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Encyclopedia > Dual carriageway
A typical British dual carriageway, this one being the A63(T) near Hull

A dual carriageway or divided highway is a road or highway in which the two directions of traffic are separated by a central barrier or strip of land, known as a central reservation or median. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 194 KB) Picture of the A63(T) looking west from near Brough I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 194 KB) Picture of the A63(T) looking west from near Brough I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The A63 is a major road in Yorkshire, England. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The second proper album of Beth Orton, Central Reservation helped Orton build on the success of her debut Trailer Park. ...

Contents

United Kingdom

In the UK, although the term dual carriageway applies to any road with physically separated lanes, it is frequently used as a descriptive term for major routes built in this style. Such major dual carriageways usually have two lanes of traffic in each direction, with the lane nearest the centre being reserved for overtaking. Occasionally dual carriageways have only one lane in each direction, or more than two lanes each way (usually to permit easier overtaking of slower uphill traffic). Different speed limits apply on dual carriageway sections from those that apply on single carriageway sections of the same class of road, except in cities and built-up areas where the dual carriageway is more of a safety measure, often intended to prevent pedestrians from crossing a busy road. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A typical arterial single carriageway: the A511 Ashby-de-la Zouch bypass Diagram of types of road in the UK Single carriageway is the British designation for the most common type of road; one with no physical separation (central reservation) between opposing flows of traffic. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Diagram of types of road in the UK
Diagram of types of road in the UK

When first constructed, many dual carriageways - including the first motorways - had no crash or other barriers in the central reservation. Hence in the event of delays on the road, or if a driver missed his exit, there was a widespread problem of drivers making a U-turn onto the other carriageway; many accidents were caused as a result of their misjudging the speed of approaching traffic on the other carriageway when doing so. The majority of dual carriageway roads now have barriers. Some are heavy concrete obstructions which can have the effect of bouncing a vehicle back into the path of other traffic; others are made from steel ropes mounted on moderately weak posts, where the rope cuts into the vehicle body to slow the vehicle while keeping it against the barrier until it has stopped. Image File history File links Uk_carriageway_guide. ... Image File history File links Uk_carriageway_guide. ...


Turning right (that is, across the line of traffic heading in the opposite direction) is usually permitted only at specific locations. Often the driver will be required to turn left (away from the dual carriageway) in order to loop around to an access road that permits crossing the major road. Roundabouts on dual carriageways are relatively common, especially in cities or where the cost of a grade-separated junction would be prohibitive. A roundabout or rotary is a type of road junction (or traffic calming device) at which traffic enters a stream around a central island after first yielding (giving way) to the circulating traffic. ...


A long-distance dual carriageway with grade-separated junctions and which meets other requirements may be upgraded to motorway standard, denoted as an (M) added after the road number (eg. "A1(M)"). Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... Sign at Junction 1 of the A1(M) at South Mimms in Hertfordshire The A1 is the longest numbered road in the UK at 409 miles (658 km) long. ...


Confusion

While most drivers are clear about what a motorway is, some are confused about the definition of a dual carriageway. For a road to be classed as a dual carriageway, the two directions of traffic flow must be physically separated by a central reservation.[1] A road where the two directions of flow are separated only by lines painted on the road surface is a single carriageway, regardless of the number of traffic lanes that may be available to the traffic in each direction. So a road with three or four lanes is not a dual carriageway if there is no central reservation. Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... The mathematical study of traffic flow, and in particular vehicular traffic flow, is done with the aim to get a better understanding of these phenomena and to assist in prevention of traffic congestion problems. ... The second proper album of Beth Orton, Central Reservation helped Orton build on the success of her debut Trailer Park. ...


Speed Limits

The national speed limit applies on dual carriageways (unless it is in a 'built up area', or a lower limit is posted), which is as follows: An Example of a United Kingdom National speed limit roadsign. ... Highway Code graphic representing a Built up area A Built up area is the term used in the UK Highway Code to describe the surroundings where the speed limit of a road is automatically 30mph. ...

