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Encyclopedia > Duchy of Warsaw
Księstwo Warszawskie (pl)
Herzogtum Warschau (de)
Duché de Varsovie (fr)
Duchy of Warsaw
Client of the First French Empire


1807 – 1813


Coat of arms of Warsaw Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... During Napoleons invasions to Italy,many client (puppet) republics were established. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Preussen_1701-1918. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Image File history File links Kongresówka. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag The Grand Duchy was administrated as the Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Krakow. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (449x623, 279 KB) Duchy of Warsaw Coat of Arms author:user:Mathiasrex Maciej SzczepaÅ„czyk File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Duchy...


Coat of arms Flag of Poland with the coat of arms The coat of arms of Poland consists of a white eagle on a red shield. ...

Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. The Republic of Danzig is also shown.
Capital Warsaw
52°14′N, 21°1′E
Language(s) Polish
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Principality
Duke of Warsaw Frederick Augustus, King of Saxony
Historical era Napoleonic Wars
 - Established June 9, 1807
 - Annexation of Galicia October 14, 1809
 - Collapse January, 1813
 - Congress of Vienna June 9, 1815
Area 155,000 km2
59,846 sq mi
Population
 -  est. 4,300,000 
     Density 27.7 /km²  (71.9 /sq mi)
Polish Statehood

The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie; French: Duché de Varsovie; German: Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit. The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony. Following Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia, the duchy was occupied by Prussian and Russian troops until 1815, when it was formally partitioned between the two countries at the Congress of Vienna. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (770x724, 160 KB) Licensed for use in accordance with the GFDL. At my talk page the uploader, User:Cautious in responce to my enquiry about the source wrote (translated from Polish): Hopefully this will help with assigning the right tag, unfortunately... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (or III) of Saxony (December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827). ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (or III) of Saxony (December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827). ... Combatants Allies: Austrian Empire[1] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Prussia[1] Russian Empire[2] Kingdom of Spain[3] Kingdom of Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Kingdom of Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Kingdom of Bavaria[6] Kingdom of Saxony[7... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... The Treaty of Schönbrunn was signed between France and Austria in 1809, ending the war of the Fifth Coalition during the Napoleonic Wars, at the beautiful castle Schloss Schönbrunn, which can be visited today as a tourist site. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom of Saxony Kingdom of Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austrian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jaques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Alexander... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x810, 414 KB) Coat of Arms of Piast dynasty The eagle was cropped from some {{Polishsymbol}} coat of arms made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w:User:Snargle... The Kingdom of Poland of the first Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave in 1025 and the death of BolesÅ‚aw III the Wrymouth in 1138. ... Coat of arms Poland during the Period of Fragmentation Capital Kraków, PoznaÅ„ Language(s) Polish (spoken) Latin (written) Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1138  - Disestablished 1320 The Kingdom of Poland during period of fragmentation was the Polish state in the years between the death of BolesÅ‚aw... The Kingdom of Poland of the later Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high in 1320 and the death of Kazimierz III the Great in 1370. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... Flag The Grand Duchy was administrated as the Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Kingdom of Poland, also informally called Regency Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ), was the state proclaimed by the Act of November 5 issued by Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic President  - 1947-1952 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1983-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981 Józef... Motto Bóg, Honor, Ojczyzna. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (or III) of Saxony (December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827). ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ...


The duchy is often referred to, incorrectly, as the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.

Contents

Formation of the duchy

The area of the duchy had already been liberated by a popular uprising that had escalated from anti-conscription rioting in 1806. One of the first tasks for the new government included providing food to the French army fighting the Russians in East Prussia. 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


The Duchy of Warsaw was officially created by Napoleon Bonaparte, as part of the Treaty of Tilsit with Prussia. Its creation met the support of both local republicans in partitioned Poland, and the large Polish diaspora in France, who openly supported Napoleon as the only man capable of restoring Polish sovereignty after the Partitions of Poland of late 18th century. Although it was created as a satellite state (and was only a duchy, rather than a kingdom), it was commonly hoped and believed that with time the nation would be able to regain its former status, not to mention its former borders. Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ...


