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Encyclopedia > Dunkirk
Commune of Dunkerque
Location
Coordinates 51°02′18″N, 02°22′39″E
Administration
Country Flag of France France
Region Nord-Pas de Calais
Department Nord
Arrondissement Dunkirk
Canton Chief town of 2 cantons
Intercommunality Dunkerque grand littoral
Mayor Michel Delebarre
(2001–2008)
Statistics
Altitude 0 m–17 m
(avg. 4 m)
Land area¹ 37.34 km²
Population²
(1999)
70,850
 - Density (1999) 1,897/km²
Miscellaneous
INSEE/Postal code 59183/ 59140 - 59240 - 59640
¹ French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
² Population sans doubles comptes: single count of residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel).
France

Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque, pronounced /dœ̃kɛʀk/ or /dɛ̃kɛʀk/; Dutch: Duinkerke ) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the department of Nord, 10 kilometres (6 mi) from the Belgian (Flemish) border. Population of the city (commune) at the 1999 census was 70,850 inhabitants (71,300 inhabitants as of February 2004 estimates). Population of the whole metropolitan area (aire urbaine) was 265,974 inhabitants at the 1999 census. Dunkirk or Dunkerque may refer to: Dunkirk, France (French: Dunkerque) Battle of Dunkirk, in World War II Dunkirk (film) Dunkirk (mini-series) French battleship Dunkerque Places in the UK Dunkirk, Kent,a village between Faversham and Canterbury in England Dunkirk, Nottingham Places in the USA Dunkirk, Indiana Dunkirk, Maryland Dunkirk... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1804x1689, 163 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Nord Pas-de-Calais Arrondissements 13 Cantons 156 Communes 1,546 Statistics Land area1 12,414 km² Population (Ranked 4th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Extent of Dutch in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (French term for: North) is a département in the north of France. ... The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. ... The arrondissement of Dunkirk (French Dunkerque) is an arrondissement of France, located in the Nord département, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais région. ... The cantons of France are administrative divisions subdividing arrondissements and départements. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Rio de la Plata estuary Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Estuaries An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... This page lists English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations, such as and . ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links Be-nl_Duinkerke. ... The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Extent of Dutch in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (French term for: North) is a département in the north of France. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... Anthem De Vlaamse Leeuw (The Flemish Lion) Location of Belgian Flanders in Europe The Flemish Region Capital Brussels Official languages Dutch1 Recognised regional languages Flemish: Dutch Brussels: French and Dutch Government  -  Minister-President Kris Peeters Area  -  Total 13,522 km²   sq mi  Population  -  2006 [1] census 6,078,600   -  Density... In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ...


Its name is derived from Dutch "duin" (dune) and "kerke" (church). Until the middle of the 20th century the city was situated in the Dutch language area; today the local Dutch dialect (West Flemish) still can be found but has been largely replaced by French. A diagram showing the formation of a dune with a slipface. ... Dutch (  ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... West Flemish (in West Flemish, Vlaemsch) is a group of dialects, spoken in parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. ...

Contents

Administration

Location of Dunkirk in the arrondissement of Dunkirk.
Location of Dunkirk in the arrondissement of Dunkirk.

The commune has grown substantially by absorbing several neighbouring communes: Image File history File links LocatieDuinkerke. ... Image File history File links LocatieDuinkerke. ...

  • 1970: Merger with Malo-les-Bains (which had been created by being detached from Dunkirk in 1881)
  • 1972: Fusion with Petite-Synthe and Rosendaël(the latter had been created by being detached from Téteghem in 1856)
  • 1980: Fusion-association with Mardyck (which became an associated commune, with a population of 372 in 1999)
  • 1980: A large part of Petite-Synthe is detached from Dunkirk and included into Grande-Synthe
  • 2003: Project of fusion with Saint-Pol-sur-Mer (commune created by its territory being detached from Petite-Synthe in 1877). On December 19, 2003, the municipal councils of Dunkirk and Saint-Pol-sur-Mer decided in favour of a fusion-association, which would create a new entity with a population of 94,187. The prefect requested a referendum, although this procedure was not mandatory (it became mandatory on January 1, 2005). The referendum took place on December 5, 2004, actually covering 3 communes: Dunkerque, Saint-Pol-sur-Mer and Fort-Mardyck. Although the yes won with 54 % of the votes, it did not gather 25% of the potential electorate, as required by the law. The prefect rejected the fusion proposal as a consequence.
Dunkirk's seafront
Dunkirk's seafront

