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Encyclopedia > Durrani Empire
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History of Afghanistan series.

Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan
Islamic conquest of Afghanistan
Hotaki dynasty
Durrani Empire
European influence in Afghanistan
Reforms of Amanullah Khan and civil war
Reigns of Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah
Daoud's Republic of Afghanistan
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
History of Afghanistan since 1992

The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India.[1] It was a monarchy rule from 1747 until 1823 by Ahmed Shah Durrani and his descendants. They were from the Sadozai line of the Abdali or Durrani group, making them the second Pashtun rulers from Kandahar, Afghanistan. It was under the leadership of Ahmad Shah that the nation of Afghanistan began to take shape following centuries of fragmentation and exploitation.[2] Even before the death of Nadir Shah of Persia, tribes in Afghanistan had been growing stronger and were beginning to take advantage of the waning power of their distant rulers.[3] Image File history File links Padlock. ... Excavation of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree, the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institute and others suggests that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world. ... Download high resolution version (526x707, 131 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Archaeological exploration began in Afghanistan in earnest after World War II and proceeded until the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan disrupted it in December of 1979. ... // Islamic conquest The Age of the Caliphs In 637, five years after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, Arab Muslims shattered the might of the Iranian Sassanians at the Battles of al-Qādisiyyah and Nahavand. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... // It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... Daouds Republic (July 17, 1973 - April 28, 1978) welcome Mohammed Daoud Khan received on returning to power on July 17, 1973 reflected the citizenrys disappointment with the lackluster politics of the preceding decade. ... This article is about Communist rule in Afghanistan (1978-1992), which is separate, although slightly so, from the Soviet war in Afghanistan. ... After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... The Sadozai are a lineage of the Popalzay clan of the Abdali tribe of the Pashtun. ... This page has been deleted, and should not be re-created without a good reason. ... Durrani (Persian: درانی) or Abdali (Persian: ابدالی) tribe is one of the two largest Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan and is also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...

Contents

Reign of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1747-1772)

Main article: Ahmad Shah Durrani

Nadir Shah's rule ended in June 1747, when he was assassinated. The assassination was more likely planned by his nephew Ali Qoli, though there is little evidence to support this theory. Whether this is so or not, cannot be determined now, but what is known is that when the chiefs of the Afghans met later the same year near Kandahar at a loya jirga to choose a new ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani was chosen to lead the empire. Despite being younger than other claimants, Ahmad had several overriding factors in his favor: See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Adil Shah Afshar (? - 1748) was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Loya Jirga (June 13, 2002) Loya jirga, occasionally loya jirgah, is a large meeting held in Afghanistan, originally attended by Pashtun groups but later including other ethnic groups. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ...

  • He was a direct descendant of Sado, patriarch of the Sadozai clan, the most prominent tribe amongst the Pashtun peoples at the time;
  • He was unquestionably a charismatic leader and seasoned warrior who had at his disposal a trained, mobile force of several thousand cavalrymen;
  • Not least, he possessed a substantial part of Nadir Shah's treasury.

One of Ahmad Shah's first acts as chief was to adopt the title "Durr-i-Durrani" ("pearl of pearls" or "pearl of the age"). The name may have been suggested, as some claim, from a dream dreamt my Ahmad Shah, or as others claim, from the pearl earrings worn by the royal guard of Nadir Shah. The Abdali Pashtuns were known thereafter as the Durrani. Sado can refer to: Sado, a city in Niigata Prefecture, Japan Sado province (佐渡国), an old province of Japan. ... The Sadozai are a lineage of the Popalzay clan of the Abdali tribe of the Pashtun. ... Languages Pashto (plus second languages from countries of residence) Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni) Related ethnic groups Neighboring Iranian peoples (Tajiks, Persians, Baloch, Pamiri peoples) Burusho Hindkowans Nuristanis Pashai Pashtuns[9] (also Pathans[10] or ethnic Afghans[11][12]) are an ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in eastern and southern... Durrani (Persian: درانی) or Abdali (Persian: ابدالی) tribe is one of the two largest Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan and is also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ...


