FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Dugong" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Dugong
Dugong[1]

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Sirenia
Family: Dugongidae
Gray, 1821
Subfamily: Dugonginae
Simpson, 1932
Genus: Dugong
Lacépède, 1799
Species: D. dugon
Binomial name
Dugong dugon
(Müller, 1776)
Natural range of D. dugon.
Natural range of D. dugon.

The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a large marine mammal which, together with the three species of manatee, is one of four extant members of the order Sirenia, the only fully-aquatic herbivorous mammals. It is the only living representative of the once-diverse family Dugongidae; its closest modern relative, Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) was hunted to extinction in the 18th century. It is also the only sirenian in its range, which spans the waters of at least 37 countries throughout the Indo-Pacific,[3] though the majority of dugongs live in the northern waters of Australia between Shark Bay and Moreton Bay.[4] In addition, the dugong is the only strictly-marine herbivorous mammal, as all species of manatee utilize fresh water to some degree.[3] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Dugongidae Trichechidae Hydrochichus (extinct) For information about the Gothic metal band, see Sirenia (band) The Sirenia are fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries and coastal marine waters. ... John Edward Gray. ... George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 - October 6, 1984) was an American paleontologist. ... See also the disambiguation page Lacépède (disambiguation) de La Cépède Bernard Germain Étienne comte de La Ville-sur-Illon La Cépède (December 26, 1756 – October 6, 1825) was a French naturalist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philipp Ludwig Statius Muller (1725 - 1776) was a zoologist. ... Image File history File links Dugong-range. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses, see Manatee (disambiguation). ... Families Dugongidae Trichechidae Hydrochichus (extinct) For information about the Gothic metal band, see Sirenia (band) The Sirenia are fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries and coastal marine waters. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Stellers Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) is an extinct, large sirenian mammal formerly found near the Asiatic coast of the Bering Sea. ... The Indo-Pacific is the aggregate of the Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and the minor seas between the two in the general area of Indonesia. ... DIE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Italic text ... The foreshore at Manly. ...


Like all modern sirenians, the dugong has a fusiform body with no dorsal fin or hindlimbs, instead possessing paddle-like forelimbs used to maneuver itself. It is easily distinguished from the manatees by its fluked, dolphin-like tail, but also possesses a unique skull and teeth.[5] The dugong is heavily dependent on seagrasses for subsistence and is thus restricted to the coastal habitats where they grow, with the largest dugong concentrations typically occurring in wide, shallow, protected areas such as bays, mangrove channels and the lee sides of large inshore islands.[3] Its snout is sharply downturned, an adaptation for grazing and uprooting benthic seagrasses. Fusiform is a spindle-like shape that tapers at both ends. ... Seagrass from the coast of Florida Sea grass (or sea-grass in British English) are flowering plants from four plant families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae, and Cymodoceaceae) that grow in the marine saline environment. ... In marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ...


The dugong has been hunted for thousands of years, often for its meat and oil,[6] although dugong hunting also has great cultural significance throughout its range.[7] The dugong's current distribution is reduced and disjunct, and many populations are close to extinction.[3] The IUCN lists the dugong as a species vulnerable to extinction, while the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species limits or bans the trade of derived products based on the population involved. Despite being legally protected in many countries throughout their range, the main causes of population decline remain anthropogenic, and include hunting, habitat degradation, and fishing-related fatalities.[8] With its long lifespan and slow rate of reproduction, the dugong is especially vulnerable to these types of exploitation.[3] In addition, dugongs are threatened by storms, parasites, and their natural predators, sharks, killer whales, and crocodiles.[8] The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The orca (Orcinus orca), commonly known as the killer whale, and sometimes called the grampus, is the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family. ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology and taxonomy

The dugong was first classified by Müller in 1776 as Trichechus dugon,[9] a member of the manatee genus previously defined by Linnaeus.[10] It was later assigned as the type species of Dugong by Lacépède[11] and further classified within its own family by Gray[12] and subfamily by Simpson.[13] Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller (1725 - 1776) was a German zoologist. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... A type species fixes the name of a genus (or of a taxon in a rank lower than genus). ... Bernard-Germain-Étienne de Lacépède Bernard-Germain-Étienne de La Ville-sur-Illon, comte de Lacépède or La Cépède (December 26, 1756 – October 6, 1825) was a French naturalist. ... John Edward Gray. ... George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 - October 6, 1984) was an American paleontologist. ...


The word "dugong" derives from the Malay "duyung" meaning "lady of the sea".[14] Other common local names include "sea cow", "sea pig" and "sea camel".[8] Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


Anatomy and morphology

Dugong with attached remora (Lamen Island, Epi, Vanuatu).