Petite-Synthe is a former commune of the Nord département in northern France. ... In France, associated communes (French: communes associées) were created by the Commune Merger Act of July 16, 1971 (also called the Marcellin Act). ... Grande-Synthe is a commune of the Nord département in northern France. ... Saint-Pol-sur-Mer is a commune in the département of Nord and the Nord-Pas de Calais region of France. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Uniforme hat of a French préfet A prefect (French: préfet) in France is the States representative in a department or region. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort-Mardyck (Dutch: Fort-Mardijk) is a French village and commune of the Nord department within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 153 KB) Digue de Dunkerque / Dyke of Dunkirk Photo prise le 27 juillet 2005 / Photograph taken on July 27th 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Dunkirk ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 153 KB) Digue de Dunkerque / Dyke of Dunkirk Photo prise le 27 juillet 2005 / Photograph taken on July 27th 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Dunkirk ...

History

Dunkirk was first mentioned in 1067 as Dunkerk (Dutch: “Church of the Dunes”). The area was much disputed between Spain, England, the Netherlands and France. In the Eighty Years' War the port was the base of the infamous Dunkirker Raiders until the city was conquered by Louis XIII of France in 1646. Private shipping magnates (reders in Dutch) operated whole privateer fleets to intercept Dutch merchants. At the Peace of Münster in 1648 it was again ceded to Spain. In 1658 it was conquered by the Commonwealth. It became definitively French when Charles II of England sold it to France for £40,000 on 17 October 1662. During the reign of Louis XIV, a large number of commerce raiders had again their base at Dunkirk; Jean Bart was the most famous, known for attacking Dutch ships. The Man in the Iron Mask was also arrested in Dunkirk. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the United Kingdom anthem is God Save the Queen. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... During the Dutch revolt (1568 - 1648) the Dunkirk Raiders (Dutch: Duinkerker kapers) were pirates in the service of the Spanish Empire operating from the city of Dunkirk. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, 1648, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Dunkirk in World War II

See main article: Battle of Dunkirk
Map of Dunkirk surroundings, during Allied re-taking of the zone in 1944

In World War II, heavy fighting took place around Dunkirk during the German invasion in 1940, but a lull in the action unexpectedly allowed a large number of French and British soldiers to escape to England. Only 50,000 or less were expected to escape but amazingly 338,226 men were evacuated amidst constant bombing (the miracle of Dunkirk, as Winston Churchill called it). It took over 900 vessels to evacuate the British and French soldiers and more than 40,000 vehicles were abandoned. The British evacuation of Dunkirk through the English Channel was codenamed Operation Dynamo. This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ... Image File history File links Dunkirk. ... Image File history File links Dunkirk. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ... French troops rescued by a British merchant ship at Dunkirk British evacuation on Dunkirk beach Operation Dynamo (or Dunkirk Evacuation, the Miracle of Dunkirk or just Dunkirk) was the name given to the World War II mass evacuation of Allied soldiers from May 26 to June 4, 1940, during the...


