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Encyclopedia > Dubbing (filmmaking)

In filmmaking, dubbing or looping is the process of recording or replacing voices for a motion picture. The term is most commonly used in reference to voices recorded that do not belong to the original actors and speak in a different language than the actor is speaking. "Dubbing" can also be used to describe the process of re-recording lines by the actor who originally spoke them. This process is technically known as automated dialogue replacement, or ADR. Film production on location in Newark, New Jersey. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as...


Although dubbing is most common with film, television series are sometimes dubbed as well (mostly popular Hollywood series and serialized Japanese anime that have received foreign distribution). Foreign-language films and videos are often dubbed into the local language of their target markets to increase their popularity with the local audience by making them more accessible. A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Target market may be defined as a market which an organisation sets its views on, either because it is witnessing an increasing demand for the product produced by the organisation, either because it represents a blue ocean for the organisatino to exploit before its competitors get there, so as to...

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Automated dialogue replacement / post-sync

Automated dialogue replacement (ADR) is a film sound technique involving the re-recording of dialogue after photography. It is called post-synchronization (post-sync) in the UK. Also referred to as "Additional dialogue recording".


In conventional film production, a production sound mixer records dialogue during photography, but several uncontrollable issues, such as traffic or animal noise, during principal photography can cause the production sound to be unusable. This is also true for computer-generated imagery, since some of the "actors" were not actually present at the set. The production sound mixer is the member of a film crew responsible for recording all sound on set during the photography of a motion picture. ... Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects. ...


When the film is in post-production, a Supervising Sound Editor or ADR Supervisor reviews all of the dialogue in the film and rules which actor lines will have to be replaced using the ADR technique. This is an article about the film crew member known as a sound designer. ...


ADR is recorded during an ADR session. An actor, usually the original actor on set, is called to a sound studio equipped with video playback equipment and sound playback and recording equipment. The actor wears headphones and is shown the film of the line that must be replaced, and often he or she will be played the production sound recording. The film is then projected several times, and the actor attempts to re-perform the line while watching the image on the screen, while an ADR Recordist records the performances. Several takes are made, and based on the quality of the performance and sync, one is selected and edited by an ADR Editor for use in the film.


There are variations of the ADR process. ADR does not have to be recorded in a studio, but can be recorded on location, with mobile equipment; this process was pioneered by Matthew Wood of Skywalker Sound for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ADR can also be recorded without showing the actor the image they must match, but only by having him listen to the performance. This process was used for years at Universal Studios. For the English cricketers named Matthew Wood, see Matthew Wood (Yorkshire cricketer) and Matthew Wood (Somerset cricketer). ... Skywalker Sound is the renowned sound effects, sound editorial, sound design and music recording division of George Lucass Lucas Digital motion picture group. ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace is a 1999 film by George Lucas starring Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, and Jake Lloyd. ... Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios), a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is one of the major American film studios that has production studios and offices located at 100 Universal City Plaza Drive in Universal City, California, an unincorporated area of Los Angeles County between Los Angeles...


An alternative method, called "rythmo band” (or "lip-sync band") was historically used in Canada and France. This band provides a more precise guide for the actors, directors and technicians and can be used to complement the traditional headphone method. The band is actually a clear 35 mm film leader on which is written, in India ink, the dialogue and numerous indications for the actor (laughs, cries, length of syllables, mouth sounds, mouth openings and closings, etc.). The lip-sync band is projected in studio and scrolls in perfect synchronization with the picture. Thanks to the high efficiency of the lip-sync band, the number of retakes are reduced, resulting in a substantial savings in recording time (as much as 50% compared to headphones-only recording). Indian ink (or India ink in American English) is a simple black ink once widely used for writing and printing. ...


Historically, the preparation of the lip-sync band is a long, tedious and complex process involving a series of specialists in an old fashioned manual production line. Until recently, such constraints have prevented this technique from being adopted internationally, particularly in the United States.


Advanced software technology has been able to digitally reproduce the rythmo-band output in a fraction of the time. This technology is being adapted in all markets and is proven to reduce the amount of studio time and number of takes required for actors to achieve accurate synchronization.


Using the traditional ADR technique (headphones and video) actors can average 10-12 lines per hour. Using the newer digital rythmo-band technologies, actors can output from 35-50 lines per hour, and much more with experience. Studio output with multiple actors can therefore reach 2-4 hundred lines per hour. dubStudio has pioneered the digital rythmo-band technology and has been used by several large dubbing studios.