The dugong's body is large and fusiform, with thick, smooth skin that is a pale cream color at birth but darkens dorsally and laterally to a brownish to dark grey color with age.[15] The body is sparsely covered in short hair, a common feature among sirenians which may allow for tactile interpretation of their environment.[16] The dugong has paddle-like forelimbs which aid in movement and feeding, while its fluked tail provides locomotion through vertical movement. The teats are located just behind the forelimbs, similar to their location in elephants. Like the Amazonian Manatee, the dugong lacks nails on its forelimbs. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Genera Echeneis Phtheiricthys Remora Remorina See text for species. ... Epi (or Épi; formerly known as Tasiko or Volcano Island) is the name of an island in Vanuatu, at the north end of the Shepherd Islands (coordinates ). It is in Shefa Province. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883) The Amazonian Manatee Trichechus inunguis is a species of manatee that lives in the freshwater habitats of the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... For other uses, see Nail. ...


Unlike the manatees, the dugong's teeth do not continually grow back via horizontal tooth replacement.[17] The dugong has two incisors (tusks) which Riley's penis doesn't grow posteriorly until puberty, after which they first erupt in males. The female's tusks continue to grow posteriorly, sometimes erupting later in life after reaching the base of the premaxilla.[6] Incisors are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... For other uses, see Tusk (disambiguation). ...


Like other sirenians, the dugong experiences pachyostosis, a condition in which the ribs and other long bones are unusually solid and contain little or no marrow. These heavy bones, which are among the densest in the animal kingdom,[18] may act as a ballast to help keep sirenians suspended slightly below the water's surface.[19]


Dugongs are generally smaller than manatees (with the exception of the Amazonian Manatee), reaching an average adult length of 2.7 metres (8.9 ft) and weight of 250 to 300 kilograms (550 to 660 lb).[20] An adult's length rarely exceeds 3 m, and females tend to be larger than males.[6] This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Distribution

Typical dugong Feeding area in Moreton Bay
Typical dugong Feeding area in Moreton Bay
Passage to the warmer sea around the southern tip of Moreton Island

Remaining populations of dugong are greatly reduced, although they once covered all of the tropical South Pacific and Indian Oceans.[citation needed] Their historic range is believed to correspond to that of certain seagrasses.[3] Groups of 10,000 or more are present on the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, at Shark Bay, and in Torres Strait south of New Guinea. Before 1970, it is thought that large populations were also present in Mozambique and coastal Kenya, but these have dwindled. Palau also has a small population. On January 22, 2003, an individual was found (weight 300 kg, length 2 m) off the coast of Tanzania.[citation needed]Moreton Bay in Brisbane, Australia is one of many homes to the dugong because it contains clean, clear water at the appropriate depth ranges, suitable food, and access to the sea for warmth. Although strong tidal currents affect the exact times and durations of each visit to the bay, the dugong return for protection from large sharks. This area is very important to the future of the dugong - it is a 200 km stretch of high density human habitation and recreation, with ease of access to study and learn how to best protect the remaining herds. ImageMetadata File history File links DugongAreaMoretonBay. ... ImageMetadata File history File links DugongAreaMoretonBay. ... ImageMetadata File history File links MoretonIslandSouthernTip. ... ImageMetadata File history File links MoretonIslandSouthernTip. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of roughly 3,000 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ... DIE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Italic text ... Torres Strait and islands The Torres Strait - Cape York Peninsula is at the bottom; several of the Torres Strait Islands can be seen strung out towards Papua New Guinea to the north. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foreshore at Manly. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ...


A small number of dugongs are also found in the Straits of Johor, (which separates Johor in Malaysia and Singapore), in the Philippine provinces of Palawan, Romblon, Guimaras, and Davao Oriental, and in the Red Sea in Egypt provinces Marsa Alam at Marsa Abu Dabbab. Geography The Straits of Johor (also known as the Tebrau Strait, Johor Strait, Selat Johor, Selat Tebrau, and Tebrau Reach) is a narrow stretch of water that separates Johor state, Malaysia from Singapore. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region. ... Romblon is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region in Luzon. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Guimaras Region: Western Visayas (Region VI) Capital: Jordan Founded: May 22, 1992 Population: 2000 census—141,450 (7th smallest) Density—234 per km² (33rd highest) Area: 604. ... Marsa Alam is a town in Egypt, on the west coast of the Red Sea. ...