The newly (re)created state was formally an independent duchy, allied to France, and in a personal union with the Kingdom of Saxony. King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony was compelled by Napoleon to make his new realm a constitutional monarchy, with a parliament (the Sejm). However, the duchy was never allowed to develop as a truly independent state; Frederick Augustus' rule was subordinated to the requirements of the French raison d'état, who largely treated the state as a source of resources. The most important person in the duchy was in fact the French ambassador, based in the duchy's capital, Warsaw. Significantly, the duchy lacked its own diplomatic representation abroad. A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (or III) of Saxony (December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... The national interest, often referred to by the French term raison détat, is a countrys goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural. ...


In 1809, a short war with Austria started. Although the Battle of Raszyn was lost and Austrian troops entered Warsaw, Polish forces then outflanked their enemy and captured Kraków, Lwów and much of the areas annexed by Austria in the Partitions of Poland. The ensuing Treaty of Schönbrunn allowed for a significant expansion of its territory southwards with the regaining of once-Polish lands. Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Battle of Raszyn Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date April 19, 1809 Place Raszyn, Poland Result Austrian defeat The first Battle of Raszyn was fought on April 19, 1809 between armies of Austria and the Duchy of Warsaw as a part of the War of the Fifth Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars. ... Wawel Hill, Old Town, Kraków. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Treaty of Schönbrunn was signed between France and Austria in 1809, ending the war of the Fifth Coalition during the Napoleonic Wars, at the beautiful castle Schloss Schönbrunn, which can be visited today as a tourist site. ...

Napoleon conferring the Constitution on Duchy 1807
Napoleon conferring the Constitution on Duchy 1807

Image File history File links Nap1807. ... Image File history File links Nap1807. ...

Geography and demographics

According to the Treaties of Tilsit, the area of the duchy covered roughly the areas of the 2nd and 3rd Prussian partitions, with the exception of Danzig (Gdańsk), which was made Free City of Danzig (Napoleonic) under joint French and Saxon "protection", and the district around Białystok, which was given to Russia. The Prussian territory was made up of territory from the former Prussian provinces of New East Prussia, Southern Prussia, New Silesia, and West Prussia. In addition, the new state was given the area along the Noteć river and the "Land of Chełmno". The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... GdaÅ„sk ( ; IPA: ), also known by its German name Danzig ( ) and several other names, is the sixth-largest city in Poland and is Polands principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... The Free City of Danzig (yellow) on the Baltic coast, surrounded by Prussia, with the Duchy of Warsaw to the south Capital Dantzig Government Republic Protector Napoleon Boneparte Governor  - 1807 François Lefebvre (first)  - 1814 F. von Massenbach (last) Senate President  - 1807 - 1808 Karl von Gralath (first)  - 1813 - 1814 Jacob... BiaÅ‚ystok (pronounced: , Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Yiddish ביאַליסטאָק) is the largest city (pop. ... New East Prussia (German Neu-Ostpreußen) was the easternmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia between 1795 and 1807, created from areas acquired during the third Partition of Poland, with Warsaw as a capital. ... South Prussia (1793-1806) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, created in Greater Poland after the second partition of Poland (1793). ... New Silesia (German: Neuschlesien, also Neu-Schlesien) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1795 to 1806, created northwest of Kraków from the third partition of Poland. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... CheÅ‚mno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia CheÅ‚miÅ„ska, German: Kulmerland) is a historical region in central Poland bounded by the Vistula and DrwÄ™ca rivers. ...


Altogether, the duchy had an initial area of around 104,000 km², with a population of approximately 2,600,000. The bulk of its inhabitants were Poles.


Following the annexation in 1809 of Austrian Galicia and the areas of Zamość and Kraków (Cracow), the duchy's area was increased significantly, to around 155,000 km², and the population was also substantially increased, to roughly 4,300,000. Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Zamość is a town in southeastern Poland with 66,633 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Lublin Voivodship (since 1999). ... Wawel Hill, Old Town, Kraków. ...


