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Dualism denotes a state of two parts. The word's origin is the Latin duo, "two" . The term 'dualism' was originally coined to denote co-eternal binary opposition, a meaning that is preserved in metaphysical and philosophical discourse but has been diluted in general usage. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Socrates. ... Dualism may refer to: Dualism, the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other Dualism (philosophy of mind), a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical Property... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In critical theory, a binary opposition is a pair of theoretical opposites, often organized in a hierarchy. ...

Contents

Moral dualism

Moral dualism is the belief of the coexistence (in eastern and naturalistic religions) or conflict (in western religions) between the "benevolent" and the "malignant". Most religious systems have some form of moral dualism - in western religions, for instance, a conflict between good and evil. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Like ditheism/bitheism (see below), moral dualism does not imply the absence of monist or monotheistic principles. Moral dualism simply implies that there are two moral opposites at work, independent of any interpretation of what might be "moral" and - unlike ditheism/bitheism - independent of how these may be represented. For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ...


For example, Mazdaism (Mazdaen Zoroastrianism) is both dualistic and monotheistic (but not monist) since in that philosophy God—the Creator—is purely good, and the antithesis—which is also uncreated—is an absolute one. Zurvanism (Zurvanite Zoroastrianism), Manichaeism and Mandaeism, are representative of dualistic and monist philosophies since each has a supreme and transcendental First Principle from which the two equal-but-opposite entities then emanate. This is also true for the lesser-known Christian gnostic religions, such as Bogomils, Catharism, etc. More complex forms of monist dualism also exist, for instance in Hermeticism, where Nous "thought" - that is described to have created man - brings forth both good and evil, depending on whether it receives prompting from God or from the demons. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Religions Mandaeism Scriptures Ginza Rba, Qolusta Languages Mandaic, Arabic, Aramaic Mandaeism or Mandaeanism is a monotheistic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the Slavic name Bogomil - see here Bogomilism (Bulgarian: ) is the Gnostic dualistic sect, the synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the Bulgarian Slavonic Church reform movement, which emerged in Bulgaria between 927 and 970 and spread into Byzantine Empire, Serbia, Bosnia, Italy and France. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... This article is about the magical and religious movement stemming from the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus. ... Nous (Νους) is a Greek word (pronounced noose), that corresponds to the English words intelligence, intellect, or mind. ...


Ditheism/Bitheism

See also: Dualistic cosmology

In theology, 'dualism' may also refer to 'bitheism', 'duotheism' or 'ditheism'. Although ditheism/bitheism imply moral dualism, they are not equivalent: ditheism/bitheism implies (at least) two gods, while moral dualism does not imply any -theism (theos = god) whatsoever. Dualistic cosmology is a collective term, the present article shows certain myths and motifs which are termed as such in the ethnographic and anthropological literature. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For other uses, see God. ...


Both 'bitheism' and 'ditheism' imply a belief in two equally powerful gods with complementary properties. However, while bitheism implies harmony, ditheism implies rivality and opposition, such as between Good and Evil. For example, a ditheistic system would be one in which one god is creative, the other is destructive (cf. theodicy). In a bitheistic system, one god could be male and the other female (cf. duotheism). However, bitheistic and ditheistic principles are not always so easily contrastable, for instance in a system where one god is the representative of summer and drought and the other of winter and rain/fertility (cf. the mythology of Persephone). Marcionism, a nominally Christian sect (but denounced as a heresy), held that the Old and New Testaments were the work of two opposing gods: both were First Principles, but of different religions. Theodicy (IPA: ) (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God, i. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. ...


In Eastern mysticism

The yin and yang symbolizes the duality in nature and all things in the Taoist religion.
The yin and yang symbolizes the duality in nature and all things in the Taoist religion.

Alternatively, dualism can mean the tendency of humans to perceive and understand the world as being divided into two overarching categories.However that definition is considered a tad contoversial. In this sense, it is dualistic when one perceives a tree as a thing separate from everything surrounding it, or when one perceives a "self" that is distinct from the rest of the world. In mystic traditions such as Zen, a key to enlightenment is "transcending" this sort of dualistic thinking, without merely substituting dualism with monism or pluralism. Image File history File links Yin_yang. ... Image File history File links Yin_yang. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ...


The opposition and combination of the universe's two basic principles of yin and yang is a large part of Taoist religion. Some of the common associations with Yang and Yin, respectively, are: male and female, light and dark, active and passive, motion and stillness. Although, these interpretations are just the common concepts which are some aspects derived from the greater concepts of Yin and Yang. The Tai-Chi in actuality has very little to do with Western dualism, instead it represents the Eastern dualism philosophy of balance, where two opposites co-exist in harmony and are able to transmute into each other. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Darkness is the absence of light. ...


