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Encyclopedia > DuPont
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
Type Public (NYSEDD (common stock), NYSEDDPRA, NYSEDDPRB (preferred stock))
Founded 1802
Headquarters Flag of the United States Wilmington, Delaware, USA
Key people Charles O. Holliday Jr., Chairman & CEO
Jeffrey L. Keefer, CFO
Richard R. Goodmanson, Exec. VP & COO
Thomas M. Connelly, CTO
Industry Chemicals - Plastics & Rubber
Products Neoprene, Nylon resins, Teflon, Delrin, Mylar, Kevlar, Nomex, Zemdrain, Corian and Tyvek
Revenue $28.982 Billion USD (2006)
Net income $3.148 Billion USD (2006)
Employees 60,000 (2005)
Website www.dupont.com

E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (NYSEDDPRA, NYSEDDPRB, NYSEDD) is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont. DuPont is currently the world's second largest chemical company (behind BASF) in terms of market capitalization and fourth (behind BASF, Dow Chemical and Ineos) in revenue. Its stock price is also a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Common stock, also referred to as common shares, are, as the name implies, the most usual and commonly held form of stock in a corporation. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Preferred stock, also called preferred shares or preference shares, is typically a higher ranking stock than voting shares, and its terms are negotiated between the corporation and the investor. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... Charles O. Holliday Jr. ... Thomas M. Connelly, Jr. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... Delrin is the brand name for an acetal resin engineering plastic invented and sold by DuPont. ... Mylar is a trade name of DuPont Teijin Films of Hopewell, VA, United States, for biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) polyester film used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, and electrical insulation. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ... It has been suggested that Avonite be merged into this article or section. ... Tyvek house wrap Tyvek suit Tyvek USPS Express Mail Envelope Tyvek is a brand of spunbonded olefin, a synthetic material made of high-density polyethylene fibers; the name is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... USD redirects here. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... USD redirects here. ... This article is about work. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Eleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours (June 24, 1771 – October 31, 1834) was born in Paris, France and emigrated with his father Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours to the United States in 1799. ... This article is about the German chemical company. ... Market capitalization, or market cap, is a measurement of corporate or economic size equal to the stock price times the number of shares outstanding of a public company. ... This article is about the German chemical company. ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, USA. In terms of market capitalization, it is the second-largest chemical company in the world, smaller than only DuPont. ... Ineos is a privately owned British chemicals company. ... Linear graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today Logarithmic graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today The Dow Jones Industrial Average (NYSE: DJI, also called the DJIA, Dow 30, or informally the Dow Jones or The Dow) is one of several stock market indices created by nineteenth-century...


In the twentieth century, DuPont led the polymer revolution by developing many highly successful materials such as Vespel, neoprene, nylon, Corian, Teflon, Mylar, Kevlar, Zemdrain, M5 fiber, Nomex, Tyvek and Lycra. DuPont has also been significantly involved in the refrigerant industry, developing and producing the Freon (CFCs) series and later, more environmentally friendly refrigerants. In the paint and pigment industry, it has created synthetic pigments and paints, such as ChromaFlair. A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Vespel is the trademark of a durable high-performance polyimide-based polymer (or plastic) manufactured by DuPont. ... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Avonite be merged into this article or section. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... Mylar is a trade name of DuPont Teijin Films of Hopewell, VA, United States, for biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) polyester film used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, and electrical insulation. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... M5 Fiber is a new ultra high performance fiber produced by Magellan Systems International in partnership with DuPont Advanced Fiber Systems. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ... Tyvek house wrap Tyvek suit Tyvek USPS Express Mail Envelope Tyvek is a brand of spunbonded olefin, a synthetic material made of high-density polyethylene fibers; the name is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. ... Lycra is INVISTAs trademark for a synthetic polyurethane-based elastane textile with elastic properties of the sort known generically as spandex. As with other spandex materials, Lycra is commonly used in athletic or active clothing, such as clothes for cycling, swimwear, leotards and dancewear, as well as in underclothes. ... A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... ChromaFlair is the registered trademark for a paint system, created by DuPont, which appears to change colour depending on the light source and viewing angle. ...