The city was again contested in 1944, and the Second Canadian Division attempted to liberate the city in September, as Allied forces surged northeast after their victory in the Battle of Normandy. German forces refused to relinquish their control of the city, which had been converted into a fortress, and the garrison there was "masked" by Allied troops, notably 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade. The fortress under command of German Admiral Friedrich Frisius eventually unconditionally surrendered to commander of the Czechoslovak Brigade General Alois Liška on May 9th 1945.[1]
During the war, Dunkirk was largely destroyed by bombing. The Canadian 2nd Infantry Division was mobilized on 1 September 1939, even before the declaration of war, and the battalions were promptly fleshed out by volunteers. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe... 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade was created on 1 September 1943 when Czechoslovak 1st Infantry Brigade converted to armour and redesignated 1st Czechoslovak Independent Armoured Brigade Group (this was often simplified to 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade or abbreviated 1st CSIABG). ... Brigade General is a rank used in many armies to denote the lowest rank of general, corresponding to command of a brigade. ...


Postwar Dunkirk

Carnival in Dunkirk
Carnival in Dunkirk

On 14 December 2002, the Norwegian auto carrier Tricolor collided with the Bahamian-registered Kariba and sank off Dunkirk harbour, causing a hazard to navigation in the English Channel. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (832x1246, 196 KB) Carnaval de Dunkerque de 2004 - photo de Patrick Vandenbussche 2004 carnival of Dunkirk - courtesy of Patrick Vandenbussche File links The following pages link to this file: Dunkirk ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (832x1246, 196 KB) Carnaval de Dunkerque de 2004 - photo de Patrick Vandenbussche 2004 carnival of Dunkirk - courtesy of Patrick Vandenbussche File links The following pages link to this file: Dunkirk ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... MV Tricolor was a 50,000 tonne Norwegian-flagged vehicle carrier, built in 1987. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ...


Economy

Dunkirk has the third largest harbour in France, after those of Le Havre and Marseille. It is also an industrial city, heavily dependent on the steel, food processing, oil refining, ship building and chemical industries. Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... View of the Shell/Valero Martinez oil refinery An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products. ... Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ...


Tourist attractions

  • The Musée Portuaire hosts exhibits images about the history and presence of the port.
  • The Musée des Beaux-Arts has a large collection of Flemish, Italian and French paintings and sculptures.
  • The Carnival of Dunkirk

Miscellaneous

Transport

Dunkirk has a ferry connection with Dover in England. The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the United Kingdom anthem is God Save the Queen. ...


Sport

Les Quatre Jours de Dunkerque, the Four Days of Dunkirk, is an elite cycle race around the Nord-Pas de Calais region of northern France. ... Road bicycle racing is a popular bicycle racing sport held on roads (following the geography of the area), using racing bicycles. ... Stages in 2007 The 2007 Tour de France is the 94th Tour de France, taking place from July 7 to July 29, 2007. ...

Twin towns

Dunkirk is twinned with:

Dunkirk has cooperation agreements with: Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Coordinates: , Founded 1201 Government  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area  - City 307. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the town in North East England. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Dartford is a local government district and borough in Kent, England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Thanet is a local government district of Kent, England which was formed under the Local Government Act 1972, and came into being on 1 April of 1974. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Dunkerque

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  1. ^ (Czech) Czech army page

  Results from FactBites:
 
DUNKIRK FC -- ABACUS LIGHTING CENTRAL MIDLANDS FOOTBALL LEAGUE (1224 words)
Dunkirk are currently in good form as they look to claw their way back up the league table and a win tonight would see them rise up to 4th.
Dunkirk now started to look a little more livelier in attack and Nangle's back heel played Blanchard through and as his shot was blocked it came to Wilson and as he was about to pull the trigger Renshaw made a last ditch tackle and intercepted the ball to stop a clear shot on goal.
Dunkirk though would be in confident mood though as they have only lost 1 game out of their last 9 matches and with a 2-1 home win against their hosts earlier in the season behind them would surly fancy their chances.
Dunkirk - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (786 words)
Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque, pronounced /dœ̃kɛʀk/ or /dɛ̃kɛʀk/; Dutch: Duinkerke or Duinkerken) is a harbor city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border.
Population of the city (commune) at the 1999 census was 70,850 inhabitants (71,300 inhabitants as of February 2004 estimates).
In the Eighty Years' War the port was the base of the infamous Dunkirker Raiders until the city was conquered by Louis XIII of France in 1646.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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