Although many actors are trained to sing, few are of professional quality. Therefore, if a character must sing well in a movie, ADR is usually used to redub their singing. This technique was used by, among many others, Billy Boyd and Viggo Mortensen in The Lord of the Rings. Billy Boyd (born 28 August 1968 in Glasgow) is a Scottish actor most widely known for playing Peregrin Took (Pippin), in the film adaptations of The Lord of the Rings (2001-2003) and Barrett Bonden in Peter Weirs film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World (2003). ... Viggo Peter Mortensen, Jr. ... The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by the British academic J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Adding or replacing non-vocal sounds, such as sound effects, is the task of a foley artist. Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... The Foley artist on a film crew is the person who creates and records many of the sound effects, (thesedays many often associate the Foley artist with the job of capturing the natural/everyday sounds leaving the the role of special (audio-) effects to the Sound_designer. ...


Practice of dubbing foreign films throughout the world

Dubbing is often used to localize a foreign movie. The new voice track will usually be spoken by a voice artist. In many countries, most actors who regularly perform this duty are generally little-known, outside of popular circles such as anime fandom, for example, or when their voice has become indissociable from the role or the actor or actress whose voice they usually dub. Many of these actors also employ pseudonyms or go uncredited due to Screen Actors Guild regulations or simple desire to dissociate themselves from the role. However, famous local actors can also be hired to perform the dubbing, particularly for comedies and animated movies, as their names are supposed to attract moviegoers, and the entire Hollywood cast is dubbed by a local cast of similar notoriety. Localization can mean any of the following: Generally, localization is the determination of the locality (position) of an object. ... A voice actor (or voice artist) is a person who provides voices for computer and video games, puppet shows, amusement rides, audio dramas, dubbed foreign language films, stop motion, and animation works (including cartoons, animated feature films, animated shorts), and radio and television commercials. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... The Screen Actors Guild (S.A.G.) is the labor union representing over 120,000 film actors in the United States. ...


Europe

In the Russian, Spanish or Italian-speaking markets, virtually all foreign films and television shows are dubbed. There are few opportunities to watch foreign movies in their original versions, and even in the largest cities there are virtually no cinemas that screen original versions with subtitles, or no translation at all. However, digital Pay-TV programming is nowadays often also available in the English original, including the latest movies. Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[1] primarily in Italy and Switzerland. ... Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ...


Russian television is generally dubbed with only a couple of voice actors, with the original speech still audible underneath.



Italy is the country where dubbing is most used and has the highest artistic and technical quality, with a long work tradition since the 1920s in Rome, Milan and Turin. Rome is the principal base of dubing, when they dub major production as movies, drama , documentaries and some cartoons, in Milan instead are usually dubbed cartoons and some minor productions. In big cities also can be seen the movies in Original Version. The subtitles are offered usually on night programmes on generalist televisions, and on pay TV all movies are avaible on english/italian subtitles, and so many shows in original english track. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article is about the city in Italy. ... “Torino” redirects here. ...


In Germany and Austria, most films are shown in the dubbed versions created for the German market. In big cities though, there are theaters where movies can be seen in their original versions as English has become more popular, especially among younger viewers. On TV, few movies are subtitled, although Pay-per-view programming is often available in its original language. See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ...


Some movies dubbed before the unification exist in different versions for the east and the west. They use different translations, and often they are different in the style of dubbing.


In France, movies and TV series are always released dubbed in French. Films are usually released theatrically in both dubbed and original versions in large cities main street theatres, and a theatre showing a subtitled movie typically has a sign on the poster advising the moviegoers the movie is in the original language version (usually abbreviated VO version originale as opposed to VF version française). Art house movies are often available in their original version only due to limited distribution. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In Slovenia, all foreign films and television programmes are subtitled without exceptions. Traditionally, children movies and animated cartoons used to be dubbed, but subtitling has gradually spread into that genre, as well. Nowadays, only movies for preschool children, who cannot read, remain dubbed.


In Croatia foreign films and TV series are always subtitled while some children programs and cartoons are dubbed into Croatian. Recently more efforts have been made to introduce dubbing, but public reception was poor. Regardless of language, Croatian audience prefers subtitling to dubbing. Some, previously quite popular, shows (e.g. Sailor Moon) lost their appeal completely after dubbing started and were eventually taken off the program. Situation is similar with theatre movies with only those intended for children being dubbed (Finding Nemo, Shark Tale) but they are also regularly shown subtitled as well. Sailor Moon , officially translated as Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon) is the title of a famous media franchise created by Japanese manga artist Naoko Takeuchi. ... Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... Shark Tale is an Academy Award-nominated computer-animated film produced by DreamWorks Animation, and released in 2004. ...