The remaining dugongs in the Persian Gulf were reportedly further endangered by repeated U.S.-Iraq conflicts which resulted in large oil spills into the gulf. The current population of Persian Gulf dugongs is around 7500 [21], but their status is currently not well known. Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Ecology and life history

Feeding

Dugongs are particular about their diets, with certain 'fields' of sea-grass cropped. Dugongs are referred to as 'sea cows' because their diet consists mainly of sea-grass. Unlike manatees, dugongs are exclusively benthic feeders.DUGONGS ARE AWESOME! The muscular snouts of dugongs are more dramatically tapered than those of manatees. Their primary feeding mechanism is uprooting sea-grass by digging furrows in the sea-floor with their snouts. Dugongs in Moreton Bay, Australia are omnivorous since they choose to eat invertebrates such as polychaetes when the supply of their choice grasses decreases.[22] They will also go to any fresh water sources for drinking. Without these fresh water sources, many would not survive. The amount of these fresh water sources, however, are beginning to decline. The dugong population is predicted to enter a steep decline. However, many scientists are working to prevent this potentially cataclysmic blow to the entire dugong population. Currently, this effort is proving futile, as the dugong population is not showing any increased population numbers.


Migration

During the winter, a few packs of dugongs will move to warmer places in the northern countries, such as bays and canals and others will also go to man built radiators for warmth. Dugongs also live in warmer waters of many other countries near the Equator.


Importance to humans

Ancient interaction

Ipoh's Gua Tambun - Dugong Neolithic Wall Painting

There is a 5000-year old wall painting of a dugong, apparently drawn by neolithic peoples, found in Tambun Cave of Ipoh city in the state of Perak, Malaysia. This was discovered by Lt.R.L Rawlings in 1959 while on a routine patrol in the area. This dugong image together with some thirty other images were painted using haematite, a type of red colouring easily available in the area to ancestors of the Orang Asli living in and around Tambun. Image File history File links Ipoh-tambuncave-dugong. ... Image File history File links Ipoh-tambuncave-dugong. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State Establishment Around 1880 Government  - Mayor Mohamad Rafiai Moktar Area  - City 643 km²  (248. ... For other uses, see Perak (disambiguation). ... Hematite (AE) or haematite (BE) is the mineral form of Iron (III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Orang Asli is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are found in Peninsular Malaysia. ...


Mariners often mistook them for mermaids. For other uses, see Mermaid (disambiguation). ...


During the Renaissance and the Baroque eras, dugongs were often exhibited in wunderkammers. They were also presented as Fiji mermaids in sideshows. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... For the 2002 novel by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child, see The Cabinet of Curiosities Musei Wormiani Historia, the frontispiece from the Museum Wormianum depicting Ole Worms cabinet of curiosities. ... P.T. Barnums Feejee mermaid from 1842 A common feature of sideshows, a Fiji mermaid (also Feejee mermaid) is a mummified body of something, supposedly a creature that was half mammal and half fish (like a grotesque version of normal mermaid stories). ... For other uses, see Sideshow (disambiguation). ...


In the Bible

The dugong is referred to in the Bible by the phrase "sea cow" in several places in Exodus (for example, 25:5 & 26:14) and in Numbers. Dugong hides may have been used in the construction of the Tabernacle, if dugong is an accurate translation of the biblical animal Tachash. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Look up number in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Dugong in captivity

There are only 5 dugongs that are held in captivity in the world. Two are the featured attraction of Toba, Mie Toba Aquarium in Japan; the third, named Gracie, is at Underwater World, Sentosa Island, Singapore; and the last two are found in Sea World, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Toba (鳥羽市; -shi) is a city located in Mie, Japan. ... The big Merlion statue on Sentosa Central Business District from the Carlsberg Sky Tower. ... Sea World is a marine park on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. ... Gold Coast may refer to: // Gold Coast (British colony), British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa Brandenburger Gold Coast, former German colony Danish Gold Coast, former Danish colony Dutch Gold Coast, former Dutch colony Portuguese Gold Coast, former Portuguese colony Swedish Gold Coast, former Swedish colony Gold...


Conservation

Dugong are hunted for food throughout their wildlife range, usually for their meat and blubber. [citation needed] Also, the seagrass beds which the dugong depend on for food are threatened by eutrophication caused by agricultural and industrial runoff. Due to their shallow water feeding habits, dugong are frequently injured or killed by collisions with motor vessels. Because of their large size, they do not have many natural predators. These include sharks, killer whales, and saltwater crocodiles. Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The orca (Orcinus orca), commonly known as the killer whale, and sometimes called the grampus, is the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family. ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living crocodilians and reptiles. ...


The US and Japanese government want to build a new base on a coral reef close to Henoko, in Nago prefecture, Okinawa. This plan has generated strong protests from Okinawans who are concerned that the local environment, home to the dugong, would be ruined.[citation needed] Greenpeace stepped-up its campaign protesting the Okinawa base expansion in the summer of 2007, as authorities recommenced their airbase development plans [23]. Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...


