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Encyclopedia > Duke

A duke is a noble person, historically of highest rank below the king or queen, and usually controls a duchy or a Dukedom. The title comes from the Latin Dux Bellorum, which had the sense of "military commander" and was employed by both the Germanic peoples themselves and by the Roman authors covering them to refer to their war leaders. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Acap. ... A Duke or Grand Duke is a title of nobility for aristocrats of very high rank. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Dux Bellorum (Duke of Battles) was a Roman military title awarded by the Emperor to great Roman generals. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


In the Middle Ages the title signified first among the Germanic monarchies. Dukes were the rulers of the provinces and the superiors of the counts in the cities and later, in the feudal monarchies, the highest-ranking peers of the king. There were, however, variants of these meanings and there were even sovereign princes employing ducal titles. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Germanic monarchy, also called barbarian monarchy, was a monarchical system of government which predominated among the Germanic tribes of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. ... This article is about the style or title of nobility. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


In the Modern Age it has become a nominal rank without an actual principality. It is still the highest titular peerage in France, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Italy. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ...


A woman who holds in her own right the title to such duchy or dukedom, or is the wife of a duke, is normally styled duchess. However, Queen Elizabeth II is known as Duke of Normandy in the Channel Islands and Duke of Lancaster in Lancashire. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...

Contents

History

Roman Empire

See also: dux

Originally, dux was a title given to a leader of a single military expedition or army and holding no other power than that which he exercised over his soldiers. The designation, first applied to barbarian tribal leaders, became a formal Roman title in the Roman Empire over time. Upon the separation of the civil and military functions in the fourth century, the dux became commander of all the troops contained in a military territory, often corresponding to one or more provinces; this Roman rank was below the similar comes rei militaris. To avoid the connotations of the modern "dukes," Roman and post-Roman military leaders are usually styled with the Latin title, e.g., Artorius Dux Bellorum[1] rather than a translate the title to duke. The Misspeling of Ducks ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Comes (genitive: comitis) is the Latin word for companion, either individually or as a member of a collective known as comitatus (compare comitatenses), especially the suite of a magnate, in some cases large and/or formal enough to have a specific name, such as a cohors amicorum. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ...


Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages following the collapse of Roman power in Western Europe, the title was still employed in the Germanic kingdoms, most often to the rulers of the old Roman provinces. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Visigoths

They retained the Roman divisions of their kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula and it seems that dukes ruled over these. They were the highest magnates in the land and, together with the bishops, elected the king, usually from their own file. They were the military commanders and in this capacity often acted independently of the king, especially in the last days of the kingdom.


The army was structured decimally with the highest unit, the thiufa, probably corresponding to about one thousand people from each civitas, city district. The cities were commanded by the counts, who were in turn responsible to the dukes, who called up the thiufae when need be. The thiufa was the highest division of the Visigothic army in Hispania. ...


Lombards

When the Lombards entered Italy, the Latin chroniclers called their war leaders duces in the old fashion. These leaders eventually became the provincial rulers, each with a recognized seat of government. Though nominally loyal to the king, the concept of kingship was new to the Lombards and the dukes were highly independent, especially in central and southern Italy, where the Duke of Spoleto and the Duke of Benevento were de facto sovereigns. In 575, when Cleph died, a period known as the Rule of the Dukes, in which the dukes governed without a king, commenced. It lasted only a decade before the disunited magnates, in order to defend the kingdom from external attacks, elected a new king and even diminished their own duchies to provide him with a handsome royal demesne. The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The independent Duchy of Spoleto in southern Italy was a Lombard territory founded about 570 by the Lombard dux Faroald. ... This is as list of the Dukes and Princes of Benevento (see Duchy of Benevento), it is one of Wikipedias Lists of Incumbents. ... Events June 2 - Benedict succeeds John III as Pope The Kingdom of East Anglia founded by the Angle groups North Folk and South Folk, naming the places of Norfolk and Suffolk, respectively. ... Cleph or Clef (in Italian, Clefi) was king of the Lombards from 572 or 573 to 574 or 575. ... The Rule of the Dukes was the decade-long interregnum from 574 or 575 which affected the Lombard kingdom in Italy after the death of Cleph. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Lombard kings were usually drawn from the dukes when the title was not hereditary. The dukes tried to make their own offices hereditary. Beneath them in the internal structure were the counts and gastalds, a uniquely Lombard title initially referring to judicial functions, similar to a count's, in provincial regions. A gastald (Latin gastaldus or castaldus, Italian gastaldo or guastaldo) was a Lombard official in charge of some portion of the royal demesne (a gastaldia or castaldia) with civil, martial, and judicial powers. ...