In Serbia (and most other Serbo-Croat speaking parts of former Yugoslavia), all foreign films and TV series are always subtitled while children movies and cartoons are dubbed into Serbo-Croat. The dubbing of cartoon classics during the 80's had a twist of its own: famous Belgrade actors provided the voices for Bugs, Daffy Duck, Elmer Fudd, Goofy, Donald Duck and other characters, frequently using region-specific phrases and sentences and thus adding a dose of local humor to the translation of the original lines. These phrases became immensely popular and are still being used for tongue-in-cheek comments in specific situations. Even though these dubbed classics are seldom aired nowadays, younger generations continue to use these phrases without even knowing their true origin. Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Hungary, practically all television programmes are dubbed, and about 50 per cent of movies in theaters. In the socialist era, every one of them were dubbed in high quality with professional and mostly popular actors. In the early 1990s subtitling became dominant in cinema, forcing TV channels to make their own cheap versions of dub soundtracks for movies they presented, resulting in a constant degrading in dubbing quality, which once became customary, cinema distributors brought back the habit of dubbing to cinemas for popular productions, presenting them with the quality varying from very poor to average. Hovewer, every single feature is presented with original soundtrack in at least one cinema in large towns and cities.


In Slovakia, virtually all foreign films and television programmes shown on television are dubbed, often by well-known actors. Most movies reach the same quality as the original ones, sometimes even surpass the original, as in the case of Disney's The Hunchback of Notre Dame where the dubbing actors were arguably better singers than their English-speaking counterparts.[citation needed] In movie theatres, films are usually shown subtitled, unless they're intended for children of 12 years of age and younger; Slovak law requires those films be dubbed or rated as MP-12 (roughly equivalent to PG-13, without a cautionary meaning in this case.)[citation needed]. Movie theatres sometimes offer both dubbed and subtitled screenings for either very major movie releases (e.g. the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy) that would have otherwise not been dubbed, or conversely for children's films or family films that are expected to also attract mature viewers (e.g. Shrek) to maximize the potential audience. The Hunchback of Notre Dame (also known as The Bells of Notre Dame in some countries) is a 1996 animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released to theaters on June 21, 1996 by Walt Disney Pictures. ... The MPAA film rating system is a system used in the United States and instituted by the Motion Picture Association of America to rate a movie based on its content. ... The Lord of the Rings movie trilogy consists of three live action films, directed by Peter Jackson. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Spain, practically all foreign television programmes are shown dubbed in Spanish, as are most films. Some dubbing actors have achieved popularity for their voices like Constantino Romero, who dubs Clint Eastwood, Darth Vader and Schwarzenegger's Terminator among others. In Catalonia however, Televisió de Catalunya has the option of dual (choice between the dubbed into Catalan and the original version) for most of the foreign imports regardless of the language. This option has a limited access depending on the user's television and remote. Clint Eastwood (born Clinton Eastwood, Jr. ... Darth Vader is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, politician, bodybuilder, and businessman, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ... See also Principality of Catalonia (for the historic territory) and Northern Catalonia. ... Televisió de Catalunya (or TVC for short) is Catalonias public broadcasting network, officially composed of six channels: TV3, 33, K3, 3/24, 300 and TVCi. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of...


In Greece, all films are released theatrically in their original versions and contain subtitles. Only cartoon films (e.g. Finding Nemo, The Incredibles etc.) are released in both original and dubbed versions, for children that cannot yet read fast or at all. Foreign TV shows are also shown in their original versions except for most cartoons. For example The Flintstones is always dubbed, while Family Guy is subtitled and contains the original dialogue, since it is mostly for adults rather than children. Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... The Incredibles is a 2004 Academy Award-winning animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures, centering around a family of superheroes. ... The Flintstones is an American animated television series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions. ... Family Guy is an Emmy award winning American animated television series about a nuclear family in the fictional town of Quahog (IPA or ), Rhode Island. ...


In Finland, dubbing is exclusively used in young children's cartoons, as in Greece. Cartoon films and other films for children are usually released dubbed in Finnish, although many theaters also screen the original versions. For the 5% Swedish-speaking minority, the dubbed version from Sweden is also made available at certain cinemas, and later on video/DVD. In the early ages of television, foreign tv-shows and movies were dubbed by one actor in Finland, as in Russian Gavrilov translation. Later subtitles became a practice also in Finnish television. A Gavrilov translation (Russian: перевод Гаврилова [perevod Gavrilova]) is the term commonly used for Russian language localisations of foreign movies where dubbing is done by a single, usually male, voice artist. ...


In Latvia, dubbing is hugely popular - almost all shows are dubbed.