National speed limits on dual carriageways in the UK
Type of vehicle Speed limit
Car up to 2 tonnes/motorcycle 70 mph (about 110 km/h)
Car with caravan or trailer 60 mph (about 95 km/h)
Bus or coach up to 12 m long 60 mph
Goods vehicle up to 7.5 t 60 mph
Goods vehicle over 7.5 t 50 mph (about 80 km/h)

Karl Benzs Velo model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race An automobile or motor car (usually shortened to just car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. ... A travel trailer or caravan is a trailer towed behind a road vehicle (or even a horse) to provide a place to sleep which is more comfortable, sheltered and protected than a tent (although there are fold-down tent trailers [1]) . It provides the means for people to have their... A Go North East bus parked in a lay-by in Tyne and Wear, England. ... // Original meaning and etymology The original meaning of the term coach was: a horse-drawn vehicle designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger — and of mail — and covered for protection from the elements. ...

Ireland

A typical modern Irish dual carriageway (opened 2004) along the N11, south of Newtownmountkennedy. On motorways, the yellow hard shoulder markings are unbroken.
A typical modern Irish dual carriageway (opened 2004) along the N11, south of Newtownmountkennedy. On motorways, the yellow hard shoulder markings are unbroken.

Although in the Republic of Ireland the term dual carriageway technically applies to any road with physically separated lanes, it is usually used only to refer to those route sections that do not have a motorway designation. Most often it is national roads (roads with a route number prefix of N; e.g. N8) that are built as or upgraded to dual carriageway. A number of non-national roads (for example, regional roads) are dual carriageway, for example in urban areas near or in cities, or where the road was formerly part of a national route. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1354 KB) N11 south of Newtownmountkennedy, May 2005 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1354 KB) N11 south of Newtownmountkennedy, May 2005 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The N11 is a National Primary Route in Ireland, running along the east side of Ireland from Dublin to Wexford. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... The N8 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland connecting Cork with Dublin (via the N7). ... A Regional Road in the Republic of Ireland is a class of road not forming a major route (such as a National Primary Route, or National Secondary Route), but nevertheless forming a link in the national road network. ...


Dual carriageways of this class differ from motorways in a number of ways. The hard shoulder is demarkated with a dashed yellow line (as opposed to an unbroken yellow line on motorways). The standard speed limit of 100 km/h for national routes usually applies (by default the limit is 80 km/h for non-national roads, even if dual carriageway). Local authorities have the power to apply a limit of up to 120 km/h as used on most motorways (as of 2006, the N2 north of the M50 is the only route section with such a special limit). Traffic lights and junctions are permitted at grade on dual carriageways. For older sections of dual carriageway, this has resulted in fewer flyover junctions. Newer dual carriageway sections are usually near motorway standard, with grade-separated junctions, but may not be designated as motorways due to the need to preserve access to adjoining property or to the absence of a non-motorway alternative route. Also, dual carriageways that are not motorway classified do not need to be equipped with emergency phones. The N2 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland, running from Dublin to the border with Northern Ireland at Moy Bridge near Aughnacloy, County Tyrone to connect Dublin with Derry via the A5]. // The N2 commences at a junction with the N1 along Dorset Street Upper. ... The M50 motorway is a motorway and National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland running in a C-shaped ring around the northern, western and southern sides of the capital city, Dublin. ...


Motorway restrictions only apply to motorway sections, rather than all dual carriageway sections of national roads (these are signposted with the N prefix on the route number, rather than M). Some national secondary roads, and regional roads in particular often have houses, schools and other developments fronting on to them. Less important national primary roads, and older sections not yet upgraded may also feature such developments built before the introduction the Irish Planning system in 1964. Today Irish planning policy prohibits development on National Primary or National Secondary roads where the speed limit exceeds 60 km/h (37 mph), this is at the direction of the National Roads Authority, however a County Council is not obliged to implement this policy and can disregard this policy at it own discretion. This would usually only occur in exceptional circumstances or where planners are over ruled by elected councillors using section 140 of the Local Government Act 2001. Accordingly, hard shoulders are included wherever feasible to provide for the resulting pedestrian and cyclist traffic, and are present on much of the national route network. These may also be used by motorised traffic under certain conditions. A national secondary road is a category of road in the Ireland. ... A typical Irish road sign in Mullingar, County Westmeath Ireland, both north and south of the border, has an extensive network of roads. ... A hard shoulder or simply shoulder is a reserved area alongside the verge of a road or motorway. ...