Franks

The Franks employed dukes as the governors of Roman provinces, though they also led military expeditions far away from their duchies. The dukes were the highest ranking officials in the realm, were more typically Franks than the counts (who were often Gallo-Romans), and formed the class from which the kings' generals were drawn in times of war. The dukes gathered every May with the king to converse on policy for the upcoming year, the so-called Mayfield.


In Burgundy and Provence, the titles of patrician and prefect were commonly employed in preference to duke, probably for historical reasons relating to the greater Romanization of those provinces. The titles, however, were basically equivalent. Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ...


In late Merovingian Gaul, the mayors of the palace of the Arnulfing clan began to use the title dux et princeps Francorum: "duke and prince of the Franks." In this title, "duke" implied supreme military control of the entire nation (Francorum, the Franks) and it was thus used until the end of the Carolingian dynasty in France in 987. For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval title and office, also known by the Latin name, maior domus or majordomo, used most notably in the Frankish kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries. ... The Pippinids or Arnulfings are the members of a family of Frankish nobles whose select scions served as major-domos, de facto rulers, of the Frankish kingdoms of Neustra and Austrasia that were nominally ruled by the Merovingians. ... Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval title and office, also known by the Latin name, maior domus, used most notably in the Frankish kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ...


Stem duchies

See Stem duchy During the Early Middle Ages, the stem duchies formed the major divisions of the eastern Carolingian kingdom (roughly the region of modern Germany). ...


England

Anglo-Saxon times

The highest political division beneath that of kingdom among the Anglo-Saxons was the ealdormanry and, while the title ealdor person was replaced by the Danish eorl (later earl) over time, the first ealdor people were referred to as duces in the chronicles. Thus, in Anglo-Saxon England, where the Roman political divisions were largely abandoned, the grade of duke was retained as supreme territorial magnate after the king. For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... It has been suggested that Thegn be merged into this article or section. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ...


Late medieval times

The Black Prince was created Duke of Cornwall in 1337. He was the first proper Duke to be created by a King of England. To celebrate this event six new Earls were created. In the Patent creating the new Earl of Salisbury, on 16 March 1337, the King refers also to this higher Honour as: "willing more securely to establish the Royal sceptre as well as by the addition of new honours as by the restoration of old ones, and to augment the number of nobles by whose counsels our realm may be directed in doubtful, and by whose suffrages be supported in adverse circumstances, have advanced our most dear first begotten Edward (whom in the prerogative of honour as is meet, we have caused to have precedence of others) to be Duke of Cornwall, over which awhile ago Dukes for a long time successively presided as chief rulers..." Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first dukedom created in the peerage of England. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... The title Marquess of Salisbury is a British title of Peerage, created in 1789 for James Cecil, 7th Earl of Salisbury. ...


The Modern Age

In the 19th century, the sovereign dukes of Parma and Modena in Italy, and of Anhalt, Brunswick-Lüneburg, Nassau (state), Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen and Saxe-Altenburg in Germany survived Napoleon's reorganization. Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Since the unification of Italy in 1870 and the end of monarchy in Germany in 1918, there have no longer been any reigning dukes in Europe; Luxembourg is ruled by a grand duke, a higher title, just below King. 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ...