DuPont is often successful in popularizing the brands of its material products such that their trademark names become more commonly used than the generic or chemical word(s) for the material itself. One example is “neoprene”, which was intended originally to be a trademark but quickly came into common usage. “(TM)” redirects here. ... A genericized trademark (also known as a generic trade mark or proprietary eponym) is a trademark or brand name that has become the colloquial or generic description for (or synonymous with) a particular class of product or service. ...

Contents

History

Original DuPont powder wagon
Original DuPont powder wagon

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

1802

DuPont was founded in 1802 by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, using capital raised in France and gunpowder machinery imported from France. The company was started at the Eleutherian Mills, on the Brandywine Creek, near Wilmington, Delaware, USA two years after he and his family left France to escape the French Revolution. It began as a manufacturer of gunpowder, as du Pont had noticed that the industry in North America was lagging behind Europe and saw a market for it. The company grew quickly, and by the mid nineteenth century had become the largest supplier of gunpowder to the United States military, supplying as much as half of the powder used by the Union Army during the American Civil War. (The Eleutherian Mills site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1966 and is now a museum covering this history that may be visited today.) Eleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours (June 24, 1771 – October 31, 1834) was born in Paris, France and emigrated with his father Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours to the United States in 1799. ... Eleutherian Millswas a gunpowder mill site significant for the manufacture of explosives by the du Pont family business, from 1802 on. ... Brandywine Creek (also called the Brandywine River) is a tributary of the Christina River, approximately 20 mi (32 km) long, in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware in the United States. ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Eleutherian Millswas a gunpowder mill site significant for the manufacture of explosives by the du Pont family business, from 1802 on. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ...


1902 to 1912

Working powder mills on Brandywine Creek, about 1905. Note the handwritten "These blow up occasionally, and then?"
Working powder mills on Brandywine Creek, about 1905. Note the handwritten "These blow up occasionally, and then?"

DuPont continued to expand, moving into the production of dynamite and smokeless powder. In 1902, DuPont's president, Eugene du Pont, died, and the surviving partners sold the company to three great-grandsons of the original founder. The company subsequently purchased several smaller chemical companies, and in 1912 these actions gave rise to government scrutiny under the Sherman Antitrust Act. The courts declared that the company's dominance of the explosives business constituted a monopoly and ordered divestment. The court ruling resulted in the creation of the Hercules Powder Company (now Hercules Inc.) and the Atlas Powder Company (now AstraZeneca).[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Brandywine Creek (also called the Brandywine River) is a tributary of the Christina River, approximately 20 mi (32 km) long, in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware in the United States. ... This article is about a high explosive. ... Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... Eugene du Pont (1840-1902) was the first head of modern day DuPont. ... John Sherman The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act[1], July 2, 1890, ch. ... This article is about the economic term. ... In finance and economics, divestment or divestiture is the reduction of some kind of asset, for either financial or social goals. ... Hercules Inc. ... AstraZeneca PLC (LSE: AZN, OMX: AZN), is a large Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the merger of Swedish Astra AB and British Zeneca Group PLC. Zeneca was part of Imperial Chemical Industries prior to a demerger in 1993. ...


DuPont also established two of the first industrial laboratories in the United States, where they began work on cellulose chemistry, lacquers and other non-explosive products. DuPont's Central Research Department was established at the Experimental Station, across the Brandywine River from the original powder mills. Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... In 1957, the research organization of Chemicals Department of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company was renamed Central Research Department, beginning the history of the premier scientific organization within Du Pont and one of the foremost industrial laboratories devoted to basic science. ... The DuPont Experimental Station is the largest research and development facility of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... Brandywine River may refer to: The Brandywine River in Pennsylvania and Delaware in the United States, the site of the 1777 Battle of Brandywine. ...


1914

In 1914, Pierre S. du Pont, invested in the fledgling automobile industry, buying stock of General Motors (GM). The following year he was invited to sit on GM's board of directors and would eventually be appointed the company's chairman. The DuPont company would assist the struggling automobile company further with a $25 million purchase of GM stock. In 1920, Pierre S. du Pont was elected president of General Motors. Under du Pont's guidance, GM became the number one automobile company in the world. However, in 1957, because of DuPont's influence within GM, further action under the Clayton Antitrust Act forced DuPont to divest itself of its shares of General Motors. Pierre Samuel du Pont (1870-1954) was president of the DuPont company from 1915 to 1919, and served on its Board of Directors until 1940. ... Car redirects here. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... In the United States, the Clayton Anti-trust Act of 1914 (codified as 15 U.S.C. §§ 12-27) was enacted to remedy deficiencies in antitrust law created under the Sherman Anti-trust Act(1890) that allowed corporations to dissolve labor unions. ...