Until 2004/2005, many motorways and dual carriageways in Ireland did not have crash barriers in the central reservation, the policy being to use a wider median instead. These are now mandatory for such routes, and wire cabling or full crash barriers (depending on whether or not the route is a motorway, and median width) are being fitted to existing routes. shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


North America

In the U.S. this type of road may be called a divided highway and has a median strip between the traffic directions. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


In Canada, both divided highway and dual carriageway may be used for this type of road, although divided highway is more common (as dual carriageway is an older term being used less than it used to); however, the segment between the roadways is always a median strip rather than a central reservation. On some portions of Ontario's 400-series highway network, the median may be an "Ontario tall-wall" barrier rather than an unpaved strip. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... The 400-series Highway network in Southern Ontario. ...


Junctions may be at-grade or grade-separated, and there may be gaps in the median strip to allow turning and crossing. An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ...


Road Meanings

  • An undivided highway has no median, just painted double lines.
  • A divided highway has a median (a Jersey (concrete) Barrier, wire rope or a green median). This is known as a dual carriageway in the British Isles.
  • A limited-access highway or superhighway permits entry or exit only at designated on- and offramps. It has no single-level intersections or crossing traffic. This kind of highway is known as a motorway in the British Isles.
  • A tollway, toll highway, or (in some cases) turnpike is a limited-access highway that you pay a toll to use.
  • A freeway or (in some regions) expressway is a limited-access highway that has no toll.
  • In some parts of North America, roundabouts are rare. In others, they are known as rotaries.
  • Where roads meet, they may be joined using an 'at-grade' intersection (in North America, generally using traffic signals).
  • An 'arterial road' is a highway with at-grade intersections.
  • An 'intersection' is where two or more roads meet at a single level.
  • An 'interchange', such as a cloverleaf interchange is where two roads meet at two or more levels with no crossing traffic. Generally, at least one of the roads in an interchange is a limited-access highway or superhighway (also known as a tollway, freeway, or expressway).

Image File history File links Information. ... Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level interchange in which right turns (in countries that drive on the left) are handled by loop ramps. ...

Tollways/freeways/expressways

These are usually identified as divided highways with:

  • At least two lanes on each side
  • A speed limit of at least 80 km/h (50 miles per hour)
  • A hard shoulder on each side (although not all of them provide this)
  • No traffic lights
  • No driveways
  • A median (including wire rope, concrete (jersey) barrier, greenery of plants in the middle, etc)
  • No pedestrians, 'slow vehicles' or bicycles (although some allow bicycles on the shoulder)

China

The best examples of dual carriageways in mainland China can be seen on the China National Highways. On some routes, such as China National Highway 106, there is a central reservation. ... The China National Highways are a series of trunk roads throughout all of China. ... Related: Transportation of Beijing Part of the WikiProject Transportation in China Categories: Stub | Peoples Republic of China roads and expressways ...


Switzerland

Swiss dual carriageways are referred to as Autostrasse. There may or may not be a central reservation. Signpost to an Autostrasse (this one leads to the A1L motorroad leading out of central Zürich). ...


Singapore

A high proportion of roads in Singapore are dual carriageways with central reservations; examples include Clementi Road, Commonwealth Avenue and Holland Road. Often there might be railings erected on the central reservation to prevent pedestrians from dashing across the road. These usually have traffic lights along the way but flyovers and road tunnels (or 'underpasses') can be built to minimise the use of traffic lights; for example, at the Holland Road-Farrer Road-Queensway junction there are three levels of roads. Before the 1980s roundabouts were popular but since then many have been changed to traffic-light controlled junctions.


These dual carriageways are to be distinguished from motorways, known in Singapore as expressways such as the Pan-Island Expressway (PIE) and Ayer Rajah Expressway (AYE) where no traffic lights are used.


Australia

A typical dual carriageway in Melbourne, Australia.
A typical dual carriageway in Melbourne, Australia.

Examples of dual carriageway on non-urban roads in Australia include the Hume Highway and the Pacific Highway (Australia); The Hume Highway by 2012, will be 100% dual carriageway and the Pacific Highway by 2016 will also be 100% dual carriageway. Today, 90% of the Hume Highway is dual carriageway and today, only 40% or 280 kms of the Pacific Highway is dual carriageway, plus 10% of the Pacific Highway or 73 kms is under construction. Some parts of the Princes Highway and the Barton Highway are also dual carriageway. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x593, 207 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x593, 207 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The City of Melbournes coat of arms The central business district of Melbourne, viewed from the north Alternate meanings: Melbourne (disambiguation) Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia, with a population of 52,117 in the Central... The Hume is National 31 from Sydney to Albury . ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Princes Highway is a segment of Australias Highway 1 that extends from Sydney to Adelaide, via Melbourne. ... The Barton Highway is a short highway in New South Wales, Australia. ...