In Poland, theatrical releases are almost exclusively subtitled, and television screenings of movies, as well as made-for-TV shows, are usually shown with the original soundtrack kept, and translation spoken over by lector - it is almost exactly the same as the so-called Gavrilov translation in Russia. Standard dubbing is not seen with great appeal by most audiences, with the exception of animated and children movies and shows, which are often dubbed both in theatrical and TV releases. One of the major breakthroughs in dubbing was the Polish release of Shrek, which contained many references to local culture and Polish sense of humor. From that time, people seem to like dubbed version more, and pay more attention to dubbing crew - however, it seems that it's the case only with animated films, as live-action dubbing is still considered a bad practice. In the case of DVD, most discs contain both the original soundtrack and subtitles, and either lector or dubbed Polish track. Lector is a fictional character from Yugioh. ... A Gavrilov translation (Russian: перевод Гаврилова [perevod Gavrilova]) is the term commonly used for Russian language localisations of foreign movies where dubbing is done by a single, usually male, voice artist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


In Romania, virtually all programmes intented for children are dubbed in Romanian, including cartoons on Jetix, Cartoon Network, Minimax as well as those shown on generalist television networks, children-focused series like Power Rangers, The New Addams Family, The Planet's Funniest Animals and animation movies or movies screened on children television networks (e.g. Babe, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Finding Nemo, Cars or Shrek the Third). Other foreign TV shows and movies are shown in the original language with Romanian subtitles. Usually dubbing is disliked in the Romanian market and subtitles are preferred, except for children-intended programmes. Jetix is a childrens television programming brand owned by The Walt Disney Company broadcast in Romania by all major cable TV and DTH operators. ... Cartoon Network (commonly referred to as CN) is a cable television network created by Turner Broadcasting which primarily shows animated programming. ... Minimax tv is an East-European cartoon channel which has been broadcast in Hungary since 1999; Romania since 2001; and Czech Republic and Slovakia since 2003. ... The Saban-era logo for Power Rangers The Disney/Jetix-era logo for Power Rangers Power Rangers is a long-running childrens TV show adapted from the Japanese tokusatsu Super Sentai Series, but is not simply an English dub of the original. ... The Addams Family is the creation of American cartoonist Charles Addams. ... The Planets Funniest Animals is a United States television program featured in the Animal Planet cable channel. ... Babe (also known as Babe, the Gallant Pig) is a 1995 fantasy film that tells the story of a pig who wants to be a herding dog. ... Milo trying to convince scholars of Atlantis existence. ... Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... Lightning McQueen and Mater in a screenshot from the upcoming film Cars will be the seventh Pixar film and is scheduled for release June 9, 2006. ... This article is about the film. ...


In Soviet Union most foreign movies to be officially released were dubbed, however with the fall of the regime many popular foreign movies, previously forbidden or at least questionable under communist rule started flooding in, in the form of low-quality pirated videos. Being unofficial releases, they were dubbed in a very primitive way, i.e. the translator spoke the text directly over the audio of a video being copied, using most primitive equipment. The quality of the resulting dub was very low, the translated phrases were off-sync, interfered with the original voices, background sounds leaked into, translation was inaccurate and most importantly, all dub voices were made by a single person and usually lacked intonation of the original, making comprehension of some scenes quite difficult. In modern Russia, the overdubbing technique is still used in many cases, although with vastly imroved quality and now with multiple voice actors dubbing different original voices.


In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the vast majority of foreign films are subtitled although some, mostly animated films and TV programmes, are dubbed in English. These usually originate from North America, although there have been notable examples of films and TV programmes successfully dubbed in the UK, such as Monkey and The Magic Roundabout. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Le Manège Enchanté (known in English as The Magic Roundabout) was a childrens television programme created in France in 1963 by Serge Danot. ...


Some animated films and TV programmes are also dubbed into Welsh and Gaelic, including the animated series Fireman Sam, known in Welsh as Sam Tân and Gaelic as Sam Smalaidh. Similarly, in Ireland, animated series shown on TG4 are shown dubbed in Irish. Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Fireman Sam (Welsh: ) is a Welsh stop-motion animation childrens television series about a fireman called Sam, his fellow firefighters, and other townspeople in the Welsh town of Pontypandy (a hybrid of two actual places, Pontypridd and Tonypandy, in the South Wales valleys). ... TG4 is an Irish television channel aimed at Irish language speakers and established as a wholly owned subsidiary by Radio Telefís Éireann in 31 October 1996; it was known as Teilifís na Gaeilge or TnaG before a rebranding campaign in 1999. ...


Americas

In Spanish-American countries, all foreign language programmes, films, cartoons and documentaries shown in free aired TV channels are dubbed into Neutral Spanish, while in cable and satellite panregional channels are both dubbed or subtitled. For theaters, only the films made for children are dubbed into Neutral Spanish and sometimes dubbed into local Spanish for major markets like Mexican and Argentinean ones. Standard Spanish or Neutral Spanish, is a linguistic variety or lect that is considered a correct educated standard for the Spanish language. ... Standard Spanish or Neutral Spanish, is a linguistic variety or lect that is considered a correct educated standard for the Spanish language. ...