In the United Kingdom, the inherited position of a duke along with its dignities, privileges, and rights is a dukedom. However, the title of duke has never been associated with independent rule in the British Isles: they hold dukedoms, not duchies. Dukes in the United Kingdom are addressed as 'Your Grace' and referred to as 'His Grace'. Currently, there are twenty-seven dukedoms in the Peerage of England, Peerage of Scotland, Peerage of Great Britain, Peerage of Ireland and Peerage of the United Kingdom, held by twenty-four different people (see List of Dukes in order of precedence). This page lists all dukedoms, extant, extinct, dormant, abeyant, or forfeit, in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. ... The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ... The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Act of Union 1707 but before the Act of Union 1800. ... The Peerage of Ireland the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland. ... The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801. ... This is a list of present Dukes in the Peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. ...


Equivalents in other European languages

Many languages have equivalents of Duke. ...

Royal dukes

Various royal houses traditionally awarded (mainly) dukedoms to the sons and in some cases, the daughters, of their respective Sovereigns; others include at least one dukedom in a wider list of similarly granted titles, nominal dukedoms without any actual authority, often even without an estate. Such titles are still conferred on royal princes or princesses in the current European monarchies of Belgium, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.


Other historical cases occurred for example in Denmark, Finland (as Sweden, in personal union) and France, Portugal and some former colonial possessions such as Brazil and Haiti.


United Kingdom

Main article: Dukes in Britain

In the United Kingdom, ducal titles which have been given within the royal family include Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence, Duke of York, Duke of Gloucester, Duke of Bedford, Duke of Cumberland, Duke of Cambridge, Duke of Rothesay, Duke of Albany, Duke of Ross, Duke of Edinburgh, Duke of Kent, Duke of Sussex, and Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. There are many Dukes in Britain. ... The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first dukedom created in the peerage of England. ... There were several Dukes of Lancaster in the 14th and early 15th Centuries. ... Duke of Clarence is a title which has been traditionally awarded to junior members of the English and British royal families. ... HRH The Prince Andrew, the current Duke of York For the nursery rhyme see The Grand Old Duke of York. ... King Richard III held the title of Duke of Gloucester from 1461 until his accession in 1483 The title Duke of Gloucester (pronounced gloss-ter) is a British royal title (after Gloucester), often conferred on one of the sons of the reigning monarch. ... The titles of Earl or Duke of Bedford were created several times in the peerage of England. ... Duke of Cumberland is a peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British royal family. ... Duke of Cambridge is a title frequently conferred upon junior members of the British royal family. ... Banner of the Duke of Rothesay, the quarterings represent the Great Steward of Scotland and the Lord of the Isles. ... Duke of Albany is a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the youngers sons in the Scottish and later the British Royal Family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Hanover. ... The title Duke of Ross has been created twice in the Peerage of Scotland, both times for younger sons of the King of Scotland. ... The Duke of Edinburgh is a dukedom associated with Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Duke of Kent is a title which has been created various times in the peerages of Great Britain and the United Kingdom, most recently as a royal dukedom for the fourth son of King George V of the United Kingdom. ... The Duke of Sussex is a peerage title conferred upon Prince Augustus Frederick (1773-1843), sixth son of King George III. He was created Duke of Sussex and Earl of Inverness (in the Peerage of Great Britain), and Baron Arklow (in the Peerage of Ireland) on 25 November 1801. ... The title Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was granted by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to her third son, Prince Arthur. ...

This is a list of Dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of present dukes in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. ...

Belgium

In Belgium, the title of Duke of Brabant (historically the most prestigious in the Low Countries, and containing the federal capital Brussels), if still vacant, has been awarded preferentially to the eldest son and heir presumptive of the King, other male dynasts receiving various lower historical titles (much older than Belgium, and in principle never fallen to the Belgian crown), such as Count of Flanders (king Leopold III's so-titled brother held the title when he became the realm's temporary head of state as Prince-regent) and Prince of Liège (a secularised version of the historical Prince-bishopric; e.g. the present king Albert II until he succeeded his older brother Baudouin I) Coat of arms of Dukes of Brabant The Duchy of Brabant was formally erected in 1183/1184. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... Prince Regent (or Prince Regnant, as a direct borrowing from French language) is a prince who rules a country instead of a sovereign, e. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... Baudouin of Belgium King Baudouin, (also spelled Boudewijn, Balduin or Baldwin) Albert Charles Leopold Axel Marie Gustave, (7 September 1930 - 31 July 1993), reigned as King of the Belgians from 1951 to 1993. ...