The complementary aspects of masculinity and femininity are revered by certain Neo-pagan religions. Manliness redirects here. ... In some cultures, makeup is associated with femininity. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ...


Mind/Matter and Mind/Body dualism

In philosophy of mind

In philosophy of mind, dualism is any of a narrow variety of views about the relationship between mind and matter, which claims that mind and matter are two ontologically separate categories. In particular, mind-body dualism claims that neither the mind nor matter can be reduced to each other in any way, and thus is opposed to materialism in general, and reductive materialism in particular. Mind-body dualism can exist as substance dualism which claims that the mind and the body are composed of a distinct substance, and as property dualism which claims that there may not be a distinction in substance, but that mental and physical properties are still categorically distinct, and not reducible to each other. This type of dualism is sometimes referred to as "mind and body" and stands in contrast to philosophical monism, which views mind and matter as being ultimately the same kind of thing. See also Cartesian dualism, substance dualism, epiphenomenalism. René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Type physicalism (also known as Type Identity Theory, Type-Type theory or just Identity Theory) is the theory, in the philosophy of mind, which asserts that mental events are type-identical to the physical events in the brain with which they are correlated. ... René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... Property dualism is a philosophy of mind, and a subbranch of emergent materialism. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... Epiphenomenalism is a view in philosophy of mind according to which some or all mental states are mere epiphenomena (side-effects or by-products) of physical states of the world. ...


The belief that body and spirit exist as two separate entities was first documented in approximately 1000 B.C. by Zoroastrianism, and has become a very common view to the present day. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


In Buddhist philosophy

During the classical era of Buddhist philosophy in India, philosophers such as Dharmakirti argue for a dualism between states of consciousness and Buddhist atoms (the basic building blocks that make up reality), according to "the standard interpretation" of Dharmakirti's Buddhist metaphysics.[1] Typically in Western philosophy, dualism is considered to be a dualism between mind (nonphysical) and brain (physical), which ultimately involves mind interacting with the physical brain, and therefore also interacting with the micro-particles (basic building blocks) that make up the brain tissue. Buddhist dualism, in Dharmakirti’s sense, is different in that it is not a dualism between the mind and brain, but rather between states of consciousness (nonphysical) and basic building blocks (according to the Buddhist atomism of Dharmakirti, Buddhist atoms are also nonphysical: they are unstructured points of energy). Like so many Buddhists from 600-1000 CE, Dharmakirti’s philosophy involved mereological nihilism, meaning that other than states of consciousness, the only things that exist are momentary quantum particles, much like the particles of quantum physics (quarks, electrons, etc.). Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Dharmakirti (circa 7th century), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Buddhist Atomism Dharmakirtis tradition of Buddhist atomism Buddhist atoms in the tradition of Buddhist atomism underwent a very rich period during the time of Dharmakirti. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... Mereological nihilism (also called compositional nihilism, or what some philosophers just call nihilism) is the position that objects with proper parts do not exist (not only objects in space, but also objects existing in time do not have any temporal parts), and only basic building blocks without parts exist (e. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ...


Soul dualism

Main article: Soul dualism

In some cultures, people (or also other beings) are believed to have two (or more) kinds of soul. In several cases, one of these souls is associated with body functions (and is sometimes thought to disappear after death), and the other one is able to leave the body (e.g. a shaman's free-soul may be held to be able to undertake a spirit journey). The plethora of soul types may be even more complex. Soul dualism or a dualistic soul concept is a range of beliefs that a person has two (or more) kinds of souls. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...


Consciousness/Matter dualism

In Samkhya philosophy

Correctly distinguishing between Self (Spirit/Consciousness Purusha) and Matter/Nature (Prakrti) is of central importance to Samkhya Philosophy. Samkhya Philosophy elaborates a fundamental dualism between such aware Selves and all the phenomena that is presented to such Selves by Matter/Nature. Such phenomena of Matter/Nature includes reflections of the intellect, the faculty that makes things personal (the I-Maker/Ahamkara), the instinctual mind (manas), the capacities to perceive sense data, the capacities to act, the principles of the elements of sense perception, and the gross elements. These arise when Prakriti is in the presence of a Purusha, and they become enmeshed and entangled when there is mis-identification between Prakriti and Purusha. False confusion between the Self and what is not the Self is considered the fundamental ignorance that perpetuates bondage in this world. Liberation is sought by becoming aware of such distinctions on a very deep level of personal knowledge, so that one may eventually use the great faculty of the mind -- intellectual reflection (Buddhi/Mahat) -- without mistakenly identifying it with the Purusha, and then the effects of such entanglement will unravel and one will no longer be bound by incarnations or confused by Prakriti.[citation needed] In Hinduism, Purusha (Sanskrit man, Cosmic Man, in Sutra literature also called man) is the self which pervades the universe. ... Prakrti or Prakriti (from Sanskrit language) is, according to samkhya philosophy, the basic matter of which the universe consists. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ...