Early victories

Ahmad Shah began his rule by capturing Ghazni from the Ghilzais, and then wresting Kabul from the local ruler. In 1749, the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh, the Punjab region and west of the Indus River to Ahmad Shah in order to save his capital from Afghan attack. Having thus gained substantial territories to the east without a fight, Ahmad Shah turned westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Nadir Shah's grandson, Shah Rukh of Persia. Herat fell to Ahmad after almost a year of siege and bloody conflict, as did Mashhad (in present-day Iran). Ahmad next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush mountains. In short order, the powerful army brought under its control the Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik and Hazara tribes of northern Afghanistan. Ahmad invaded the remnants of the Mughal Empire a third time, and then a fourth, consolidating control over the Punjab and Kashmir regions. Then, early in 1757, he sacked Delhi, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control of the city as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shah's suzerainty over Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir. Leaving his second son Timur Shah to safeguard his interests, Ahmad Shah left India to return to Afghanistan. Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... The Ghilzais (also known as Khiljis or Ghaljis) are one of two largest groups of Pashtuns, along with the Durrani tribe, found in Afghanistan with a large group also found in neighboring Pakistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... The Mughal Empire (Persian: ‎ , Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت), self-designation GurkānÄ«, گوركانى (which was also the self-designation of the Timurids in Central Asia and Khorasan) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled eastern parts of Khorasan (i. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age (Vedic) India. ... Herat is a province of Afghanistan; together with Badghis, Farah, and Ghor provinces it makes up the western region of the country. ... Shahrokh (Persian: شاهرخ) was the son of Nadir Shah and took over control of Khorasan after his fathers death in 1747. ... Mashhad (also spelt Mashad,Persian: ‎ , literally the place of martyrdom ) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia world. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... This article is about the Central Asian Persians known as Tajiks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Mughal Empire (Persian: ‎ , Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت), self-designation GurkānÄ«, گوركانى (which was also the self-designation of the Timurids in Central Asia and Khorasan) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled eastern parts of Khorasan (i. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Timur Shah (1748 - 18 May 1793), the second son of Ahmad Shah and the second of the Durrani Dynasty, was the King of Afghanistan from 16 October 1772 until his death. ...


Battle of Panipat

The Mughal power in northern India had been declining since the reign of Aurangzeb, who died in 1707; the Marathas, who already controlled much of western and central India from their capital at Pune, were straining to expand their area of control. After Ahmad Shah sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted, the Marathas filled the power void, while in the Punjab, the Sikhs emerged as a potent force. Upon his return to Kandahar in 1757, Ahmad was forced to return to India and face the formidable attacks of the Maratha Confederacy, which succeeded in ousting Timur Shah and his court from India. Aurangzeb (Persian: ‎, English: ) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Pune (Poona) (Marathi:पुणे) (Hindi:पूना), is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Ahmad Shah declared a jihad (or Islamic holy war) against the Marathas, and warriors from various Pashtun tribes, as well as other tribes such as the Baloch, Tajiks, and Muslims in India, answered his call. Early skirmishes were followed by victory for the Afghans, and by 1759 Ahmad and his army had reached Lahore and were poised to confront the Marathas. By 1760, the Maratha groups had coalesced into a great army that probably outnumbered Ahmad Shah's forces. Once again, Panipat was the scene of a confrontation between two warring contenders for control of northern India. The Third Battle of Panipat (January 1761), fought between largely Muslim and largely Hindu armies who numbered as many as 100,000 troops each was waged along a twelve-kilometer front. Despite decisively defeating the Marathas, what might have been Ahmad Shah's peaceful control of his domains was disrupted by other challenges. Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: मराठा)is a collective term referring to an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a substantial empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries AD. The Marathas... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... This article is about the Central Asian Persians known as Tajiks. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Panipat is a historic as well as an ancient city in the Panipat District in Haryana state, India, The city has a population of 216,000. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Decline

Map of the region in the 1700s.
Map of the region in the 1700s.