Denmark

Denmark's kings gave appanages in their twin-duchies of Schleswig-Holstein (now three-fourths of them is part of Germany, but then the Holstein half of it was part of HRE in personal union with Denmark proper) to younger sons and/or their male-line descendants, with a specific though not sovereign title of Duke, e.g. Duke of Gottorp, Duke of Sonderburg, Duke of Augustenborg, Duke of Franzhagen, Duke of Beck, Duke of Glucksburg and Duke of Norburg. Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Gottorp in 2006 Gottorp in 1864 Gottorp castle and Duke of Gottorp both redirect to here. ... Augustenborg Castle Duke of Augustenborg was a title conferred by the King of Denmark to the head of a certain younger branch of the House of Oldenburg (Danish, Oldenborg), the branch known in Danish as Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg, and in German as Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg. ... ...


Iberian peninsula

When the Christian Reconquista, sweeping the Moors from the former Caliphate of Cordoba and its taifa-remnants, transformed the territory of former Suevic and Visigothic realms into Catholic feudal principalities, none of these war lords was exactly styled Duke, a few (as Portugal itself) started as Count (even if the title of Dux was sometimes added), but soon all politically relevant princes were to use the royal style of King. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... There are two Counties of Portugal in different periods of the History of the Iberian Peninsula: First County of Portugal formed by Vímara Peres that lasted from 868 to 1071. ... This article is about the style or title of nobility. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ...


Portugal

There is a total of 28 dukedoms in Portugal. ...

Spain

Spanish infantes and infantas were usually given a dukedom upon marriage. This title is nowadays not hereditary but carries a Grandeza de España. The current royal duchesses are: HRH the Duchess of Badajoz (Infanta Maria del Pilar), HRH the Duchess of Soria (Infanta Margarita) (although she inherited the title of Duchess of Hernani from her cousin and is second holder of that title), HRH the Duchess of Lugo (Infanta Elena) and HRH the Duchess of Palma de Mallorca (Infanta Cristina). There were many many Dukes in Spain. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... Grandee is a word either to render in English the Spanish high aristocratic title Grande, or by analogy to refer to other people of a somewhat comparable, exalted position, roughly synonymous with Magnate, and in particular by analogy to a formal upper level of the nobility, such as a peerage... HRH Infanta Doña Pilar de Borbón (María del Pilar Alfonsa Juana Victoria Luisa Ignacia de Todos los Santos de Borbón de Gomez-Acebo), Duchess of Badajoz, (born July 30, 1936) is the oldest daughter of Juan de Borbon, Count of Barcelona and Maria Mercedes Borbón... HRH Infanta Doña Margarita de Borbón, Margarita María de la Victoria Esperanza Jacoba Felicidad Perpetua de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Borbón, Duchess of Soria, 2nd Duchess of Hernani, (March 6, 1939) is the youngest daughter of Juan de Borbón, Count of Barcelona... Her Royal Highness, Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo (Elena María Isabel Dominica de los Silos de Borbón y de Grecia de Marichalar), styled HRH The Infanta Elena (born December 20, 1963, in Madrid), is the eldest daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía, and third in... Her Royal Highness, The Infanta Cristina, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca (Cristina Federica Victoria Antonia de la Santísima Trinidad de Borbón y de Grecia), styled HRH The Infanta Cristina (born June 13, 1965), is the younger daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía. ...