In Brazil, foreign programmes are invariably dubbed into Portuguese in broadcast TV, with only a few exceptions. Films shown at cinemas are usually subtitled (only children movies have dubbed versions at cinemas). Pay TV commonly offers both dubbed and subtitled movies but subtitling is predominant. Foreign TV shows are always subtitled in Brazilian Pay TV. There are several broadcast television systems in use in the world today. ... Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ... In printed material In printed material, a subtitle is an explanatory or alternate title. ... Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ...


In Quebec, Canada, most films and TV programmes in English are dubbed into Quebec French with an International French accent, and others, such as films made by DreamWorks, have French dubs imported from France. This has the advantage of making children's TV series comprehensible to younger audiences, but many bilingual Quebecois prefer subtitling since they would understand some or all of the original audio. Most American television series are only available in English on DVD, or on English language channels, but some of the more popular ones have Quebec dubs shown on mainstream networks. A number of adult cartoons, such as The Simpsons, are dubbed in Quebec French. Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français neutre or even le français international) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language. ... This article is about the film studio. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the United States, dubbing is rare except for animations: televised Japanese anime is almost always aired in its dubbed format regardless of its content or target age group, with the sole exceptions occurring either when an English dub has not been produced for the program (usually in the case of feature films) or when the program is being presented by a network that places importance on presenting it in its original format (as was the case when Turner Classic Movies aired several of Hayao Miyazaki's works, which were presented both dubbed and subtitled). Most anime DVDs contain options for original Japanese, Japanese with subtitles, and English dubbed, except for a handful of series which have been heavily edited and/or Americanized. The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is a cable television channel featuring commercial-free classic movies, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. ... Hayao Miyazaki ) (Born January 5, 1941 in Tokyo, Japan) is a director of animated films and a co-founder of the animation studio and production company Studio Ghibli. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ...


Asia

China has a long tradition of dubbing foreign films into the Mandarin Chinese which started in 1930s. Beginning from late 1970s, not only films, but popular TV series from the US, Japan and Mexico were also dubbed. The Shanghai Film Dubbing Studio has been the most celebrated one in the dubbing industry in China. In order to generate high-quality products, they divide each film into short segments, each one lasting only a few minutes, and then work on the segments one by one. In addition to the correct meaning in translation, they make tremendous effort to match the lips of the actors. As a result, viewers can hardly detect that the films they are seeing are actually dubbed. The cast of dubbers is acknowledged at the end of a dubbed film. Quite a few dubbing actors and actresses of the Shanghai Film Dubbing Studio became well-known celebrities, among whom are Qiu Yuefeng, Bi Ke, Li Zi, and Liu Guangning. Standard Mandarin – also known as Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese – is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


In Thailand, foreign television programmes are dubbed, but the original soundtrack is often simultaneously carried or "simulcast" on the radio.


In Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, South American telenovelas are dubbed, while English language programmes are usually shown in the original language with subtitles. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In India, where "foreign films" are synonymous with Hollywood films, dubbing is done mostly in Hindi which is the national language & few regional languages like Tamil & Telugu, the finished works are released into the towns and lower tier settlements of the respective states (where English penetration is low), often with the English language originals being released in the metros of the same. In all other states, the English originals are released alongwith the dubbed versions where often the dubbed version collections are outstanding than original. The most recent dubbing of Spiderman-3 was also done in Bhojpuri a language popular in northern India. Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union alongwith English. ... Look up Tamil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Telugu may refer to: Telugu language Telugu literature Telugu people Telugu script Telugu films Look up Telugu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ...


In Vietnam, foreign-language films and programs are dubbed on television, usually with just one voice actor. Programs aimed at children might have multiple voice actors. Chinese-language series available on DVD or for rent are dubbed with multiple voice actors, done by overseas Vietnamese. Subtitling is rarely seen.


In multilingual Singapore, English language programmes on the free to air terrestrial channels are usually subtitled in Chinese or Malay, while Chinese, Malay and Tamil programmes are almost always are subtitled in English. Dual sound programs like Korean and Japanese dramas offer sound in original languages and subtitled or are Mandarin dubbed and subtitled. The deliberate policy to encourage Mandarin has led to other Chinese Dialects (Hokkien, Cantonese and Teochew) programes to be dubbed into Mandarin; exceptions being traditional operas. In a recent development, news bulletins are subtitled. Multichannel television sound, better known as MTS (often still as BTSC, for the Broadcast Television Systems Committee that created it), is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an NTSC-format audio carrier. ...