The victory at Panipat was the high point of Ahmad Shah's -- and Afghan -- power. His Durrani empire was one of the largest Islamic empires in the world at that time. However, even prior to his death, the empire began to unravel. As early as by the end of 1761, the Sikhs had gained power and taken control of much of the Punjab. In 1762, Ahmad Shah crossed the passes from Afghanistan for the sixth time to subdue the Sikhs. He assaulted Lahore and, after taking their holy city of Amritsar, massacred thousands of Sikh inhabitants, destroying their temples and desecrating their holy places with cow's blood. Within two years, the Sikhs rebelled again. Ahmad Shah tried several more times to subjugate the Sikhs permanently, but failed. By the time of his death, he had lost all but nominal control of the Punjab to the Sikhs, who remained in charge of the area until defeated by the British in the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1846. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 387 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1509 × 2337 pixel, file size: 574 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Carte de lInde au XVIIIe siècle daprès http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 387 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1509 × 2337 pixel, file size: 574 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Carte de lInde au XVIIIe siècle daprès http://www. ... Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Amritsar (Punjabi: ), meaning Pool of the Nectar of Immortality, is the administrative headquarter of the Amritsar District in Punjab, India. ... The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Ahmad Shah also faced other rebellions in the north, and eventually he and the Uzbek Emir of Bukhara agreed that the Amu Darya would mark the division of their lands. In 1772, Ahmad Shah retired to his home in the mountains east of Kandahar, where he died. He had succeeded to a remarkable degree in balancing tribal alliances and hostilities, and in directing tribal energies away from rebellion. He earned recognition as Ahmad Shah Baba, or "Father" of Afghanistan. The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Forging a Nation

By the time of Ahmad Shah's ascendancy, the Pashtuns included many groups whose origins were obscure; some believed they descended from ancient Aryan tribes, but some, such as the Ghilzai, may have intermingled with Turks, while others such as the Durrani became Persianized due to their contacts with the Tajiks. What they had in common was their Pashtu language and the belief in common ancestry that sometimes united them. To the east, the Waziris and their close relatives, the Mahsuds, had lived in the hills of the central Sulaiman Mountains since the 14th century. By the end of the 16th century, when the final Turkish-Mongol invasions occurred, tribes such as the Shinwaris, Yusufzais and Mohmands had moved from the upper Kabul River valley into the valleys and plains west, north, and northeast of Peshawar. The Afridis had long been established in the hills and mountain ranges south of the Khyber Pass. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Durranis had blanketed the area west and north of Kandahar and were to be found as far east as Quetta, Baluchistan. Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ārya-, the extended form aryāna-, ari- and/or arya- (Sanskrit: आर्य, Persian: آریا). Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, the meaning noble/spiritual one has been attached to it in Sanskrit... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Flag of Waziristan Waziristan is a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and covering some 11,585 km² (4,473 mi²). It comprises the area west and southwest of Peshawar between the Tochi river to the north and the Gomal river to the south, forming part of Pakistans... Mahsud is a famous Pashtun tribe, dwell in the very centre of Waziristan being hemmed by in on three sides by the Darwesh Khel Wazirs, and bieng shut off by the Bhittanis on the east from the Derajat and Bannu districts. ... sorry guys it is unavailable and happens to be deleted--212. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Shinwari are an ethnic tribe in Afghanistan. ... The Yousafzai or Yusufzai (also Esapzey) (Urdu: یوسف زئی ) are an Afghan tribe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kabul River or Kabal River (Persian: دریای کابل) is a river that rises in the Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan, separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass. ... Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... Men from the Afridi tribe in battle Afridi (Urdu: آفریدی ) (Pashto: اپريدي ) is a Pashtun tribe. ... The Khyber Pass (also called the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Quetta (Urdu: کوئٹہ) is the capital of the province Balochistan in Pakistan. ... The Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan was a former province of Pakistan located in the northern parts of modern Balochistan province. ...


Other Durrani rulers (1772-1823)

Ahmad Shah's successors governed so ineptly during a period of profound unrest that within fifty years of his death, the Durrani empire per se was at an end, and Afghanistan was embroiled in civil war. Much of the territory conquered by Ahmad Shah fell to others in this half century. By 1818, the Sadozai rulers who succeeded Ahmad Shah controlled little more than Kabul and the surrounding territory within a 160-kilometer radius. They not only lost the outlying territories but also alienated other tribes and lineages among the Durrani Pashtuns. Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Sadozai are a lineage of the Popalzay clan of the Abdali tribe of the Pashtun. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ...


