have been overwhelmed by his skill at fighting with the mace. Both possessed exceptional physical strength and had trained under Balarama in mace fighting and wrestling to the same level of prowess. After a long and brutal battle stretching many days, Duryodhana begins to exhaust Bhima. A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Balarama, next to the river Yamuna. ...


At this point, Krishna, who is observing the fight, motions to Bhima, reminding him of his oath to crush Duryodhana's thigh. Bhima viciously attacks Duryodhana with a mace and strikes at his thigh which is not protected by Gandhari's blessing, and Duryodhana finally falls, mortally wounded. This article is about the Hindu deity. ...


Although Duryodhana bemoans that he was slain by unfair means, given that it was illegal to attack below the waist according to the rules of mace-fighting, Krishna points out to the dying prince that his humiliation of Draupadi, murder plots and cheating of the Pandavas and the killing of Abhimanyu did not comply with dharma or the norms of battle either. It was useless thus, for Duryodhana to hope that religious values would protect him, when he had honored them not once in his whole life.   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ...


Death and Heaven

Duryodhana dies slowly, and is cremated by the Pandavas. When Yudhisthira himself ascends to Swarga, he sees Duryodhana there upon a throne. He is angry that Duryodhana is enjoying a place in heaven despite his sins, but Indra explains to him that he had served his time in hell, and had also been a good and powerful king. In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ... In Hinduism, Svarga (or Swarga) is an underworld, located on Mt. ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ...


Other views

The moderate view of Hindu scholars is that Duryodhana was a powerful and capable king who governed his subjects fairly, but was devious and wicked in his plots against his brothers. He is condemned for attempting to humiliate Draupadi out of pride and blatant disregard for traditions. Like Ravana, Duryodhana was powerful and glorious, and well-versed in religious knowledge, but fails to adhere to those values in practical life. But most Hindus regard Duryodhana as blatantly evil. A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, IAST ; sometimes transliterated Elangeswaran and as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ...


Duryodhana is often compared with Achilles of Homer's Iliad. While it was the heel ( Achilles' heel) for the latter, it was the thigh for the former. The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Look up Heel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An Achilles’ heel is a fatal weakness in spite of overall strength, actually or potentially leading to downfall. ... In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and buttocks and the knee. ...


In Kumaon region of Uttranchal, several beautifully carved temples are dedicated to Duryodhana and he is worshipped as a minor deity. The mountain tribes of Kumaon fought along with Duryodhana armies in the Mahabharata war; he was venerated as a capable and generous administrator. Kumaon is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of Uttaranchal, a hilly (and mountainous) state of northern India, the other being Garhwal. ... Uttaranchal (उत्तरांचल) became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000 after a relatively short and peaceful struggle by its people in the 1990s, having previously comprised part of Uttar Pradesh. ...


In media

In the Mahabharata television series of the late 1980s in India, Duryodhana's character is played by Punjabi actor Puneet Issar. Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Puneet Issar is an Indian actor and director, most famous for his role as Duryodhana in the TV adaptation of the Mahabharata. ...


Perhaps the most popular actor in India who has played the role of Duryodhana in cinemas was Telugu Super Star NT Rama Rao, who was the supremo of Telugu Desam party and ruled as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for over a decade.


The humiliation of Draupadi is a section of the Mahabharata often re-created and interpreted in Indian drama and theatre.


References

Krishna Dharma (1955-) is a British Hindu scholar and author. ...