1920

In the 1920s DuPont continued its emphasis on materials science, hiring Wallace Carothers to work on polymers in 1928. Carothers discovered neoprene, the first synthetic rubber, the first polyester superpolymer and in 1935, nylon. Discovery of Lucite and Teflon followed a few years later. 1935 was also the year that DuPont first introduced the chemical phenothiazine as an insecticide. The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Wallace Hume Carothers (April 27, 1896 – April 29, 1937) was an American chemist, inventor, and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, who is credited with the invention of nylon. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Structure of PMMA: (C5O2H8)n Structure of methyl methacrylate Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or polymethyl-2-methylpropanoate is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ...


World War II

It is claimed by some that, according to documents found at Auschwitz, the DuPont chemical manufacturer clearly made and delivered Zyklon B and that, along with two German firms, Tesch/Stabenow and Degesch, they produced Zyklon B gas after they acquired the patent from Farben. Auschwitz's own website, however, has only this to say on the subject of Zyklon-B production: "The Zyklon used at Auschwitz concentration camp was produced by a firm called Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung mbH), with headquarters in Frankfurt am Main and forming a part of IG Farbenindustrie."[2] Used in Germany during the war and before as a pesticidal fumigant, there seems to be no reason why the Nazis would have found it necessary to obtain the chemical from the U.S., even if a plausible explanation could be found for their having been able to do so after their declaration of war against the same nation. Finally, given the camp's location and in whose territory it lay throughout the Cold War, one can imagine that much would have been made of such "evidence" of complicity by an American firm in the Holocaust. Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ...


Throughout this period, the company continued to be a major producer of war supplies in both World War I and World War II, and played a major role in the Manhattan Project in 1943, designing, building and operating the Hanford plutonium producing plant and the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... The Savannah River Site is a nuclear materials processing center in the US state of South Carolina, located on land adjacent to the Savannah River near Augusta, Georgia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


1950 to 1970

After the war, DuPont continued its emphasis on new materials, developing Mylar, Dacron, Orlon and Lycra in the 1950s, and Tyvek, Nomex, Qiana, Corfam and Corian in the 1960s. DuPont materials were critical to the success of the Apollo Space program. Mylar is a trade name of DuPont Teijin Films of Hopewell, VA, United States, for biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) polyester film used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, and electrical insulation. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a strong and durable plastic. ... Lycra is INVISTAs trademark for a synthetic polyurethane-based elastane textile with elastic properties of the sort known generically as spandex. As with other spandex materials, Lycra is commonly used in athletic or active clothing, such as clothes for cycling, swimwear, leotards and dancewear, as well as in underclothes. ... Tyvek house wrap Tyvek suit Tyvek USPS Express Mail Envelope Tyvek is a brand of spunbonded olefin, a synthetic material made of high-density polyethylene fibers; the name is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ... Qiana is a silky nylon fiber first developed by DuPont in 1968 [1]. Initially intended for high-end fashions, it eventually became a popular material in the 1970s for mens shirts, displaying bold patterns and large images. ... Corfam was the first poromeric imitation leather, invented by Lee Hollowell, and introduced by DuPont in 1963 at the Chicago Shoe Show. ... It has been suggested that Avonite be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ...


DuPont has been the key company behind the development of modern body armour. In World War II DuPont's ballistic nylon was used by the RAF to make Flak jackets. With the development of Kevlar in the 1960s, DuPont began tests to see if it could resist a lead bullet. This research would ultimately lead to the bullet resistant vests that are the mainstay of police and military units in the industrialized world. A bulletproof vest – also called body armour (U.S. body armor) – is an article of protective clothing that works as a form of armour to minimize injury from being hit by a fired bullet. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... A flak jacket is a form of protective clothing originally developed by the Wilkinson Sword company during World War II to help protect Royal Air Force (RAF) air personnel from the flying debris and shrapnel thrown by German anti-aircraft guns flak (Fliegerabwehrkanone), a type of exploding shell. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ...