Timur Shah (1772-1793)

Main article: Timur Shah Durrani

Ahmad Shah was succeeded by his son, Timur Shah, who had been deputed to administer his fathers conquests in northern India, but had been driven out by the Marathas. Upon Ahmad Shah's death, the Durrani chieftains only reluctantly accepted Timur's accession. Most of his reign was spent fighting a civil war and resisting rebellion; Timur was even forced to move his capital from Kandahar to Kabul due to insurgency. Timur Shah proved an ineffectual ruler, during whose reign the Durrani empire began to crumble. He is notable for having had 24 sons, several of whom became rulers of the Durrani territories. Timur died in 1793, and was then succeeded by his fifth son Zaman Shah Timur Shah (1748 - 18 May 1793), the second son of Ahmed Shah Abdali and the second of the Durrani Dynasty, was the Shah of Afghanistan from 16 October 1772 until his death. ... Timur Shah (1748 - 18 May 1793), the second son of Ahmad Shah and the second of the Durrani Dynasty, was the King of Afghanistan from 16 October 1772 until his death. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


Zaman Shah (1793-1801)

Main article: Zaman Shah Durrani

After the death of Timur Shah, three of his sons, the governors of Kandahar, Herat and Kabul, contended for the succession. Zaman Shah, governor of Kabul, held the field by virtue of being in control of the capital, and became shah at the age of twenty-three. Many of his half-brothers were imprisoned on their arrival in the capital for the purpose, ironically, of electing a new shah. The quarrels among Timur's descendants that threw Afghanistan into turmoil also provided the pretext for the intervention of outside forces. Zaman Shah, (c. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Zaman Shah, the fifth son of Timur Shah was the Shah of Afghanistan from 1793 until 1801. ...


The efforts of the Sadozai heirs of Timur to impose a true monarchy on the truculent Pashtun tribes, and their efforts to rule absolutely and without the advice of the other major Pashtun tribal leaders, were ultimately unsuccessful. The Sikhs became particularly troublesome, and after several unsuccessful efforts to subdue them, Zaman Shah made the mistake of appointing a forceful young Sikh chief, Ranjit Singh, as his governor in the Punjab. This "one-eyed" warrior would later become an implacable enemy of Pashtun rulers in Afghanistan. The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ...


Zaman's downfall was triggered by his attempts to consolidate power. Although it had been through the support of the Barakzai chief, Painda Khan Barakzai, that he had come to the throne, Zaman soon began to remove prominent Barakzai leaders from positions of power and replace them with men of his own lineage, the Sadozai. This upset the delicate balance of Durrani tribal politics that Ahmad Shah had established and may have prompted Painda Khan and other Durrani chiefs to plot against the shah. Painda Khan and the chiefs of the Nurzai and the Alizai Durrani clans were executed, as was the chief of the Qizilbash clan. Painda Khan's son fled to Iran and pledged the substantial support of his Barakzai followers to a rival claimant to the throne, Zaman's older brother, Mahmud Shah. The clans of the chiefs Zaman had executed joined forces with the rebels, and they took Kandahar without bloodshed. The Sadozai are a lineage of the Popalzay clan of the Abdali tribe of the Pashtun. ... Alizai is a village in Pakistan located in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas near the Afghan border. ... Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: ‎ Qezelbāš, Turkish: Kızılbaş, Azerbaijani: Qızılbaş) - Ottoman Turkish for Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... Padshah Dur-i-Durran Mahmud Shah, was the ruler of Afghanistan between 1801 and 1803 and again between 1809 and 1818. ...


Mahmud Shah (first reign, 1801-1803)

Main article: Mahmud Shah Durrani

Zeman Shah's overthrow in 1801 was not the end of civil strife in Afghanistan, but the beginning of even greater violence. Mahmud Shah's first reign lasted for only two years before he was replaced by Shuja Shah. Padshah Dur-i-Durran Mahmud Shah, was the ruler of Afghanistan between 1801 and 1803 and again between 1809 and 1818. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Padshah Dur-i-Durran Mahmud Shah, was the ruler of Afghanistan between 1801 and 1803 and again between 1809 and 1818. ... Shuja Shah (Shoja Shah, Shah Shujah, Shujah al-Mulk) (? - April 1842) was of the Sadozai line of the Abdali group of Pashtun clans. ...


