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Encyclopedia > Ductility
Gold is a highly ductile metal
Gold is a highly ductile metal

Ductility is a mechanical property which describes how much plastic deformation a material can sustain before fracture occurs. Examples of highly ductile metals are silver, gold, copper, and aluminium. The ductility of steel varies depending on the alloying constituents. Increasing levels of carbon decreases ductility, i.e. the steel becomes more brittle. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1793x1276, 1360 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Metal leaf ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1793x1276, 1360 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Metal leaf ... For other uses, see Fracture (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Aluminum redirects here. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... “Brittle” redirects here. ...

Contents

Definition of ductility

Ductility can be quantified by the fracture strain, which is the strain at which a test specimen breaks during a uniaxial tensile test. Another commonly used measure is the reduction of area at fracture.[1] This article is about the deformation of materials. ... Tensile stress (or tension) is the stress state leading to expansion (volume and/or length of a material tends to increase). ...


Scientific fields

Geology

In Earth science the brittle-ductile transition zone is a zone, at an approximate depth of 15 km in continental crust, at which rock becomes less likely to fracture and more likely to deform ductilely. In glacial ice this zone is at approximately 30 metres depth. It is not impossible for material above a brittle-ductile transition zone to deform ductilely, nor for material below to deform brittly. The zone exists because as depth increases confining pressure increases, and brittle strength increases with confining pressure whilst ductile strength decreases with increasing temperature. The transition zone occurs at the point where brittle strength exceeds ductile strength. Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... The brittle-ductile transition zone is the zone in the Earths crust, at an approximate depth of 10-15 km (18-20km) at which rock becomes less likely to fracture, and more likely to deform ductilely by creep. ... The thickness of the Earths crust (km). ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... This article is about water ice. ...


Materials science

In materials science the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), nil ductility temperature (NDT), or nil ductility transition temperature of a material represents the point at which the fracture energy passes below a pre-determined point (for steels typically 40 J[2] for a standard Charpy impact test). DBTT is important since, once a material is cooled below the DBTT, it has a much greater tendency to shatter on impact instead of bending or deforming. For example, ZAMAK 3, a zinc die casting alloy, exhibits good ductility at room temperature but shatters at sub zero temperatures when impacted. DBTT is a very important consideration in materials selection when the material in question is subject to mechanical stresses. See the section on glass transition temperature for a related discussion. The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... The Charpy impact test is a standardized high strain-rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ...


In some materials this transition is sharper than others. For example, the transition is generally sharper in materials with a body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice than those with a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice. DBTT can also be influenced by external factors such as neutron radiation, which leads to an increase in internal lattice defects and a corresponding decrease in ductility and increase in DBTT. In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... Neutron radiation consists of free neutrons. ... Crystalline solids have a very regular atomic structure: that is, the local positions of atoms with respect to each other are repeated at the atomic scale. ...


The most accurate method of measuring the BDT or DBT temperature or a material is by fracture testing. Typically four point bend testing at a range of temperatures is performed on pre-cracked bars of polished material. For experiments conducted at higher temeratures dislocation activity increases. At a certain temperature dislocations shield the crack tip to such an extent the applied defromation rate is not sufficient for the stress intensity at the crack-tip to reach the critical value for fracture (KiC). The temperature at which this occurs is the ductile-brittle transition temperature. If experiments are performed at a higher strain rate more dislocation shielding is requried to prevent brittle fracture and the transition temperature is raised.


References

  1. ^ G. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw-Hill, 1986
  2. ^ John, Vernon. Introduction to Engineering Materials, 3rd ed.(?) New York: Industrial Press, 1992. ISBN 0831130431.

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ductility - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (352 words)
Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire).
A ductile material is any material that yields under shear stress (as opposed to brittle fracture, which yields under normal stress).
In glacial ice this zone is at approximately 30 metres depth.
News Item: Pure Copper Six Times Stronger than Normal, with No Loss in Ductility (421 words)
The reduction in grain size is responsible for the increase in strength, with an increasing number of grain boundaries hindering the movement of dislocations.
Ductility was introduced into the material by inducing abnormal or non-uniform grain growth, which resulted in approximately 20-25% of the grains growing to a larger size, producing a bimodal grain size distribution.
The combination of very small and large grains gives the material its strength and ductility properties, which is important in the forming and processing of high strength copper components.
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