Around the waters of Papua New Guinea, natives have been known for hunting dugongs. However, they also hunt dugong's predators, such as sharks.


See also

Evolution of Sirenian Locomotion, based on Berta and Sumich, 1999. ... Dewgong Jugon in original Japanese language versions) is one of 493 fictional species from the Pokémon franchise. ... It has been suggested that Jonti Picking be merged into this article or section. ... Durrell is a surname, and may refer to Gerald Durrell Jacquie Durrell Lawrence Durrell Lawrence Samuel Durrell Lee McGeorge Durrell Louisa Florence Durrell Margaret Durrell Jim Durrell Dick Durrell Michael Durrell Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology Gerald Durrell Endemic Wildlife Sanctuary Lawrence Durrell Collection Durell...

References

  1. ^ Shoshani, Jeheskel (November 16, 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 92. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Marsh (2006). Dugong dugon. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Database entry includes a lengthy justification of why this species is vulnerable
  3. ^ a b c d e f Marsh et al. 2002. Dugong : status reports and action plans for countries and territories. IUCN.
  4. ^ Lawler et al. 2002. Dugongs in the Great Barrier Reef : Current State of Knowledge. CRC for The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.
  5. ^ Myers, P. 2002. Dugongidae. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved on 10 March 2007.
  6. ^ a b c Marsh, Helene. Fauna of Australia: Volume 1B Mammalia: Chapter 57 Dugongidae. CSIRO. ISBN 978-0-644-06056-1.
  7. ^ Species DUGONG. Conservation Management Institute.
  8. ^ a b c Reeves et al. 2002. National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41141-0. pp. 478-481
  9. ^ Dugong dugon. The Paleobiology Database. Retrieved on 22 July 2007.
  10. ^ Trichechus. The Paleobiology Database. Retrieved on 22 July 2007.
  11. ^ Dugong. The Paleobiology Database. Retrieved on 22 July 2007.
  12. ^ Dugongidae. The Paleobiology Database. Retrieved on 22 July 2007.
  13. ^ Dugonginae. The Paleobiology Database. Retrieved on 22 July 2007.
  14. ^ Winger, Jennifer. 2000. What's in a Name: Manatees and Dugongs. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved on 22 July 2007.
  15. ^ Fox, David L. (1999). ADW: Dugong dugon: Information. Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  16. ^ Reep, R.L. et al (2002). "Tactile Hairs on the Postcranial Body in Florida Manatees: A Mammalian Lateral Line?". Brain, Behavior and Evolution 59, 141-154.
  17. ^ Self-Sullivan, Caryn. Evolution of Sirenia. www.sirenian.org. Retrieved on 10 March 2007.
  18. ^ Waller et al. 1996. Sealife: A Complete Guide to the Marine Environment. Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 1560986336. pp. 413-420
  19. ^ Myers, Phil (2000). ADW: Sirenia: Information. Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  20. ^ Dugong. IFAW. Retrieved on 25 February 2007.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ Berta, Annalisa, James L. Sumich, Kit M. Kovacs: Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology, Amesterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-12-088552-2
  23. ^ http://www.greenpeace.org/international/gmaps/take-action-save-the-dugongs

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Cooperative Research Centres are key bodies for Australian scientific research. ... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of roughly 3,000 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Colophon of the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. ... The Smithsonian National Zoological Park, commonly known as the National Zoo or Washington Zoo, is a zoo located in Washington, D.C. It is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) is a global, not-for-profit, animal protection organization that was founded in Canada in 1969 with the goal of ending the commercial hunt of harp and hooded seals on the East Coast. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Dugong

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dugong - LoveToKnow 1911 (481 words)
Dugongs are distinguished from their cousins the manatis by the presence in the upper jaw of the male of a pair of large tusks, which in the female are arrested in their growth, and remain concealed.
A fullgrown dugong yields from io to 12 gallons of oil, and this forms in cold weather a thick mass, and requires to be melted before a fire previous to being used.
The flesh of the Australian dugong is easy of digestion, the muscular fibre when fresh resembling beef, and when salted having the flavour of bacon.
Dugong Report (1409 words)
Major concentrations of dugongs tend to occur in wide shallow protected bays, wide shallow mangrove channels and in the lee of large inshore islands.
Dugongs are also regularly observed in deeper water farther offshore in areas where the continental shelf is wide, shallow and protected.
The objectives of maintaining dugong numbers at present or higher levels and facilitating the recovery of depleted populations will not be achieved if the only trigger for management intervention in an area is a demonstratively declining population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m