In Spain many dukes hold the court rank of Grande, i.e. Grandee of the realm, which had precedence over all other feudatories. Spanish nobles are classified either as Grandees (also called Peers) or as Titled Nobles. ...


Finland and Sweden

Sweden had a history of making sons of its Kings real ruling princes of vast duchies, but this ceased in 1622. Title-wise, however, all Swedish princes since 1772, and princesses since 1980, are given a dukedom for life. Currently, there is one duke and three duchesses. The territorial designations of these dukedoms refer to four of the Provinces of Sweden. In Sweden, Duke (hertig) is considered a royal title, and is only given to members of the Royal House (currently Bernadotte). ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Year 1772 (MDCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The provinces or landskap were the subdivisions of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by the counties of Sweden (län). ...


Key parts of Finland were sometimes under a Duke of Finland during the Swedish reign. Duke of Finland (in Finnish Suomen herttua; Swedish hertig av Finland) was an occasional medieval title granted as a tertiogeniture to the relatives of the King of Sweden between the 13th and 16th centuries. ...


France and other former monarchies

See appanage (mainly for the French kingdom) and the list in the geographical section below, which also treats special ducal titles in orders or national significance. The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ...


France

Main article: Dukes in France

The highest precedence in the realm, attached to a feudal territory, was given to the twelve original pairies, which also had a traditional function in the royal coronation, comparable to the German imperial archoffices. Half of them were ducal: three ecclesiastical (the six prelates all ranked above the six secular peers of the realm) and three temporal, each time above three counts of the same social estate: The Prince-Bishops with ducal territories among them were: There used to be many Dukes in France before France became a republic. ... The French word pairie is the equivalent of the English peerage, in the sense of an individual title carrying the rank of Pair (peer in English), which derives from the Latin par equal, and signifies the members of an exclusive body of noblemen and prelates, considered to be the highest... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ...

  • The Archbishop of Reims, styled archevêque-duc pair de France (in Champagne; who crown and anoint the king, traditionally in his cathedral)
  • Two suffragan bishops, styled evêque-duc pair de France :
    • the bishop-duke of Laon (in Picardy; bears the 'Sainte Ampoule' containing the sacred ointment)
    • the bishop-duc de Langres (in Burgundy; bears the scepter)

Later, the Archbishop of Paris was given the title of duc de Saint-Cloud with the dignity of peerage, but it was debated if he was an ecclesiastical peer or merely a bishop holding a lay peerage. The Archdiocese of Reims was founded (as a diocese) around 250 by St. ... A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop. ... Laon is a city and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Aisne département. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Haute-Marne ... The archbishop of Paris is one of twenty-three archbishops in France. ... The title of Duc de Saint-Cloud was created in 1674 (although it was not registered in the parlement until 1690), to be held by the archbishops of Paris. ...


The secular dukes in the peerage of the realm were, again in order of precedence:

  • the duc de Bourgogne, i.e. Duke of Burgundy (known as Grand duc; not a separate title at that time; just a description of the wealth and real clout of the 15th century Dukes, cousins of the Kings of France) (bears the crown, fastens the belt)
  • Duke of Normandy or duc de Normandie (holds the first square banner)
  • Duke of Aquitaine or duc d'Aquitaine or - de Guyenne (holds the second square banner)

It should be noted what the theory of the participation of the peers in the coronation was laid down in the late XIIIth century, when some of the peerage (the duchy of Normandy and the county of Toulouse) had already been merged in the crown. Cross of Burgundy Flag The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ...


At the end of this same century, the King erected some counties into duchies, a practice what went increasing till the Revolution. Many of this duchies were also peerages (the so-called 'new peerages').


Colonial titles

In various Spanish-American viceroyalties (one dukedom in present Chile; in Mexico, in addition to the title Duque de Moctesuma for descendants of the deposed last Aztec ruler of that very name, three: Arion, Atrisco and Regla, all four Spanish Grandees; in Panama only Duque de Veragua, also Grande de España; in Peru San Carlos and Buono, again Grandees; in several other Spanish American countries only lower titles were created) and on the Canary Islands. In other colonial empires they was used as honary titles for governors and did not continue after the person had left the post. Image File history File links Question_mark. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... Spanish nobles are classified either as Grandees (also called Peers) or as Titled Nobles. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...