Sources:

AusLink is an Australian Government land transport funding program, established in June 2004 and administered by the Department of Transport and Regional Services. ... The Hume is National 31 from Sydney to Albury . ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

History

A very early example (perhaps the first) of a dual carriageway was the Via Portuensis, built in the 1st century by the Roman emperor Claudius between Rome and its port Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. This article needs to be wikified. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs...


In 1907 the Long Island Parkway opened and roughly 20% of it featured a semi-dual carriageway design. The New York City parkway system, which was built between 1907 and 1934, also pioneered the same design. However the majority of it featured concrete or brick railings as lane dividers as opposed to using grass mediums.


In 1924 the first Italian autostrada was opened running 34 miles from Milan to Varese. It featured a broad road bed and did not feature lane dividers except near cities and through the mountains. [2][3]


The London end of the Great West Road became Britain's first dual carriageway when it was opened in 1925 by King George V [1]. Hello my name Amit Sawhney and this is channel 4 news bringing you shocking news from the Great West Road LIVE... Irinder Khakha (not to be confused with the Brazilian footballer)has just a few minutes ago had a interview with our correspondent, Nacho Vidal. ...


In 1927 the Rome bypass was opened. It ran 57 miles bypassing Rome to the east. Almost the entire length featured a dual carriageway design. In the early 1930s it was extended southward all the way to Naples and northward to Florence. Most of the original routing was destroyed by the Allies in the Second World War. Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...

A German dual carriageway in the 1930s
A German dual carriageway in the 1930s

By 1930 several American and Europeon cities had built dual carriageway highways mostly to control traffic jams and/or to provide bypass routes for traffic. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3782x2742, 2242 KB) An automobile on the sweeping curves of the Autobahn with view of the countryside. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3782x2742, 2242 KB) An automobile on the sweeping curves of the Autobahn with view of the countryside. ...


In 1932 the first German Autobahn opened between Cologne and Bonn. It ran 13 miles and paved the way for future highways. Although it, like the first Autostrada, did not feature a dual carriageway design, it inspired the mass construction of future high speed roadways. It has been suggested that German Autobahns be merged into this article or section. ...


During the 1930s, Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union began construction of a network of dual carriageway expressways. By 1942, Germany had over 2,000 miles of dual carriageway roads, Italy had nearly 800, and the Soviet Union had 250.


In 1940 the Pennsylvania Turnpike was opened to traffic and at 160 miles long it was the first rural dual carriageway built in the United States. By 1955 several states had bulit dual carriageway freeways and turpikes and in 1957 the Interstate Highway System began. Completed in 1994, the major highway system links all the major cities of the United States. This Pennsylvania state route article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject Pennsylvania State Highways. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... Signpost to an Autostrasse (this one leads to the A1L motorroad leading out of central Zürich). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A typical arterial single carriageway: the A511 Ashby-de-la Zouch bypass Diagram of types of road in the UK Single carriageway is the British designation for the most common type of road; one with no physical separation (central reservation) between opposing flows of traffic. ...

External links

  • Department for Transport. Speed: Know your limits (PDF)

References

  1. ^ The Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 2002 opsi.gov.uk
  2. ^ German Myth 8: Hitler's Autobahn?. Retrieved on 2006-04-03.
  3. ^ 1924 Mile Posts. Retrieved on 2006-04-03.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dual carriageway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (899 words)
A dual carriageway or divided highway is a road or highway in which the two directions of traffic are separated by a central barrier or strip of land, known as a central reservation or median.
Different speed limits apply on dual carriageway sections from those that apply on single carriageway sections of the same class of road, except in cities and built-up areas where the dual carriageway is more of a safety measure, often intended to prevent pedestrians from crossing a busy road.
Roundabouts on dual carriageways are relatively common, especially in cities or where the cost of a grade-separated junction would be prohibitive.
dual carriageway - definition of dual carriageway in Encyclopedia (468 words)
A dual carriageway is a road or highway with a central barrier or strip of land, known as a central reservation or median, separating the two directions of traffic.
Different speed limits apply on dual carriageway sections than apply on single carriageway sections of the same class of road, except in cities and built-up areas where the dual carriageway is more of a safety measure, often intended to prevent pedestrians from crossing a busy road.
In the US a dual carriageway is referred to as a divided highway and has a median strip between the traffic directions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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