See also

The Mahabharata
Characters
Kuru Dynasty Others
Santanu | Ganga | Bhishma | Satyavati | Chitrāngada | Vichitravirya | Ambika | Ambalika | Vidura | Dhritarashtra | Gandhari | Shakuni | Subhadra | Pandu | Kunti | Madri | Yudhisthira | Bhima | Arjuna | Nakula | Sahadeva | Duryodhana | Dushasana | Yuyutsu | Dushala | Draupadi | Hidimbi | Ghatotkacha | Ahilawati | Uttara | Ulupi | Chitrāngadā Amba | Barbarika | Babruvahana |Iravan | Abhimanyu | Parikshita | Virata | Kichaka | Kripa | Drona | Ashwatthama | Ekalavya | Kritavarma | Jarasandha | Satyaki | Mayasura | Durvasa | Sanjaya | Janamejaya | Vyasa | Karna | Jayadratha | Krishna | Balarama | Drupada | Hidimba | Dhristadyumna | Shalya | Adhiratha | Shikhandi
Other
Pandava | Kaurava | Hastinapura | Indraprastha | Kingdoms | Kurukshetra war | Bhagavad Gita


For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... The ten avatars of Vishnu, copyright BBT In Hindu philosophy, an avatar (also spelt as avatara) (Sanskrit: , ), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... The term Kaurava is a Sanskrit term, that means the descendants of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... In Hinduism, Kali (Devnāgari: ; Gujarati: ; IAST: ; IPA:) is the reigning lord of Kali Yuga and nemesis of Sri Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... In Hindu traditions, Kalki (Sanskrit: कल्कि; also rendered by some as Kalkin and Kalaki) is the tenth and final Maha Avatara (great incarnation) of Vishnu the Preserver, who will come to end the Kali Yuga, (The Age of Darkness and Destruction). ... According to the Kalki Purana, the twin brothers Koka and Vikoka serve as generals under the demon Kali (not the Goddess), overlord of Kali Yuga. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... Shantanu is a king of Hastinapura in the great epic of the Mahabharata. ... In Hinduism, the river Ganga (Sanskrit and Hindi गंगा Gaá¹…gā) or Ganges River (as called by westerners) is considered sacred. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ... Satyavati is the great-grandmother of the Pandava and Kaurava princes, principal characters of the Mahabharata, one of the principal texts in Hindu mythology. ... Chitrāngada was the elder son of Shantanu and Satyavati. ... In Hindu mythology, Queen Satyavati bore King Santanu two sons, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. ... Ambika (अम्‍बिका) was the daughter of King of Kashi and wife of Vichitravirya, King of Hastinapur. ... Ambalika was the daughter of King of Kashi and the wife of Vichitravirya, King of Hastinapur. ... Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidÅ«ra) was a son of a maid-servant who served the Queens of Hastinapura, Queen Ambika and Ambalika. ... In Mahabharata Dhritarashtra was the son bore by Vichitraviryas first wife Ambika from Vyasa. ... GāndhārÄ« is a character in the India epic, the Mahabharata. ... A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ... Jagannath(far right) with his brother Balarama(far left) and sister Subadra (center) in Radhadesh, Belgium Subhadra is the sister of Krishna. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu is the son of Vichitravirya and his second wife, Ambalika from Vyasa. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Madri was a princess of the Madra kingdom and the second wife of Pandu. ... In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Nakula (Sanskrit: नकुल, naküla) was the son of king Pandu and queen Madri. ... Sahadeva (Sanskrit: सहदेव, sahadéva) is a character in the Mahabharata. ... Dushasana (Duśśāsana in IAST transliteration, and sometimes written Duhshasana and Dushyasana) was the second son of the blind king Dhritarashtra and Gandhari in the epic Mahabharata, and the younger brother of Duryodhana. ... Yuyutsu (also known as Vikarna), in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was the son of King Dhritarashtra and one of the palace maidservants. ... In the Mahabharata, Dushala is a Kaurava, the only daughter of Dhritarashtra and Gandhari. ... Draupadi. ... Hidimbi is a Rakshasi, in the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, Ghatotkacha is the son of Bhima and Hidimbi. ... Ahilawati was at the time of Mahabharat. ... Uttara is the name of two siblings in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, the son and daughter of King Virata, whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. ... UlÅ«pÄ«, in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was one of Arjunas wives. ... Chitrāngadā, in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, is one of Arjunas wives. ... Amba was the eldest daughter of King of Kashi. ... In the Mahabharata, Barbarika (IAST BarbarÄ«ka) was the son of Ghatotkacha and Maurvi, daughter of Muru, a Yadava king. ... Babruvahana is one of the sons of Arjuna, begotten through Chitrangada, the princess of Manipur, during the period of his exile at Manipur. ... Iravan: In Hindu mythology Son of Uloopi, and Arjun Can be considered King of the Nagas Fell on the 7th day of the Mahabharat ... Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अभिमन्यु, abhimanyu) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... Parikshita is in the Mahabharata epic the successor of Yudhisthira to the throne of Hastinapura. ... In Hindu mythology, Virata is the king in whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. ... Kichaka (Sanskrit: किचक), in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was the brother of queen Sudeshna of King Virata, the king of Matsya. ... Kripa, also often called Kripacharya, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahabharata. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Ashwatthama (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थाम, ashvatthāma) or Ashwatthaman (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थमन, ashvatthamana) was the son of guru Dronacharya. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Ekalavya (Sanskrit: एकलव्य, ékalavya) is a young prince of the Nishadha tribes, and a member of a low caste, who nevertheless aspires to study archery in the gurukul of Dronacharya. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Jarasandha , the king of Magadha, is a character of the epic Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Satyaki, also called Yuyudhana, a powerful warrior belong to the Yadava-Vrishni dynasty of Lord Krishna. ... In Hindu mythology, Maya, or Mayasura was a great ancient king of the Asura, Daitya and Rakshasa races upon earth. ... In Hinduism, Durvasa (दुर्वास) is an ancient sage, who was known for his short temper. ... For the Javanese dynasty of the same name, see Sanjaya Dynasty. ... Janamejaya, was the son of Arjunas (Mahabharata)grandson Parikishit. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Jayadratha (Sanskrit: जयद्रथ) is the king of Sindhu. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Balarama, next to the river Yamuna. ... Drupada, also known as Yajnasena, is a character in the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, Hidimba (sometimes called Hidimbasura and Hdimba) was a rakshasa, the brother of Hidimbi and a forest dweller. ... Dhristadyumna was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the classic epic Mahabharata. ... King Shalya was the brother of Madri, the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva. ... According to the Mahabharata, Adhiratha was a charioteer, and was the foster father of Karna. ... Shikandi (born Shikhandini) is a character in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... The first city of Delhi is believed to be founded by the legendary Pandavas of the Mahabharata around 1400 BC. It was called Indraprastha. ... This article tries to compile and classify all the kingdoms of ancient India mentioned in the Sanskrit/Vedic literature. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...