Italy, Germany and Austria

In Italy, Germany and Austria the title of "duke" ("duca" in Italy, and "herzog" in the latters) was quite common. It must be noted that in contrast to countries such as France, United Kingdom and Spain, the title of duke was not the highest one for a family not belonging to the Royal one in these three countries: the highest title was in fact prince ("principe" in Italy and "Fuerst" in Germany and Austria). There used to be many Dukes in Italy, Germany and Austria, although these countries are now republics and no longer have aristocracies. ...


In Italy some important sovereign ducal families were the Visconti and the Sforza, who ruled on Milan; the Medici of Florence, the Farnese of Parma and Piacenza; the Cybo-Malaspina of Massa e Carrara; the della Rovere-Montefeltro of Urbino; the Gonzaga of Mantua; the Este of Ferrara.


Elsewhere in Europe

Nordic countries

The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... The city of Tallinn is the capital city and main seaport of Estonia. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Saaremaa (Swedish, German Ösel, or Oesel, Danish: Øsel, Latin Osilia) is the largest island (2673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... (frequently shortened to Sörmland in Sweden, particularly locally) is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden. ... The Flag of SkÃ¥ne (also known as Scania in English) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) and County (Län) of Sweden. ... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ...

Hungary

In the Kingdom of Hungary no ducal principalities existed but duchies were often formed for members of the dynasty as appanage. During the rule of the Árpád dinasty dukes held territorial powers, some of them even minted coins, but later this title became more often nominal. These duchies usually were This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... The Árpáds (Hungarian: Árpádok, Slovak: Arpádovci, Croatian: Arpadovići) were a dynasty ruling in historic Hungary from the late 9th century to 1301 (with some interruptions, e. ...

In the Jagellonian era (1490-1526) only two dukes did not belong to the royal dynasty: John Corvin (the illegitimate son of Matthias Corvinus) and Lőrinc Újlaki (whose father was the king of Bosnia), while both bore the title as royal dukes. Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... János Corvinus, or John Corvin, (1473-1504) was the illegitimate son of Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, and one Barbara, supposed to be the daughter of a burgess of Breslau. ... Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás in Hungarian), (February 23, 1443 (?) - April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ...


After the Battle of Mohács the Habsburg kings rewarded Hungarian aristocrats (like the Esterházys) with princely titles, but they created these titles as Holy Roman Emperors, not as kings of Hungary. This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... The House of Esterházy (- German, in Hungarian: Eszterházy, in Slovak: Esterházi) was a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary since the Middle Ages, which was among the great territorial magnates of the Kingdom of Hungary, during the time it was part of the Austrian Habsburg Empire. ...


Greece

As the Catholic crusaders overran orthodox parts of the Byzantine empire, they installed several crusader states, some of which were of ducal rank: The Crusader states, c. ...

Byzantines had used the title Dux, still a military office for them, also territory-specifically: Dux of Dyrrhachium, Dux of Thrakesion. // Duchy of Athens A small crusader state which was established after the Sack of Constantinople (1204) by the Crusaders. ... Coat of Arms of the Duchy of Neopatras The Duchy of Neopatria or Neopatras was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Venetian Duchy of the Archipelago (also called Egeon Pelagos) was a maritime state created in the Aegean Sea in the aftermath the Fourth Crusade. ... Euboea, or Negropont (Greek: Εύβοια, modern transliteration: Evvoia, Evvia or Evia), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... The Greek city of Epidamnos (Strabo Geography vi. ...


Palaiologos emperors, living under much more feudalized necessities, granted fiefs to some westerners: Duke of Leucadia, Duke of Lemnos. The double-headed eagle, emblem of the Paleologus dynasty and the Byzantine Empire The Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Παλαιολόγος, pl. ...