1981 to 1995

In 1981, DuPont acquired Conoco Inc., a major American oil and gas producing company that gave it a secure source of petroleum feedstocks needed for the manufacturing of many of its fiber and plastics products. The acquisition, which made DuPont one of the top ten U.S. based petroleum and natural gas producers and refiners, came about after a bidding war with the giant distillery, Seagram Company Ltd. which would become DuPont's largest single shareholder with four seats on the board of directors. On April 6, 1995, after being approached by Seagram Chief Executive Officer Edgar Bronfman, Jr., DuPont announced a deal whereby the company would buy back all the shares owned by Seagram. Conoco Inc. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... The Seagram Company Ltd. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Edgar Miles Bronfman, Jr. ...


1999

In 1999, DuPont sold all of its Conoco shares, the business merging with Phillips Petroleum Company. That year, CEO Chad Holliday switched the company's focus towards producing DuPont chemicals from living plants rather than processing them from petroleum. ConocoPhillips (NYSE: COP) was founded by the merger of the Conoco Inc. ... Charles O. Holliday Jr. ... Petro redirects here. ...


Current activities

DuPont describes itself as a global science company that employs more than 60,000 people worldwide and has a diverse array of product offerings.[3] In 2005, the Company ranked 66th in the Fortune 500 on the strength of nearly $28 billion in revenues and $1.8 billion in profits.[4]


DuPont businesses are organized into the following five categories, known as marketing "platforms": Electronic and Communication Technologies, Performance Materials, Coatings and Color Technologies, Safety and Protection, and Agriculture and Nutrition.


In 2004 the company sold its textiles business, which included some of its best-known brands such as Lycra (Spandex), Dacron polyester, Orlon acrylic, Antron nylon and Thermolite, to Koch Industries. DuPont also manufactures Surlyn, which is used for the covers of golf balls, and, more recently, the body panels of the Club Car Precedent golf cart. Lycra is INVISTAs trademark for a synthetic polyurethane-based elastane textile with elastic properties of the sort known generically as spandex. As with other spandex materials, Lycra is commonly used in athletic or active clothing, such as clothes for cycling, swimwear, leotards and dancewear, as well as in underclothes. ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a strong and durable plastic. ... Koch Industries, Inc. ...


DuPont's annual R&D budget is $1.3 billion; its latest project is a research center in Hyderabad, A.P., India scheduled to open in mid-2008, that will focus on agriculture and nutrition products.[citation needed] , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ...


NASCAR sponsorship

DuPont is widely known for its sponsorship of NASCAR driver Jeff Gordon and his Hendrick Motorsports #24 Chevrolet Impala SS. DuPont has been sponsoring Jeff Gordon since he began in Sprint Cup (then Winston Cup) in 1992. DuPont has said this about their sponsorship: Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... Jeffery Michael Gordon (born August 4, 1971) is a professional American race car driver. ... Hendrick Motorsports is a group of NASCAR racing teams started by Rick Hendrick in 1984 under the name All Star Racing, racing only Chevrolets, racing in both the Nextel Cup and Busch Series circuits. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (colloquially Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... 1968 Chevrolet Impala at the weekly Garden Grove, California car show on April 16, 2004. ... The Sprint Cup is a Group 1 United Kingdom flat racing horse race for those horses aged three years and above run over a distance of 6 furlongs at Haydock Park during September. ...

Our sponsorship of Jeff Gordon helps keep DuPont brands and products in the public eye. Branding is a key component of the DuPont knowledge intensity strategy for achieving sustainable growth.[5]

In 2007, DuPont, Jeff Gordon, and Hendrick Motorsports celebrated their 15th season together. It is currently the longest driver/sponsor/owner combination in NASCAR. Jeffery Michael Gordon (born August 4, 1971) is a professional American race car driver. ... Hendrick Motorsports is a group of NASCAR racing teams started by Rick Hendrick in 1984 under the name All Star Racing, racing only Chevrolets, racing in both the Nextel Cup and Busch Series circuits. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ...


Corporate governance

Current board of directors

Charles O. Holliday Jr. ... Richard H. Brown was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Electronic Data Systems Corporation from 1999 to 2003; Chief Executive Officer of Cable & Wireless plc from 1996 to 1998; Member of the Board of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company since 2001 and Home Depot. ... Robert A. Brown is the president of Boston University. ... Curtis Crawford has been a director of DuPont since 1998. ... John T. Dillon, former Chairman and CEO of International Paper (paper and forest products). ... Lois D. Juliber has been a director of DuPont since 1995. ... Masahisa Naitoh has been a director of DuPont since January 2000. ... For other persons named Sean OKeefe, see Sean OKeefe (disambiguation). ... William K. Reilly has been a director of DuPont since 1993. ...