Hinduism | Hindu mythology | Indian epic poetry
Female Deities: Devi | Saraswati | Lakshmi | Sati | Parvati | Durga | Shakti | Kali | Gayatri | Sita | Radha | Mahavidya | more...
Male Deities: Deva | Brahma | Vishnu | Shiva | Rama | Krishna | Ganesha | Murugan | Hanuman | Indra | Surya | more...
Texts: Vedas | Upanishads | Puranas | Ramayana | Mahabharata | Bhagavad Gita
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Duryodhana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2028 words)
In the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (or Dhuryodhana) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, and the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas.
During his fast, Duryodhana is mystically taken to a gathering of powerful Daitya and Danava beings, who inform him that he was born as a result of their tapasya, and his mission was to destroy the purpose of the Devas and Krishna upon earth.
Duryodhana dies slowly, and is cremated by the Pandavas.
Duryodhana - definition of Duryodhana in Encyclopedia (201 words)
Duryodhana is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra, and the eldest of the Kaurava brothers.
Both warriors were evenly matched throughout, and there are several versions of Duryodhana's defeat at Bhima's hand; the most popular one is that Bhima crushed Duryodhana's thigh with his mace, which was supposed to have been illegal because it constituted "hitting below the belt".
As he was dying, he gave a tacit approval to Ashwathama to murder Prince Dhrishtadhyumna, and some other members of the Pandavas clan.
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