Sometimes in Italy and other Western countries, the later Byzantine appanages were translated as duchies: Peloponnese, Mistra, Mesembria, Selymbria and Thessalonike. However, as these had Greek holders, they were titled Archon ('magistrate') or Despotes (rather Prince of the blood). Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... For a village in the prefecture of Ioannina, see Ioannina The Vale of Laconia seen from the battlements of Mystras Mystras (also Mistra, Mystra and Mistras Greek: Μύστρας ) was a fortified town in Morea (the Peloponnesus), on Mt. ... Nessebar (Несебър), previously known as Mesembria and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Obshtina Nessebar, Burgas Oblast. ... Silivri is a 300-square mile district of Istanbul along the Sea of Marmara in Turkey. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... For other uses, see Archon (disambiguation). ... Despotes (Greek DespotÄ“s, feminine Despoina, Bulgarian and Serbian Despot, feminine Despotica, sometimes Anglicized Despot), is a Byzantine court title, also granted in the Latin Empire, Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Empire of Trebizond. ...


After Greece's post-Ottoman independence as kingdom of the Hellenes, the style of Duke of Sparta was instituted as primogeniture for the royal heir, diadochos, the crown prince of Greece. Sparta (Doric: Σπάρτα, Attic (and Koine): Σπάρτη) was a state in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Slavic countries

Generally, confusion reigns whether to translate the usual petty ruler titles, knyaz/ knez/ ksiaze etc. as Prince (analogous to the German Fürst) or as Duke;

  • in splintered Poland, also in (later ethnically German parts of) Silesia (later within the HRE), petty principalities generally ruled by branches of the earlier Polish Piast dynasty are regarded as duchies in translated titulary. Examples of such: Kujavia, Masovia, Sandomir, Greater Poland, Kalisz and Silesia (Lower Silesia and Upper Silesia), as well as various minor duchies, often short-lived and/or in personal union or merger, named after their capitals, mainly in the regions known as Little Poland and Greater Poland, including (there are often also important Latin and/or German forms) Cracow, Opole, Ratibor, Legnica, Zator, Leczyca and Sieradz.
  • In Pomerelia and Pomerania (inhabited by the Kashubians, different Slavic people from the Poles proper), branches of native ruling dynasties were usually recognized as dukes, quite similarly to the pattern in Poland.
  • in Russia, before the imperial unification from Muscovy; sometimes even as vassal, tributary to a Tartar Khan; later, in Peter the Great's autocratic empire, the russification gertsog was used as the Russian rendering of the German ducal title Herzog, especially as (the last) part of the full official style of the Russian Emperor: Gertsog Shlesvig-Golstinskiy, Stormarnskiy, Ditmarsenskiy i Oldenburgskiy i prochaya, i prochaya, i prochaya "Duke of Schleswig-Holstein [see above], Stormarn, Dithmarschen and Oldenburg, and of other lands", in chief of German and Danish territories to which the Tsar was dynastically linked.

Piast the Wheelwright Piast seal Piast coat of arms This article is about a Polish dynasty. ... Kuyavia (sometimes spelt Cuyavia, Polish Kujawy) is a historical region of Poland. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Sandomierz is a town in south-eastern Poland with 27,000 inhabitants (1995). ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Kalisz (pronounce: [kaliʃ]) is a city in central Poland with 109,800 inhabitants (1995). ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Little Poland or Lesser Poland (Polish Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Racibórz (Czech RatiboÅ™) is a town in south Poland with 65,100 inhabitants (1995). ... Legnica ( , formerly Lignica; German: ) is a town in Silesia in southwestern Poland. ... Zator is a town in southern Poland. ... Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca, Polish: Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca) is a town in central Poland. ... Coat of Arms of Sieradz Sieradz is a town on Warta river in central Poland with 44,700 inhabitants (1995). ... Pomerelia (German: ) is a historical region in northern Poland. ... Pommern redirects here. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... This article is about the title. ... Stormarn is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Dithmarschen (IPA: ) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...