In Vedanta philosophy

The Vedanta philosophy is divided into dvaita (dualistic) and advaita (non-dualistic). Neither propose dualism in consciousness and matter. While the dvaita philosophy distinguishes between atman and brahman, the advaita philosophy looks at everything as Brahman which has three fundamental attributes sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss). Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ä€tmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... Saccidānanda or Sat-cit-ānanda (Sanskrit: सच्चिदानंद) is a compound of three Sanskrit words, Sat (सत्), Cit (चित्), and Ä€nanda (आनंद) (the ā is of longer vocal length), meaning True Being, Pure Consciousness and Bliss respectively. ...


Advaita vedanta insists that the experiential personal realization of unity of everything must be achieved. Until a person achieves such realization, advaita vedanta uses the Sanhkya dualism of consciousness and matter for describing the world.


In philosophy of science

In philosophy of science, dualism often refers to the dichotomy between the "subject" (the observer) and the "object" (the observed). Criticism of Western science may label this kind of dualism as a flaw in the nature of science itself. In part, this has something to do with potentially complicated interactions between the subject and the object, of the sort discussed in the social construction literature.[citation needed] Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as...


In contemporary feminist theory

A theory relating to dualism and a contemporary feminist world view is presented by Susan Bordo. Bordo contends that dualism has shaped Western culture since the time of Plato, through Augustine and René Descartes, up to the present day. Susan Bordo (born 1947), a modern feminist philosopher, is well known for her contributions to the field of contemporary cultural studies, particularly in the area of “body studies. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Descartes redirects here. ...


All three of these philosophers provide instructions, rules or models as to how to gain control over the body, with the ultimate aim of learning to live without it. The mind is superior to the body, and strength comes from disregarding the body's existence to reach an elevated spiritual level.


Bordo believes that the influx of various patterns of disordered eating, particularly the overwhelming rise in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, is the most telling and compelling argument that dualism is central to modern thinking. Furthermore, Western dualism is an adulterated form of historical philosophical dualism, an artificial mode of hegmonic power regulations. To cognitively and practically adopt the mode of Western dualisms is often a dangerous and oppressive way of looking at the world. For example, those who are anorexic seek to gain ultimate control, and depriving oneself of food makes one a master of one's own body, which creates a sense of purity and perfection. Again, Bordo contends that this stems from dualism, the mythological separation of the mind and body. For other uses, see Anorexia. ... Bulimia nervosa, commonly known as bulimia, is an eating disorder and psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation and intentional purging to compensate for the excessive eating, usually to prevent weight gain (see anorexia nervosa). ... For other uses, see Anorexia. ...


Ecofeminist philosopher Val Plumwood argues in Feminism and the Mastery of Nature that a logical thought process inherent in the dualistic relationship is necessary to justify exploitation and oppression of the other. The formation process of these ideologies is apparent within the five characteristics of dualisms. They are: Val Plumwood (born 1939), formerly Val Routley, is an Australian ecofeminist intellectual and activist, who has been prominent in the development of radical ecosophy since the early 1970s. ...


(1) Backgrounding—The master denies the essentialness of and dependency on the other. (2) Radical Exclusion/ Hyperseparation—All differences between the groups are made to have positive and negative connotations. Continuities between the master and the other are denied. (3) Incorporation—The master creates the norm, and the other is seen as substandard. The other cannot be independently identified, but is dependent on the master for its specification. (4) Instrumentalism—The other is objectified and made an instrument or resource to the master. The other must set aside its own welfare to serve the master. (5) Homogenization/Stereotyping—This is necessary within each of the two groups to reinforce and naturalize the differences between the groups.


In recent religious and philosophical movements

In recent years, after European Imperialism, the distinction between "eastern" and "western" philosophy has been less significant than in previous times. In the wake of these changes new religious and philosophical movements have drawn freely upon many of the world's religions to attract new initiates.[citation needed] Dualism is often cited within these groups, along with ideas of oneness, wholeness and theories of multiple intelligences. Oneness is a spiritual term referring to the experience of the absence of egoic identity boundaries, and, according to some traditions, the realization of the awareness of the absolute interconnectedness of all matter and thought in space-time, or ones ultimate identity with God (see Tat Tvam Asi). ... Multiple intelligences is educational theory put forth by psychologist Howard Gardner, which suggests that an array of different kinds of intelligence exists in human beings. ...