The "departments"

The duchy was divided into several "departments", each named after their capital city. Initially, there were six:

The additional territory acquired in 1809 was organised into four further departments: Warsaw Department (Polish: Departament Warszawski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806-1815. ... Poznań Department (Polish: Departament Poznański) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806-1815. ... Kalisz Department (Polish: Departament Kaliski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806- 1815. ... Bydgoszcz Department (Polish: Departament bydgoski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806- 1815. ... Płock Department (Polish: Departament płocki) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Polish Duchy of Warsaw from 1806 to 1815. ... Łomża Department (Polish: Departament Łomzyński) was an administrative division and local government in the Polish Duchy of Warsaw in the years 1806-1815. ...

Kraków Department (Polish: Departament krakowski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806-1815. ... Lublin Department (Polish: Departament Lubelski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806-1815. ... Radom Department (Polish: Departament radomski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806-1815. ... Siedlce Department (Polish: Departament siedlecki) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806-1815. ...

Military and economic demands

The duchy's armed forces were completely under French control via its war minister, Prince Józef Poniatowski, who was also a Marshal of France. In fact, the duchy was heavily militarised, bordered as it was by Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and Russia, and it was to be a significant source for troops in various campaigns of Napoleon. Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms CioÅ‚ek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Maria Teresa Kinsky Consorts Zelia SitaÅ„ska Zofia Potocka Children with Zelia SitaÅ„ska: Józef SzczÄ™sny Poniatowski; with Zofia Potocka: Karol Józef Poniatowski. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804...


The standing army was of a considerable size when compared to the duchy's number of inhabitants. Initially consisting of 45,000 of regular soldiers (made up of both cavalry and infantry), its numbers were to rise to over 100,000 in 1810, and by the time of Napoleon's campaign in Russia in 1812, its army totalled almost 200,000 troops (out of a total population of some 3 million people). Volunteer Representative Squadron of City of Poznań in uniforms of 15th Poznań Uhlans Regiment Polish Cavalry (Polish: ) can trace its origins back to the days of Medieval mounted knights. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...


The heavy drain on its resources by forced military recruitment, combined with a drop in exports of grain, caused significant problems for the duchy's economy. To make matters worse, in 1808 the French Empire imposed on the duchy an agreement at Bayonne to buy from France the debts owed to it by Prussia. The debt, amounting to more than 43 million francs in gold, was bought at a discounted rate of 21 million francs. However, although the duchy made its payments in instalments to France over a four-year period, Prussia failed to pay it, causing the Polish economy to suffer heavily. Indeed, to this day the phrase "sum of Bayonne" is a synonym in Polish for a huge amount of money. All these problems resulted in both inflation and overtaxation. 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


To counter the threat of bankruptcy, the authorities intensified the development and modernisation of agriculture. Also, a protectionist policy was introduced to protect industry. Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration - see text) in the UK. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organizations to pay their... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over...


The end of the duchy

Napoleon's campaign against Russia

Prince Józef Poniatowski Commander in Chief of forces of Duchy of Warsaw by Juliusz Kossak
Prince Józef Poniatowski Commander in Chief of forces of Duchy of Warsaw by Juliusz Kossak

Poles expected in 1812 that the duchy would be upgraded to the status of a kingdom and that during Napoleon's march on Russia, it would be joined with the liberated territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland's historic partner in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, Napoleon did not want to make a permanent decision that would tie his hands before the anticipated peace settlement with Russia. Nevertheless he proclaimed attack on Russia as a second Polish war. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x800, 58 KB) Prince Józef Poniatowski by Juliusz Kossak 1824-1899 source http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x800, 58 KB) Prince Józef Poniatowski by Juliusz Kossak 1824-1899 source http://www. ... Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms Ciołek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Maria Teresa Kinsky Consorts Zelia Sitańska Zofia Potocka Children with Zelia Sitańska: Józef Szczęsny Poniatowski; with Zofia Potocka: Karol Józef Poniatowski. ... Juliusz Fortunat Kossak (December 15, 1824 - February 3, 1899) was a Polish painter. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Żamojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


That peace was not to be, however. Napoleon's Grande Armée, including a substantial contingent of Polish troops, set out with the intention of bringing the Russian Empire to its knees, but his military ambitions were frustrated by a combination of the Russians and an appalling winter climate; few returned from the march on Moscow. The failed campaign against Russia proved to be a major turning point in Napoleon's fortunes. La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ...