Environmental record

DuPont has a mixed environmental record, receiving praise from some for environmentally friendly practices while at the same time incurring large government fines and stern criticism from environmental researchers. In 2005, BusinessWeek magazine, in conjunction with the Climate Group, ranked DuPont as the best-practice leader in cutting their carbon gas emissions.[6][7] They pointed out that DuPont reduced its greenhouse gas emissions by more than 65% from the 1990 levels while using 7% less energy and producing 30% more product. However, based on year 2000 data,[8] researchers at the Political Economy Research Institute of the University of Massachusetts Amherst ranked DuPont as the largest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States.[9] The study found DuPont's most toxic pollution comprised chloroprene (855,370 lb/yr, 387,989 kg/yr), sulfuric acid (804,501 lb/yr, 364,916 kg/yr), and chlorine (65,088 lb/yr, 29,523 kg/yr) based on Toxics Release Inventory data. The most massive releases came in the form of more than 4 million pounds (1,800 t) of carbonyl sulfide followed by 2 million pounds (900 t) of hydrochloric acid.[10] BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ... The University of Massachusetts Amherst (otherwise known as UMass Amherst Massachusetts or UMass) is a research and land-grant university in Amherst, Mass. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Chemical Structure of Chloroprene Chloroprene is the common name for the organic compound 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, which has the chemical formula C4H5Cl. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available database from the EPA that contains information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities reported annually by certain covered industry groups as well as federal facilities. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Carbonyl sulfide is a colourless gas at room temperature with an unpleasant odor. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...


May 24, 2007, marked the opening of the US$2.1 million DuPont Nature Center at Mispillion Harbor Reserve, a wildlife observatory and interpretive center on the Delaware Bay near Milford, Delaware, USA. DuPont contributed both financial and technological support to create the center, as part of its "Clear into the Future" initiative to enhance the beauty and integrity of the Delaware Estuary. The facility will be state-owned and operated by the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC).[11][12] is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Milford is a city located in Kent and Sussex Counties, Delaware. ...


DuPont is a founding member of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development with DuPont CEO Charles O. Holliday being Chairman of the WBCSD from 2000-2001. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) bis a CEO-led, global association of some 190 companies dealing exclusively with business and sustainable development. ... Charles O. Holliday Jr. ...


Positive recognition

DuPont was four times awarded the National Medal of Technology, first in 1990, for its invention of "high-performance man-made polymers such as nylon, neoprene rubber, "Teflon" fluorocarbon resin, and a wide spectrum of new fibers, films, and engineering plastics"; the second for 2002 "for policy and technology leadership in the phaseout and replacement of chlorofluorocarbons". Additionally, DuPont scientist George Levitt was honored with the medal in 1993 for the development of sulfonylureas — environmentally friendly herbicides for every major food crop in the world. In 1996, DuPont scientist Stephanie Kwolek was recognized for the discovery and development of Kevlar. The National Medal of Technology is an honor granted by the President of the United States to inventors and innovators that have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Neoprene is the DuPont Performance Elastomers trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene (polymer form of Chloroprene). ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... The National Medal of Technology is an honor granted by the President of the United States to inventors and innovators that have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. ... Stephanie Kwolek (born July 31, 1923) is a Polish-American chemist who discovered poly-paraphenylene terephtalamide, better known as Kevlar. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ...


Controversies

Hemp

It is often asserted in pro-cannabis publications that DuPont actively supported the criminalization of the production of hemp in the US in 1937 through private and government intermediates, and alleged that this was done to eliminate hemp as a source of fiber—one of DuPont's biggest markets at the time. Hemp paper threatened DuPont's monopoly on the necessary chemicals for paper from trees, and Nylon, a synthetic fiber, was patented the same year that hemp was made illegal. The company denies these allegations.[13][14] U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ...


