The Duke of Parma was also Duke of Piacenza, except for the first years of the rule of Ottavio Farnese (1549-1556), and the time of the NapoleonicDukes of Parma and Piacenza, when the two were established as separate positions held by two individuals.
The Duke of Parma also usually held the title of Duke of Guastalla from 1735 (when Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor took it from Mantua) to 1847 (when the territory was ceded to Modena), again, except for the Napoleonicdukes, when there was no Duke of Guastalla.
Therefore, the Duke of Parma is a legitimate (though not prime) claimant to the Kingdom of Spain; indeed, the current Duke of Parma, Carlos-Hugo, was a pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s (see Carlism).
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