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Encyclopedia > Duchy of Saxony

The Duchy of Saxony was a medieval Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany. It covered the area of the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Northrhine-Westfalia, Schleswig-Holstein, Saxony-Anhalt and parts of Saxony. Duke Henry the Lion occupied the area of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The Anglo-Saxons came from the latter parts of the Duchy of Saxony to England. With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... With eighteen million inhabitants inhabiting 34,080 km² in western-northwestern Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia (German Nordrhein-Westfalen) is largest in population though only fourth in area among Germanys sixteen federal states. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... With an area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Henry the Lion (face of statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral) Henry the Lion (1129 - August 6, 1195; in German, Heinrich der Löwe) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony as Henry III since... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... A map showing the general locations of the major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms The Anglo-Saxons were originally a collection of differing Germanic tribes from Angeln—a peninsula in the southern part of Schleswig, protruding into the Baltic Sea, and what is now Lower Saxony, in the north-west coast of...


History

  • About 200 - 400: The Saxons, until then living north of the Elbe river in Holstein, occupy the area south (today Lower Saxony), Westphalia and Eastfalia.
  • 5th century: The Saxons come to England, together with the Angles.
  • Early 6th century: The Saxons come to the Rhine.
  • 531 Saxons and Franks destroy the Kingdom of Thuringia. Saxons inhabit the area down to the Unstrut river.
  • 7th century: Election of the first dukes, but only in wartime.
  • 718: The Franconian Charles Martel makes war against Saxony, because of its help for the Neustrians.
  • 743: The Franconian Carloman starts a new war against Saxony, because the Saxons gave aid to Duke Odilo of Bavaria.
  • 772-804: Emperor Charlemagne, grandson of Carloman, starts a 32 year war against the Saxons.
    • 772: Charlemagne occupies the Eresburg castle near Paderborn, the central Saxon stronghold, and destroys the Irminsul, the main Saxon place of worship to their traditional Northern deities.
    • 773 Charlemagne goes to Italy. The Saxons take the chance and reoccupy the Eresburg.
    • 774/775: Charlemagne again marches against Saxony. The Franks reoccupy the Eresburg castle, and the Sigiburg castle as well. At Höxter the Franks cross the Weser river and ravage the Eastfalian part of the Duchy.
    • 776: Charles again in Italy. The Saxons reoccupy Eresburg and Sigiburg.
    • 777: Charlemagne establishes the Karlsburg near Paderborn. He calls for the Heerschau. Some Saxons come and convert to the christian religion.
    • 779 The Saxon Duke Widukind of the House of the Bruons leads a new rising and begins a war of attrition against the Franks. Charlemagne's army marches north to the Elbe river.
    • 782 Charlemagne conducts his Blutgericht ("bloody trial") at Verden on the Aller river, ordering more than 4,500 Saxon prisoners killed. Charlemagne becomes known as "Charles the Butcher" in Saxony.
    • 783 Battles near Detmold and at the Hasel river. The Saxons lose both. Duke Widukind retreats to the castle Widukindsburg near Osnabrück.
    • 784: Battle in the Dreingau
    • 785: The Franks capture Widukind. He is christened.
    • 792-795: The Saxons again rise against the Franks.
    • 796-799: Charlemagne orders a new campaign against the Saxons.
    • 804 The last resistance of the Saxons is broken by the Franks.
  • 804 The Duchy of Saxony, consisting of Engern, Westfalia, Eastfalia and Northalbingia (today Schleswig-Holstein) becomes part of the Franconian Empire.
  • 852 Liudolf, Duke in Saxony, descendant of Widukind and first of the Ottonian dynasty, founds the monastery of Gandersheim.
  • 880 Brun, son of Liudolf, is killed in a battle with Vikings. His younger brother Otto becomes Duke of Saxony.
  • 912 Henry, son of Otto, succeeds him as Duke.
  • 919 Henry of Saxony (Henry I the Fowler) is elected King of the Germans by the assembled Saxon and Frankish princes in Fritzlar.
  • 936 Henry's son, Otto I the Great, succeeds him and is crowned in Aachen as King of the Germans.
  • 938 Hermann Billung becomes margrave ("Markgraf") of Saxony.
  • 953 Otto I elevates Hermann Billung to Vice Duke of Saxony.
  • 973 Otto I dies in Memleben; Otto II becomes Emperor. Hermann Billung dies in Quedlinburg; Bernhard I Billung becomes duke of Saxony.
  • 983 Danish uprising in Hedeby. Slavonian uprising in Northalbingia. Otto III becomes Emperor.
  • 1002 The death of Otto III marks the end of the Saxon emperors.
  • 1011 Duke Bernhard I Billung dies; his son Bernhard II becomes duke.
  • 1042 Ordulf Billung, son of Bernhard II, marries Wulfhild, the half sister of King Magnus of Denmark and Norway. Danes and Saxons fight against the Wendians.
  • 1059 Ordulf Billung becomes Duke after the death of his father.
  • 1072 Magnus Billung becomes Duke.
  • 1106 Duke Magnus dies without a son, ending the Billung dynasty. The Billung territory becomes part of the Welf and Ascanian countries. Lothar I of Supplinburg becomes Duke of Saxony.
  • 1112 Otto of Ballenstedt created Duke by King Henry V.
  • 1115 Victory of Lothar I of Supplinburg in the battle of Welfesholz over King Henry V.
  • 1125 Lothar I of Supplinburg elected as German King and crowned Emperor.
  • 1137 Death of Lothar. The Welf Henry X the Proud, Duke of Bavaria since 1126, becomes Duke of Saxony.
  • 1138 Henry X tries to become king, but without success. The Ascanian Albert the Bear becomes new Duke of Saxony.
  • 1139 Death of Henry X.
  • 1141 Albert the Bear resigns.
  • 1142 Emperor Conrad III grants the Ducal title to the Welf Henry the Lion. Henry the Lion gradually extends his rule over northeastern Germany. After gaining also the Duchy of Bavaria, Henry's realm covers more than two thirds of Germany from the Alps to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, making him the mightiest ruler in central Europe.
  • 1180 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, strips his cousin Henry the Lion of his duchies of Saxony and Bavaria, but leaves him the small duchies of Brunswick and Lüneburg, giving Saxony to the Ascanians who were based further east, near the Elbe. The Welfs later became kings of Hanover, Great Britain and Ireland (House of Hanover).