After Napoleon's defeat in the east, most of the territory of the Duchy of Warsaw was taken by Russia in January of 1813 in their advance on France and its German allies. The rest of the duchy fell to Prussia. Although several isolated fortresses held out for more than a year, the existence of the state in anything but name came to an end. Alexander I of Russia created a Provisional Highest Council of the Duchy of Warsaw to govern the area through his generals. Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ...


The Congress of Vienna, and the Fourth Partition

Although many European states and ex-rulers were represented at the so-called Congress of Vienna in 1815, the decision-making was largely in the hands of the major powers. It was perhaps inevitable, therefore, that both Prussia and Russia would effectively partition Poland between them; Austria was to more-or-less retain its gains of the First Partition of 1772. The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Russia kept all its gains from the three previous partitions, together Białystok and the surrounding territory that it had obtained in 1807.


Prussia regained territory it had first gained in the First Partition, but had had to give up to the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807. It also regained as the "Grand Duchy of Posen" (i.e. Poznań) some of the territory it had obtained in the Second Partition, and had again had to give up in 1807. This territory formed an area approximately 29,000 km² in size. Flag The Grand Duchy was administrated as the Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia. ...


The city of Kraków (Cracow) and some surrounding territory, previously part of the Duchy of Warsaw, were established as a semi-independent Free City of Kraków, under the "protection" of its three powerful neighbours. The city's territory measured some 1164 km², and had a population of about 88,000 people. The city was eventually annexed by Austria in 1846. Wawel Hill, Old Town, Kraków. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Finally, the bulk of the former Duchy of Warsaw, measing some 128,000 km in area, was re-established as what is commonly referred to as the "Congress Kingdom" of Poland, in personal union with the Russian Empire. It maintained its autonomy only until 1831, when it was effectively annexed to the Russian state. Map of Congress Poland. ... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The duchy's legacy

Superficially, the Duchy of Warsaw was just one of various states set up during Napoleon's dominance over the European continent, lasting only a few years and passing with his fall. However its establishment, a little over a decade after the Second and Third Partitions had appeared to wipe Poland off the map, meant that Poles had their hopes rekindled of a resurrected Polish state. Even with Napoleon's defeat a Polish state continued in some form until the increasingly autocratic Russian state eliminated Poland once again as a separate entity. Altogether, this meant that an identifiable Polish state was in existence for at least a quarter of a century.


When a Republic of Poland was established in the aftermath of World War I, its initial borders were similar to those of the duchy that had preceded it a century before. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


"Duchy of Warsaw" vs. "Grand Duchy of Warsaw"

The Duchy of Warsaw is commonly referred to today as the "Grand Duchy of Warsaw". However, the duchy was not referred to as such in French, which was both the diplomatic language of the time, and of course the language of the French Empire which created the state. Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18...


Article 5 of the Treaty of Tilsit, which created the duchy, the Convention which transferred it to Saxony, and Article 1 of the Act of the Congress of Vienna, which effectively abolished it, all refer to it in French as the "Duché de Varsovie".


Similarly, the duchy's constitution refers to it in German as Herzogtum Warschau, and its coins bore the Latin inscription FRID·AVG·REX SAX·DVX VARSOV· (Fridericus Augustus, Rex Saxoniæ, Dux Varsoviæ; "Frederick Augustus, King of Saxony, Duke of Warsaw). Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


See also

Although the majority of the szlachta was reconciled to the end of the Commonwealth in 1795, the possibility of Polish independence was kept alive by events within and without Poland throughout the nineteenth century. ... Polish Legions in Italy is the name applied to the several different Polish forces serving in the French army during the 1790s to 1810s. ... Combatants First French Empire. ...

External links

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
Warsaw, Poland (796 words)
Warsaw is still one of Europe's most underrated cities, with a string of things to see, an impressive cultural scene and an increasingly lively nightlife.
The tourist epicenter of Warsaw is the Royal Route, which runs north-south from the New and Old Towns, past the fashionable shops of Nowy Swiat, the palaces that survived the war and the royal gardens of Lazienki Park, before reaching Wilanow Palace to the south of the city centre.
Warsaw is still Poland's largest city and the nation's economic, cultural and educational hub.
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