Price fixing

In 1941, an investigation of Standard Oil Co. and IG Farben brought evidence concerning complex price and marketing agreements between DuPont, U.S. Industrial Alcohol Company, and their subsidiary Cuba Distilling Company. The investigation was eventually dropped, like dozens of others in many different kinds of industries, because of the need to enlist industry support in the war effort.[15] Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Behind the Nylon Curtain

In 1974, Gerard Colby Zilg, wrote Du Pont: Behind the Nylon Curtain, a critical account of the role of the DuPont family in American social, political and economic history. The book was nominated for a National Book Award in 1974. Gerard Colby (earlier known as Gerard Colby Zilg) is a former vice-president of the National Writers Union where he is/was quite active by having various chair positions. ... The National Book Awards is one of the most preeminent literary prizes in the United States. ...


A du Pont family member obtained an advance copy of the manuscript and was “predictably outraged”. A DuPont official contacted The Fortune Book Club and stated that the book was “scurrilous” and “actionable” but produced no evidence to counter the charges. The Fortune Book Club (a subsidiary of the Book of the Month Club) reversed its decision to distribute Zilg's book. The editor-in-chief of the Book of the Month Club declared that the book was “malicious” and had an “objectionable tone”. Prentice-Hall removed several inaccurate passages from the page proofs of the book, and cut the first printing from 15,000 to 10,000 copies, stating that 5,000 copies no longer were needed for the book club distribution. The proposed advertising budget was reduced from $15,000 to $5,000.


Zilg sued Prentice-Hall (Zilg v. Prentice-Hall), accusing it of reneging on a contract to promote sales.


The Federal District Court ruled that Prentice Hall had "privished" the book (the company conducting an inadequate merchandising effort after concluding that the book did not meet its expectations as to quality or marketability) and breached its obligation to Zilg to use its best efforts in promoting the book because the publisher had no valid business reason for reducing the first printing or the advertising budget. The court also ruled that the DuPont Company had a constitutionally protected interest in discussing its good faith opinion of the merits of Zilg's work with the book clubs and the publisher, and found that the company had not engaged in threats of economic coercion or baseless litigation. Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ...


The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit overturned the damages award in September of 1983. The court stated that, while DuPont's actions “surely” resulted in the book club's decision not to distribute Zilg's work and also resulted in a change in Prentice-Hall's previously supportive attitude toward the book, DuPont's conduct was not actionable. The court further stated that the contract did not contain an explicit “best efforts” or “promote fully” promise, much less an agreement to make certain specific promotional efforts. Printing and advertising decisions were within Prentice-Hall's discretion.


Zilg lost a Supreme Court appeal in April 1984. The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...


In 1984 Lyle Stuart re-released an extended version, Du Pont Dynasty: Behind the Nylon Curtain.[16] Lyle Stuart is an American independent publisher of controversial books. ...


Chlorofluorocarbons

Along with General Motors, DuPont was the inventor of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), and the largest producer of these ozone-depleting chemicals (used primarily in aerosol sprays and refrigerants) in the world, with a 25% market share in the late 1980s. General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ... A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ...


In 1974, responding to public concern about the safety of CFCs,[17] DuPont promised through newspaper advertisements and congressional testimony to stop production of CFCs should they be proved to be harmful to the ozone layer. On 4 March 1988, U.S. Senators Max Baucus (D-Mont.), David Durenberger (R-Minn.), and Robert T. Stafford (R-Vt.) officially wrote to DuPont, in their capacity as the leadership of the Congressional subcommittee on hazardous wastes and toxic substances, asking the company to keep its promise to completely stop CFC production (and to do so for most CFC types within one year) in light of the 1987 international Montreal Protocol for the global reduction of CFCs (signed for the United States by President Ronald Reagan). The Senators argued that “DuPont has a unique and special obligation” as the original developer of CFCs and the author of previous public assurances made by the company regarding the safety of CFCs. DuPont's response was that the senatorial demand was more drastic than the scientific evidence warranted, and that alternative chemicals were only in their infancy.[citation needed] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Max Sieben Baucus (b. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... David Ferdinand Durenberger (born August 19, 1934) is an American politician. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Robert Theodore Stafford (born August 8, 1913) is a retired American politician from Vermont. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Convention (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ...