Shuja Shah (1803-1809)

Main article: Shuja Shah Durrani

Yet another of Timur Shah's sons, Shuja Shah, ruled for only six years. On June 7, 1809, Shoja signed a treaty with the British, which included a clause stating that he would oppose the passage of foreign troops through his territories. This agreement, the first Afghan pact with a European power, stipulated joint action in case of Franco-Persian aggression against Afghan or British dominions. Only a few weeks after signing the agreement, Shoja was deposed by his predecessor, Mahmud. Much later, he was reinstated by the British, ruling during 1839-1842. Two of his sons also ruled for a brief period in 1842. Shuja Shah (Shoja Shah, Shah Shujah, Shujah al-Mulk) (? - April 1842) was of the Sadozai line of the Abdali group of Pashtun clans. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the continent. ... Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise Metropolitan France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital  (and largest city)  Paris Official languages French Government Unitary republic  - President Jacques Chirac  - Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin Formation    - French State 843 (Treaty of Verdun)   - Current constitution 1958 (5th... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Mahmud Shah (second reign, 1809-1818)

Main article: Mahmud Shah Durrani

Mahmud's second reign lasted nine years. Mahmud alienated the Barakzai, especially Fateh Khan, the son of Painda Khan, who was eventually seized and blinded. Revenge would later be sought and obtained by Fateh Khan's youngest brother, Dost Mahommed Khan. Padshah Dur-i-Durran Mahmud Shah, was the ruler of Afghanistan between 1801 and 1803 and again between 1809 and 1818. ... Dost Mahommed Khan (1793 - June 9, 1863) founded the Barakzai dynasty in Afghanistan. ...


Sultan Ali Shah (1818-1819)

Main article: Ali Shah Durrani

Sultan Ali Shah was another son of Timur Shah. He seized power for a brief period in 1818-19. Sultan Ali Shah was the Shah of Afghanistan from 1818 to 1819. ... Sultan Ali Shah was the ruler of Afghanistan from 1818 to 1819. ... Timur Shah (1748 - 18 May 1793), the second son of Ahmad Shah and the second of the Durrani Dynasty, was the King of Afghanistan from 16 October 1772 until his death. ...


Ayub Shah (1819-1823)

Main article: Ayub Shah Durrani

Ayub Shah was another son of Timur Shah, who deposed Sultan Ali Shah. He was himself deposed, and presumably killed, in 1823. Ayub Shah, a son of Timur Shah, ruled Afghanistan from 1819 to 1823. ... Ayub Shah, a son of Timur Shah, ruled Afghanistan from 1819 to 1823. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


See also

Excavation of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree, the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institute and others suggests that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Languages Pashto (plus second languages from countries of residence) Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni) Related ethnic groups Neighboring Iranian peoples (Tajiks, Persians, Baloch, Pamiri peoples) Burusho Hindkowans Nuristanis Pashai Pashtuns[9] (also Pathans[10] or ethnic Afghans[11][12]) are an ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in eastern and southern...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ MECW Volume 18, p. 40; Written by Frederick Engles in July and the first 10 days of August 1857; First published in the New American Cyclopaedia - Vol. I, 1858;...Link
  2. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica - Ahmad Shah Durrani...Link
  3. ^ Nancy Hatch Dupree - An Historical Guide To Afghanistan - The South (Chapter 16)...Link

Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820–August 5, 1895) was a 19th-century German political philosopher. ... ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Durrani Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2019 words)
By the end of the eighteenth century, the Durranis had blanketed the area west and north of Kandahar and were to be found as far east as Quetta, Baluchistan.
Painda Khan and the chiefs of the Nurzai and the Alizai Durrani clans were executed, as was the chief of the Qizilbash clan.
From 1818 until Dost Mohammad's ascendancy in 1826, chaos reigned in the domains of Ahmed Shah Durrani's empire as various sons of Painda Khan struggled for supremacy.
Durrani - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (745 words)
The Durrani are, like other Pashtuns, primarily descendents of Aryan invaders of the Iranian variant (as well as the various invaders and migrants who have passed through Afghanistan over the centuries) and probably arose in what is today southern Afghanistan near the Suleiman Mountains at some point between 2000 BCE to 1500 BCE.
The name 'Durrani' or 'Durr-i-Durran' means the 'pearl of pearls' in Persian and was given to the Abdali tribe in 1747 when Ahmad Shah Abdali united the Pashtun tribes following a loya jirga and changed his own name to Ahmad Shah Durrani when he became the king of Afghanistan and founded the Durrani Empire.
The Durrani are the politically dominant Pashtun group in Afghanistan as the current President of Afghanistan is Hamid Karzai who is of the Durrani sub-group known as the Popalzay and has close ties to the former king of Afghanistan Zahir Shah, another member of the Durrani tribe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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