Netherlands

After Belgium and the Netherlands separated in 1830, the title of duke didn't occur in the Netherlands anymore. There is, however, one exception; the title Hertog van Limburg (Duke of Limburg) still exists. This title, however, is an exclusive title for the head of state (the monarch, i.e. the king or queen of the Netherlands).


Post-colonial non-European states

Brazilian empire

In this former Portuguese kingdom, after separation ruled by a branch of the Portuguese royal dynasty (House of Bragança), only three dukedoms were created, being its highest ranks for non-members of the imperial dynasty. Two of these titles were for relatives of D. Peter I: an illegitimate daughter and a brother-in-law who received the title when married with D. Peter's daughter D. Mary II. The third, to the most important Brazilian militar, de Lima e Silva, was the only duke created during the reign of D. Peter II. A fourth title was created to another illegitimate daughter of D. Peter I, but she died before receive the title (and so is often desconsidered). None of these titles was hereditary, just like all other titles in Brazilian nobility system. The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve with its colonies Capital Rio de Janeiro Language(s) Portuguese Religion Catholicism Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1815-1816 Maria I  - 1816-1825 John VI History  - Established 1815  - Disestablished 1825 Currency Real The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve was a... Bragança (pron. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil; Pedro IV of Portugal Pedro I of Brazil, known as Dom Pedro (October 12, 1798 - September 24, 1834), proclaimed Brazil independent from Portugal and became Brazils first Emperor. ... Auguste (Charles Eugène Napoléon) de Beauharnais, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg (9 December 1810 - 28 March 1835) was the first Prince consort of Maria II of Portugal. ... Maria II, Queen of Portugal (April 4, 1819 - November 15, 1853). ... The Duke of Caxias in profile The Duke of Caxias in military dress The duke of Caxias, or Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, was a successful Brazilian general in the War of the Triple Alliance. ... The Empire of Brazil was a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822, it was replaced by a republic in 1889. ... Dom Pedro IIs family Dom Pedro II and President Ulysses S. Grant, Philadelphia Exposition, 1876 Dom Pedro II in his old age Dom Pedro II of Brazil Dom Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil was the second and final Brazilian Emperor. ...


Haiti

The royal Christophe dynasty created eight hereditary dukedoms, in rank directly below the nominal princes. Portrait as King Henry I. Henri Christophe (October 6, 1767 – October 8, 1820) was a career officer and general in the Haïtian Army. ...


Equivalents

Like other major Western noble titles, Duke is sometimes used to render certain titles in non-western languages with their own traditions, even though they are as a rule etymologically and often historically unrelated and thus hard to compare, which are considered roughly equivalent, especially in hierarchic aristocracies such as feudal Japan, useful as an indication of relative rank. Some titles of nobility outside Europe may be considered as equivalents of Duke. ...


References

  1. ^ http://cygnata.sandwich.net/writings/arthur.html

See also

This is a list of Dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of present dukes in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. ... The Amalfi coast. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... The Duchy of Naples (Latin: Ducatus Neapolitanus), born as a Byzantine province governed by a military commander (dux), rapidly became a de facto independent state, lasting more than five centuries during the Early and High Middle Ages. ... Look up Archduke in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Sources

  • Lewis, Archibald R. "The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550-751." Speculum, Vol. 51, No 3 (July 1976), pp 381–410.
  • Hodgkin, Thomas. Italy and her Invaders. Clarendon Press: 1895.
  • Thompson, E. A. The Goths in Spain. Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1969.
  • Stenton, Sir Frank M. Anglo-Saxon England Third Edition. Oxford University Press: 1971.
Thomas Hodgkin (July 29, 1831 - 1913), British historian, son of John Hodgkin (1800-1875), barrister and Quaker minister, and Elizabeth Howard (daughter of Luke Howard). ... Sir Frank Merry Stenton (1880–September 15, 1967) was a noted 20th century historian of Anglo-Saxon England. ...

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