List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918
The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia.
Dukes of Saxony
Ottonian or Liudolfing dynasty
- Liudolf (about 850)
- Brun (after 852 -880)
- Otto I the Illustrious 880-912
- Henry I the Fowler 912-936 (German King 919-936)
- Otto the Great 936-961 (German King 936-973, Emperor 962-973)
- Hermann 961-973
- Bernard I 973-1011
- Bernard II 1011-1059
- Ordulf 1059-1072
- Magnus 1072-1106
With the final removal of the Welfs in 1180, the Duchies of Brunswick and Lüneburg, which fell to their descendants, passed out of the control of the Duchy of Saxony. The Ascanians, who now took control, were based further east, near the Elbe.
- Bernard III 1180-1212
- Albert II 1212-1260
Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg
On Albert II's death, Saxony was split between his sons, who became Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg and Saxe-Lauenburg. The Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg were as follows:
- Albert III 1260-1298
- Rudolf I 1298-1356
Electors of Saxony
In 1356 was issued the Golden Bull, which raised the Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of Prince-elector. Henceforth he was known by the title of Elector of Saxony.
- Rudolf II 1356-1370
- Wenzel 1370-1388
- Rudolf III 1388-1419
- Albert IV 1419-1422
The last Ascanian Elector of Saxony died in 1422. He was succeeded by the Margrave Frederick of Meissen and Thuringia, of the Wettin Dynasty.
- Frederick I, the Warlike 1422-1428
- Frederick II, the Gentle 1428-1464
(on Frederick II's death, the Wettin territories were divided between his sons. The elder, Ernest, became elector and inherited Northern Meissen, Southern Thuringia, and Wittenberg, along with the Electoral title. Albert, the younger, was made duke and received Northern Thuringia and Southern Meissen)
Ernestine Electors of Saxony
Albertine Dukes of Saxony
In 1547, following Emperor Charles V's victory at the Battle of Mühlberg, Wittenberg and the Electoral dignity were transferred to the Albertine line. The Ernestine line continued to rule in southern Thuringian, but eventually split up into many different tiny duchies, of which Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Altenburg lasted until 1918. These will not be listed here.
Albertine Electors of Saxony
Kings of Saxony
In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire came to an end. Saxony became a Kingdom, and Frederick Augustus III became King Frederick Augustus I
House of Wettin
Heads of the House of Wettin since 1918