Africa

In South Africa, many television programmes, including Beverly Hills, 90210 were dubbed in Afrikaans, with the original soundtrack (usually in English, but sometimes Dutch or German) "simulcast" in FM stereo on Radio 2000. However, this has declined as a result of the reduction of airtime for the language on SABC TV, and the increase of locally produced material in Afrikaans on other channels like KykNet and MK89. Similarly, many programmes, such as The Jeffersons, were dubbed into Zulu[1], but this has declined as local drama production has increased. // Jason Priestley Shannen Doherty Jennie Garth Luke Perry Ian Ziering Gabrielle Carteris Brian Austin Green Tori Spelling Carol Potter James Eckhouse Mark Damon Espinoza Kathleen Robertson Tiffani-Amber Thiessen Hilary Swank Vanessa Marcil Lindsay Price Daniel Cosgrove Vincent Young Country of origin  United States No. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SABC is an abbreviation for either South African Broadcasting Corporation - in South Africa or Shrewsbury and Atcham Borough Council - in the United Kingdom ... KykNet is a South African television channel, which broadcasts in Afrikaans. ... MK89 is an Afrikaans music channel, launched in mid 2005, that is part of the DSTVbouquet of satellite channels owned by MultiChoice/M-Net, based in South Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Zulu (isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ...


Oceania

In common with other English-speaking countries, there has traditionally been little dubbing in Australia, with foreign language television programmes and films being shown (usually on SBS) with subtitles. This has also been the case in New Zealand, but the Maori Television Service, launched in 2004, has dubbed animated films, like Watership Down, into Maori. The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ... The Māori Television Service is a state sector organisation in New Zealand that was established on May 7, 2003 under the Māori Television Service (Te Aratuku Whakāta Irirangi Māori) Act 2003 to replace the Te Reo Māori Television Trust (Te... Watership Down is an animated film directed by Martin Rosen and based on the book Watership Down by Richard Adams. ... Māori (or Maori) is a language spoken by the native peoples of New Zealand and the Cook Islands. ...


Insistence on Subtitling

Main article: Subtitle (captioning)

Subtitles can be used instead of dubbing, as different countries have different traditions regarding the choice between dubbing and subtitling. In most English-speaking countries, dubbing is comparatively rare. In Israel, some programmes need to be comprehensible to speakers of both Hebrew and Arabic or Russian. This cannot be accomplished with dubbing, so subtitling is much more commonplace - sometimes even with subtitles in both languages, with the soundtrack remaining in the original language, usually English. The same thing also applies to certain television shows in Finland, where Finnish and Swedish are both official languages. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Closed captioning. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Closed captioning. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


In the Netherlands, Flanders, Nordic countries and Estonia, films and television programmes are shown in the original language (usually English) with subtitles, and only cartoons and children movies and programs are dubbed, such as the Harry Potter series, Finding Nemo, Shrek, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory etc. Cinemas usually both show a dubbed version and one with subititles of this kind of movies, with the subtitled version later in the evening. Flanders (Dutch: ) is a large historical region overlapping Belgium, France and the Netherlands. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is a 2005 film, based on the 1964 Roald Dahl childrens novel of the same name. ...


In Portugal this has traditionally also been the case (at least for live-action material), but one terrestrial channel, TVI, dubs US series like Dawson's Creek into Portuguese. RTP also transmitted Friends in a dubbed version, but it was poorly received and later reaired in a subtitled version. Cartoons, on the other hand, are usually dubbed, sometimes by well-known actors, even on TV. Animated movies are usually released to the cinemas in both subtitled and dubbed versions. TVI - Televisão Independente or Independent Television is Portugals fourth terrestrial television channel, launched in 1993. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Dawsons Creek Dawsons Creek is an American primetime television drama, which first aired from January 20, 1998, to May 14, 2003, on The WB network. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ...


On DVDs with higher translation budgets, the option for both types will often be provided to account for individuals' preferences; purists often demand subtitles. For small markets (small language area or films for a select audience) subtitling is more suitable because it is cheaper. For films for small children, who can not yet read, or not yet very fast, dubbing is necessary. DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... A purist is one who desires that a particular item remain true to its essence and free from adulterating or diluting influences. ...


Other uses

Dubbing is occasionally used on network television broadcasts of films which have dialogue that the network executives or censors have decided to replace; this is usually done to remove profanity. In most cases, the original actor does not perform this duty; instead, an actor with a similar voice is called in. The results are sometimes seamless, but in many cases the voice of the replacement actor sounds nothing like the original performer, which becomes particularly noticeable when extensive dialogue needs to be replaced. Also, often easy to notice, is the sudden absence of background noise during the dubbed dialogue. Among the films considered notorious for using substitute actors that sound very different from their theatrical counterparts are the Smokey and the Bandit and Die Hard film series as shown on broadcasters such as TBS. A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... Censorship is defined as the removal and withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Smokey and the Bandit is a 1977 movie starring Burt Reynolds, Sally Field, Jackie Gleason, Jerry Reed, Pat McCormick, Paul Williams, and Mike Henry. ... Die Hard is a Hollywood action film released in 1988. ... TBS also stands for Tokyo Broadcasting System, a Japanese television network. ...