See also: Rulers of Saxony For other uses, see number 200. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe   listen?, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe, Hungarian Elba) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... For other uses of the word, see Holstein Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low Saxon: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe, Eider, and the Schlei firth. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... // Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... 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Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer, German: Karl Martell) (August 23, 686 – October 22, 741) was born in Herstal, in what is now Wallonia, Belgium, the illegitimate son of Pippin the Middle (635 or 640-December 16, 714) and his concubine Alpaida or Chalpaida. ... Events Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743) succeeded by al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744). ... Carloman (716-754) was the son of Charles Martel, major domo or Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia and Chrotrud. ... Duke Odilo (d. ... Events Pope Adrian I succeeds Pope Stephen IV. Adrian I turns to Charlemagne for support against king Desiderius of the Lombards. ... Events March 25 - The Inscription of Sukabumi from Eastern Java marks the beginning of the Javanese language. ... Charlemagne (ca. ... Events Pope Adrian I succeeds Pope Stephen IV. Adrian I turns to Charlemagne for support against king Desiderius of the Lombards. ... Position of Paderborn in Germany Paderborn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the district Paderborn. ... Detail of the bent Irminsul on the Externsteine relief. ... Events Charlemagne crosses the Alps and invades the kingdom of the Lombards. ... Events Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards. ... Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. ... Höxter is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of the district Höxter, prettily situated on the left bank of the Weser, 32 miles north of Kassel. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... Events Byzantine Emperor Leo IV associates himself with his young son Constantine VI and suppresses an uprising led by his step-brothers. ... Events Charlemagne beats the Saxons. ... Events Offa of Mercia beats Cynewulf of Wessex and takes Bensington. ... Widukind or Wittekind was a Saxon leader, duke of Saxony and one of the heads of the nobility of Westphalia. ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe   listen?, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe, Hungarian Elba) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... Events Alcuin becomes teacher to Charlemagne and his court. ... Verden is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... The Aller is a river in Saxony_Anhalt and Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Events Births Deaths July 12: Bertrada, wife of Pippin III Categories: 783 ... Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a poulation of about 80,000. ... Osnabrück is a city in the Westphalian half of Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80km NNW of Dortmund, 45km NNW of Münster, and some 100km due West of Hanover. ... Events August 31 - Paul IV abdicates as Patriarch of Constantinople December 25 - Tarasius elected Patriarch of Constantinople The Japanese capital moved away from Nara. ... 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Events First time that Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal appeared in a Roman map. ... Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician († 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... Roland The city of Quedlinburg in the German Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt has existed since at least the early ninth century, when a settlement known as Gross Orden existed at the site of the modern Quedlinburg. ... Events Hugh Capet, a distant relative of the last Carolingian king of the Franks, is crowned King of France, beginning the Capetian dynasty and, arguably, modern French history. ... Hedeby (Haithabu in Old Norse; Heidiba in Latin; in Germany the name Haithabu is frequently used) was a Danish settlement and trading centre on the southern Baltic Sea coast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet, the Schlei (Danish: Slien) in the province of Schleswig... 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Events Clairvaux Abbey is founded by St. ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... Events Louis VII is crowned King of France. ... The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... Henry, known as the Proud (around 1108 – October 20, 1139), was Duke of Bavaria (Henry X, 1126-1139), Duke of Saxony (Henry II, 1138-1139), and Margrave of Tuscany (1137-1139). ... For other uses, see number 1138. ... Albert I (c. ... Events Alphonso I (Afonso Henriques) becomes first king of Portugal Second Council of the Lateran Births Emperor Konoe of Japan Deaths Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony Categories: 1139 ... Events February 2 - Battle of Lincoln. ... 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The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainlands of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Braunschweig may also refer to the administrative region of Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Lüneburg Coat of arms Lüneburg is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 50km southeast of Hamburg. ... The Ascanian dynasty of the rulers of Brandenburg began with Albert the Bear who inherited the territory from its last Wendish ruler, Pribislav, in 1150. ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) were a German royal dynasty which succeeded the House of Stuart as kings of Great Britain in 1714. ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony comprised lands in the north-westen part of present-day Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and to Westphalia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Duchy of Saxony - definition of Duchy of Saxony in Encyclopedia (767 words)
The Duchy of Saxony was a medieval Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany.
The Anglo-Saxons came from the later area of the Duchy of Saxony to England.
919 Henry of Saxony (Henry I the Fowler) is elected King of the Germans by the assembled Saxon and Frankish dukes in Fritzlar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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