In the Emin Society (printed in their archives) Dualism is presented as the Law of Two, which is said to have seven levels: What was once called the Emin Society or the Emin Foundation is now an international network of independent groups collectively known as The Template Network. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ...

  • First level: Apparent Opposites
  • Second level: The apparent opposites are actually two ends of the same bar (or the North-South vector is split by the East-West vector) (or the law of things adjacent)
  • Third level: Pitching and Yawing, (or Basque bargaining)
  • Fourth level: Balance and Movement
  • Fifth level: Solve and Coagulate
  • Sixth level: Over and Under Compensation
  • Seventh level: Apparent movement between two poles (or hot and cold)

The Discordian religion has two competing forces that rely on each other: Order and Chaos. These two are further separated, falling into either constructive or destructive versions of Order and Chaos. This is illustrated by the Discordian Hodge Podge (also Sacred Chao), a symbol that is similar in design to the Taoist yin yang. This article is about vectors that have a particular relation to the spatial coordinates. ... Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. ... The yaw angle is the angle between a vehicles heading and a reference heading (normally true or magnetic North). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ... In engineering, compensation is planning for side effects or other unintended issues in a design. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Discordianism is a modern, chaos-centered religion founded circa 1958–1959 by Malaclypse the Younger with the publication of its principal text, the Principia Discordia. ... For other uses, see Chaos (disambiguation). ... Discordianism is a modern, chaos-centered religion founded circa 1958–1959 by Malaclypse the Younger with the publication of its principal text, the Principia Discordia. ...


Political dualism

In politics, dualism refers to the separation between the legislature and executive power, which keeps a balance between the two, ensuring government doesn't go against the will of the people's representatives. This is an important aspect of the political system in the Netherlands, where it was laid down in the 1815 constitution and it applies to all three government levels (country, province and municipality). Members of government are not member of parliament. At the municipal level, however, this was only realised in 2002, so now aldermen are no longer member of the city council. A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ...


See also

René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... Duality is the name of the first single from Slipknots third studio album (fourth when counting their independently released EP, Mate Feed Kill Repeat) Vol. ... The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... The form of the fallacy of false dichotomy as an argument map with the conclusion at the top of the tree. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... The term nondual is a literal translation of the Sanskrit term advaita, (meaning not two). ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ... The term rhizome has been used by Carl Jung as a metaphor, and by Gilles Deleuze as a concept, and refers to the botanical rhizome. ... Dualistic cosmology is a collective term, the present article shows certain myths and motifs which are termed as such in the ethnographic and anthropological literature. ... Below are words that designate a set or subset of beliefs. ... Acosmism, in contrast to pantheism, denies the reality of the universe, seeing it as ultimately illusory, (the prefix a- in Greek meaning negation; like un- in English), and only the infinite unmanifest Absolute as real. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Atheist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article discusses Humanism as a non-theistic life stance. ... In philosophical debates about free will and determinism, libertarianism is generally held to be the combination of the following beliefs: that free will is incompatible with determinism that human beings do possess free will, and that determinism is false All libertarians subscribe to the philosophy of incompatibilism which states that... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... The New Thought Movement or New Thought is comprised of a loosely allied group of denominations, organizations, authors, philosophers, and individuals who share a set of metaphysical beliefs concerning healing, life force, visualization, and personal power. ... The term nondual is a literal translation of the Sanskrit term advaita, (meaning not two). ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun : will, from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... Below are words that designate a set or subset of beliefs. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Georges B.J. Dreyfus, Recognizing Reality, SUNY Press 1996 (ISBN 978-0791430989)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dualism (761 words)
Dualism is the concept that our mind is more than just our brain.
If dualism is not true, the mind is limited to the physical brain.
With dualism we would expect the spiritual mind to have similar attributes to that of its source.
Dualism - LoveToKnow 1911 (1186 words)
Dualism is also used in a special theological sense to describe a doctrine of the Nestorian heresy.
This blind dualism found its natural consequence in the revolt of the Renaissance thinkers, Bruno and Paracelsus, who asserted the unity of mind and matter in all existence and were the precursors of the more intelligent monism of Leibnitz and the scientific metaphysics of his successors.
It follows that philosophy is in a sense both dualist and monist; it is a cosmic dualism inasmuch as it admits the possible existence of matter as a hypothesis, though it denies the possibility of any true knowledge of it, and is hence in regard of the only possible knowledge an idealistic monism.
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