Dubbing is commonly used in science fiction television as well. Sound generated by effects equipment such as animatronic puppets or by actors' movements on elaborate multi-level plywood sets (e.g., starship bridges or other command centers) will quite often make the original character dialogue unusable. Stargate and Farscape are two prime examples where ADR is used heavily to produce usable audio. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... An activated Stargate, the central object of the fictional Stargate universe, here depicted in the SG-1 television series. ... Farscape (1999–2003) is a science fiction television series, featuring a present-day astronaut who accidentally travels through a wormhole to a distant part of the galaxy. ...


Since many anime series contain some amount of profanity, the studios recording the English dubs often re-record certain lines if a series or movie is going to be broadcast on Cartoon Network, removing references to death and hell as well. Some companies will offer both an edited version and uncut version of the series on DVD, so there is also an edited script in case the series is broadcast. Other companies also edit the full-length version of a series, meaning that even on the uncut DVD, characters say things like "Blast!" "Darn!" in place of the original dialogue's profanity (Bandai Entertainment's English dub of G Gundam is infamous for this, among many other things). Cartoon Network (commonly referred to as CN) is a cable television network created by Turner Broadcasting which primarily shows animated programming. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Japanese toy manufacturer. ... After Mobile Suit Victory Gundam finished airing in Japan in early 1994, Bandai celebrated Gundams 15th anniversary by trying something new: free the franchise from the continuity of the Universal Century (and sell more model kits). ...


Although there are many fans who prefer the series dubbed in English, there are still many people who would prefer the undubbed version to air on TV, only with subtitles.


Dubbing into a foreign language does not always entail the deletion of the original language; in some countries, a performer may read the translated dialogue as a voiceover. This often occurs in Russia and Poland, where "lektories" or "lektors" read the translated dialogue into Russian and Polish. In Poland, a single person reads all parts of the performance, both male and female. However, it is almost exclusively done for the television and home video markets, while theatrical releases are usually subtitled. Though, as of recently, the amount of high-quality, fully dubbed films has increased, especially for cartoons and children's movies. If a quality dubbed version exists for some film, it is shown in theaters (however, some films, such as Harry Potter or Star Wars, are shown in both dubbed and subtitled versions varying with the time of the show) as well as on TV (although some channels drop it and do standard one narrator translation) and VHS/DVD. In other countries, like Vietnam, the voiceover technique is also used for theatrical releases. This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ...


In Russia, the reading of all lines by a single person is referred to as a Gavrilov translation, and is generally found only in pirated copies of films and on cable television. Professional copies always include at least two actors of opposite gender translating the dialogue (some titles in Poland have been dubbed this way, too, but this method lacks public appeal so it is very rare now). A Gavrilov translation (Russian: перевод Гаврилова [perevod Gavrilova]) is the term commonly used for Russian language localisations of foreign movies where dubbing is done by a single, usually male, voice artist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ...


On special occasions, such as film festivals, live translation is often done by professional interpreters. See also dubtitle. A film festival is the presentation or showcasing of films in one or more movie theaters or screening venues. ... Interpreter can mean one of the following: In communication, an interpreter is a person whose role is to facilitate dialogue between two parties that do not use the same language. ... A dubtitle is a subtitled program where the subtitle track is a transcription of the dialogue spoken on the dubbed soundtrack. ...


Criticism and defense of dubbing

Dubbing has been criticised in several ways, particularly in countries where it is not common practice.


Those who dislike dubbing sometimes claim that it devalues films or TV programs, as original soundtracks are closer to what the director intended. Some feel that dubbing can make the film or program less authentic. For example, Nazi officers in WWII movies can be distracting to some if not speaking German, while in the German-dubbed versions of these films, the contrast between the Nazis and the heroes is lost. Likewise, some claim it is distracting in English dubbed anime when many characters speak in North American accents, which may not match their ethnicity and nationality or the time and setting of the story. Similarly, in dubbed versions the different accents of the protagonists which may be important to the story (for example in Upstairs, Downstairs, portraying the lives of a upper-class London family and their servants in the early 20th century) can not always be adequately reproduced in certain languages. In addition, a significant part of actor's performance consists of their vocal inflections. Very often, memorable lines from popular films are frequently quoted, not for their substance, but for the way they were spoken; a good example is a famous sentence, uttered by Jack Nicholson, in the film A Few Good Men, "You can't handle the truth!". For these reasons, some may feel they miss part of film's artistic value when watching a film dubbed into another language. National Socialism redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Upstairs, Downstairs was a BAFTA and Emmy award-winning British drama set in a large Edwardian townhouse in London that depicted the lives of the servants downstairs and their masters upstairs. It ran on ITV for five series from 1971 to 1975. ... Nicholson as Wilbur Force in The Little Shop of Horrors (1960). ... A Few Good Men, a play by Aaron Sorkin, was acclaimed on Broadway and was subsequently made into a successful film in 1992. ...


