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Encyclopedia > Dunkirk, France
Location within France
Location within France

For the battleship, see Dunkerque Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1804x1689, 163 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1804x1689, 163 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Dunkerque was the first of a new type of warship of the French Navy, labeled as fast battleship. Larger and more powerful than a mere battlecruiser, yet not a full battleship, they were designed to counter the threat of the German Pocket battleships. ...


Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. The commune (in French: commune, word appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, gathering of people sharing a common life, from Latin communis, things held in common) is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... Nord (French, the north) is a département in the north of France. ...


Population of the city (commune) at the 1999 census was 70,850 inhabitants (71,300 inhabitants as of February 2004 estimates). Population of the whole metropolitan area (aire urbaine) was 265,974 inhabitants at the 1999 census. 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ...


Its name is derived from the West Flemish (Dutch) "duin" (dune) and "kerke" (church). Till the middle of the 20th century the city was situated in the Dutch language area; today the local Dutch dialect still can be found, but has been largely replaced by French. West Flemish (in West Flemish, Vlaemsch) is a group of dialects, spoken in parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. ... Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ... Dutch (Nederlands   listen?) is a West Germanic, Low German language spoken worldwide by around 24 million people, mostly in the Netherlands and Belgium. ...

Contents


Administration

The commune has grown substantially by absorbing several neighboring communes:

  • 1970: fusion with Malo-les-Bains (which had been created by being detached from Dunkerque in 1881)
  • 1972: fusion with Petite-Synthe and Rosendaël (the latter had been created by being detached from Téteghem in 1856)
  • 1980: fusion-association with Mardyck (which became a commune associée, with a population of 372 in 1999)
  • 1980: a large part of Petite-Synthe is detached from Dunkerque and included into Grande-Synthe
  • 2003: project of fusion with Saint-Pol-sur-Mer (commune created by its territory being detached from Petite-Synthe in 1877). On December 19, 2003, the municipal councils of Dunkerque and Saint-Pol-sur-Mer decided in favor of a fusion-association, which would create a new entity with a population of 94,187. The préfet requested a popular referendum, although this procedure was not mandatory (it became mandatory on January 1, 2005). The referendum took place on December 5, 2004, actually covering 3 communes: Dunkerque, Saint-Pol-sur-Mer and Fort-Mardyck. Although the yes won with 54 % of the votes, it did not gather 25% of the potential electorate, as requested by the law. The préfet rejected the fusion proposal as a consequence.

1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Petite-Synthe is a former commune of the Nord département in northern France. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Grande-Synthe is a commune of the Nord département in northern France. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... December 19 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In France and many other French-speaking countries, a préfet (English: prefect) is the States representative in a département or région (in the later case, he is called a préfet de région). ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...

History

The area was much disputed between Spain, England, the Netherlands and France. In the Eighty Years War the port was the base of the infamous Dunkirker Raiders until the city was conquered by Louis XIII of France in 1646. Private shipping magnates (reders in Dutch) operated whole privateer fleets to intercept Dutch merchants. It became definitively French when Charles II of England sold it to France for £40,000 on 17 October 1662. During the reign of Louis XIV, a large number of commerce raiders had again their base at Dunkirk; Jean Bart was the most famous, known for attacking Dutch ships. Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt from 1568 to 1648 was the secession war in which the proto-Netherlands first became an independent country. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... // Events Ongoing events English Civil War (1642-1649) Births April 15 - King Christian V of Denmark (d. ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government to attack and seize cargo from another countrys ships. ... Charles II (29 May 1630–6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... October 17 is the 290th (in leap years the 291st) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 18 – Short-timed experiment of the first public buses holding 8 passengers begins in Paris May 3/May 2 - Catherine of Braganza marries Charles II of England – as part of the dowry, Portugal cedes Bombay and Tangier to England May 9 - Samuel Pepys witnessed a Punch and Judy... Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ...


In World War II, heavy fighting took place around Dunkirk during the German invasion (see Battle of Dunkirk) in 1940, but a lull in the action unexpectedly allowed a large number of French and British soldiers to escape to England. 340,000 men were evacuated amidst constant bombing (the miracle of Dunkirk, as Winston Churchill called it). The British evacuation of Dunkirk was codenamed Operation Dynamo. During the war, Dunkirk was largely destroyed by bombing. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb. ... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes The Battle of Dunkirk (French: Bataille de Dunkerque) was a major battle during World War II which lasted from around May 26 to June 4, 1940. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, FRS PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... During [[World War II]], Operation Dynamo was the name given to the evacuation from Dunkirk conducted from 27 May to 4 June 1940. ...


On 14 December 2002, the Norwegian auto carrier Tricolor collided with the Bahamian-registered Kariba and sank off Dunkirk harbor, causing a hazard to navigation in the English Channel. The following night, a German vessel, the Nicola, hit the wreck and had to be towed free. On 1 January 2003 the Turkish-registered fuel carrier Vicky struck the same wreck, but was freed by a rising tide. December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York harbor, 1976. ... The English Channel, also for some time known as the British Sea (French: La Manche, the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Economy

Dunkirk is the third largest harbour in France, after Le Havre and Marseille. It is also an industrial city, heavily dependent on the steel, food processing, oil refining, ship building and chemical industries. Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... City motto: Actibus immensis urbs fulget Massiliensis. ... // Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... Food processing is the methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans. ... View of the Shell/Valero Martinez oil refinery An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products. ... Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ...


Tourist attractions

  • The Musée Portuaire hosts exhibits images about the history and presence of the port.
  • The Musée des Beaux-Arts has a large collection of Flemish, Italian and French paintings and sculptures.

Transportation

Dunkirk has a ferry connection with Ramsgate and Dover in England. The Pride of Burgundy, a P&O Ferries car ferry on the Dover-Calais route A ferry is a boat or a ship carrying passengers, and sometimes their vehicles, on short-distance, scheduled services. ... Note: See Ramsgate, KwaZulu-Natal for a town in South Africa. ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity...


Sport

Road bicycle racing is a popular bicycle racing sport held on the road (following the geography of the area), using racing bicycles. ...

External links

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
  • City council website (in French)
  • Tourist office website
  • Port of Dunkirk website
  • Dunkerque (Dunkirk) Protestant Evangelical churches (in French)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dunkirk - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (634 words)
Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border.
Population of the city (commune) at the 1999 census was 70,850 inhabitants (71,300 inhabitants as of February 2004 estimates).
In the Eighty Years War the port was the base of the infamous Dunkirker Raiders until the city was conquered by Louis XIII of France in 1646.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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