Also, lip synchronization is normally lost when dubbing, even with quality dubbing between closely related languages. There are examples which have been reshot or reanimated to remedy this problem.


Defenders of dubbing maintain that subtitling interferes with the visual experience, as it obscures part of the picture. Some people also find that the act of reading itself is distracting, especially in pictures that rely on subtle motion: one would be too busy reading the subtitles to pay attention to what everyone is doing. Also, some viewers who understand both the original language and the language used in the subtitles say they find that it is confusing and distracting to mentally process the dialogues in both languages at the same time. In other cases, viewers may not consider subtitling (and alternate forms of translation) to be distracting or inadequate; rather, they simply chose to listen to dubbed versions as a matter of personal preference. These people sometimes argue that as long as dubbing does not prevent others from viewing programs in the language format that they chose, it finds its merit simply because there are people who enjoy dubbing.


In many European countries, Hollywood movies are regularly dubbed and some people maintain that a creative translation (not necessarily faithful to the original English words) can bring more fun and depth to films, so that the supposedly more demanding European audience will not find them as tedious. In Hungary it is common for translators to create the Hungarian text to rhyme for comedies and cartoons with well-known local actors providing their voices to read it. The most famous example is perhaps the The Flintstones, with its entire Hungarian text in rhymes. The Flintstones is an American animated television series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions. ...


In the case of languages with large communities (like English, Chinese, German, Spanish or French), a single translation may sound foreign to some groups, or even all of them. This is why a film may be translated to a certain language more than once: for example, the animated movie The Incredibles was translated to European Spanish, Mexican Spanish, Venezuelan Spanish and Rioplatense Spanish. However, people from Chile and Uruguay clearly noticed a strong porteño accent from most of the characters of the Rioplatense Spanish translation. The Incredibles is a 2004 Academy Award-winning animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures, centering around a family of superheroes. ... Mexican Spanish is the form of the Spanish language spoken in Mexico by over 99% of the population. ... Venezuelan Spanish is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken in Venezuela. ... Main urban centers of Rioplatense Spanish. ... Porteño is the Spanish demonym for those born in the Argentine city of Buenos Aires. ...


The many martial arts movies from Hong Kong that were imported under the unofficial banner Kung Fu Theater were notorious for their seemingly careless dubbing which included poor lip sync and awkward dialogue. Being that the results were frequently unintentionally hilarious, this has become one of the hallmarks that endear these films to part of the 1980s culture. During the 1980s, many martial arts movies appeared on North American syndicated television nationwide. ...


New technology

It is now becoming possible to overcome some of the problems associated with dubbing using new technology. An application developed at New York University, known as Video Rewrite, uses computer animation to match lip movements with the new voice track. In a video clip made using this technology, John F. Kennedy appears to be saying "Video Rewrite gives lip-synced movies".[2] New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational institution in New York City. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, Kennedy, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ...


[http://www.thekitchen.tv The Kitchen, an Emmy Award Winning US-based dubbing company, has developed software which allows more efficient production of dubbing and subtitling projects.


Voxonic, company based in USA has successfully developed proprietary patent-pending software, which transforms voices, making it possible to replicate any person's voice in any language. A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a patentee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...


Media Movers, Inc., a dubbing company,has developed a proprietary software which can automatically sync ADR/dubbed tracks with pre-defined algorithms.They are also in re-search for "voice" mapping for limited usuage. Proprietary indicates that a party, or proprietor, exercises private ownership, control or use over an item of property, usually to the exclusion of other parties. ... Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms. ...


References

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Dubbing (filmmaking) (2713 words)
In India, where "foreign films" are synonymous with Hollywood films, dubbing is done mostly in some regional languages and the finished works are released into the towns and lower tier settlements of the respective states (where English penetration is low), often with the English language originals being released in the metros of the same.
Dubbing is occasionally used on network television broadcasts of films which have dialogue that the network executives or censors have decided to replace; this is usually done to remove profanity.
Dubbing into a foreign language does not always entail the deletion of the original language; in some countries, a performer may read the translated dialogue as a voiceover.
Dubbing (filmmaking) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2931 words)
Dubbing has been criticised in several ways, patricularly in countries where it is not common practice.
Also, a common criticism in English dubbed anime is the proliferation of all characters speaking in various North American or Mid-Atlantic accents, regardless of the character's ethnicity and nationality and regardless of the time and setting of the story.
Similarly, in dubbed versions the different accents of the protagonists which are often vital for the story (for example in Upstairs, Downstairs, portraing the lives of a upper-class London family and their servants in the early 20th century) can not adequately reproduced.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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