In a dramatic turnaround on 24 March 1988, DuPont announced that it would begin leaving the CFC business entirely after a 15 March NASA announcement that CFCs were not only creating a hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica but also thinning the layer elsewhere in the world. is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


Lewis du Pont Smith, in an April 27, 1994, open letter to shareholders on DuPont’s CFC Policy, warns that DuPont Corporation will be destroyed when a consumer backlash demands a Congressional investigation “regarding the science behind the ozone depletion fraud and the economic forces that pushed for the CFC ban”, which he called “the most massive consumer fraud of this century”, warning that “The cost to consumers of the ban on CFCs will exceed $5 trillion: the consequences on human health will be devastating.” Eight years before, Lewis du Pont Smith had been declared mentally incompetent to handle his affairs after he gave hundreds of thousands of dollars to Lyndon LaRouche.[18][19] is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Lyndon LaRouche at a news conference in Paris in February 2006. ...


DuPont announced that it would stop selling CFCs with a full page ad in the 27 April 1992 New York Times stating “we will stop selling CFC's as soon as possible, but no later than year end 1995 in the US and other developed countries.”[20] is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


In later years, DuPont would maintain that the company had taken the initiative in phasing out CFCs[21] and in replacing CFCs with a new generation of refrigerant chemicals, such as HCFCs and HFCs.[22] In 2003, DuPont was awarded the National Medal of Technology, recognizing the company as the leader in developing CFC replacements. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is one of a class of fluorocarbon compounds that are used primarily as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes. ... HFC may stand for: Hydrofluorocarbon Hybrid Fibre Coaxial Highly Flamible Cow Cow is a communist from Romania who cant tell the difference between a pound and a euro. ... The National Medal of Technology is an honor granted by the President of the United States to inventors and innovators that have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. ...


Iraq's nuclear program

In a report submitted by Saddam Hussein to the United Nations shortly before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, it was revealed that DuPont had participated in Iraq's nuclear weapons program. (Though the U.S. attempted to redact the names of all U.S. companies involved, an uncensored copy was leaked to the press.)[23][24] DuPont has not faced any sanctions because of this. The company denies that it sold materials to Iraq for any nuclear weapons program.


Further reading

  • Arora, Ashish Ralph Landau and Nathan Rosenberg, (eds). (2000). Chemicals and Long-Term Economic Growth: Insights from the Chemical Industry.
  • Chandler, Alfred D. (1971). Pierre S. Du Pont and the making of the modern corporation.
  • Chandler, Alfred D. (1969). Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise.
  • du Pont, B.G. (1920). E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company: A History 1802-1902. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. - (Kessinger Publishing Rare Reprint. ISBN 1-4179-1685-0).
  • Haynes, Williams (1983). American chemical industry.
  • Hounshell, David A. and Smith, John Kenly, JR (1988). Science and Corporate Strategy: Du Pont R and D, 1902-1980. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-32767-9.
  • Kinnane, Adrian (2002). DuPont: From the Banks of the Brandywine to Miracles of Science. Willimington: E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ISBN 0-8018-7059-3.
  • Ndiaye, Pap A. (trans. 2007). Nylon and Bombs: DuPont and the March of Modern America
  • Zilg, Gerard Colby "DuPont: Behind the Nylon Curtain" (Prentice-Hall: 1974) 623 pages.

Alfred DuPont Chandler, Jr. ... Alfred DuPont Chandler, Jr. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... David A. Hounshell is the David M. Roderick Professor of Technology and Social Change in the Department of History, Engineering and Public Policy program at Carnegie Mellon University. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

See also

Summary needed. ... The Du Pont de Nemours family is a wealthy American family. ... The Hagley Museum and Library is a nonprofit educational institution located in Wilmington, Delaware. ... One of the premiere botanical gardens in the United States, Longwood Gardens consists of 1,050 acres (4. ...

External links

References and notes

  • Corporate History as presented by the company:Online Interpretive Exhibit. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (6 June 2002). Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  • EWG Public Affairs (December 14, 2005). "EPA Fines Teflon Maker DuPont for Chemical Cover-Up Largest Administrative Fine in Agency's History Shows Seriousness of Polluting Babies' Blood and Drinking Water". Environmental Working Group (EWG). 
  • Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity Associated with Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid and its Salts. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2005-12-16).
  1. ^ The Historical Society of Delaware–The DuPont Company. (URL accessed March 29, 2006).
  2. ^ http://www.auschwitz.org.pl/html/eng/historia_KL/cyklon_b_ok.html
  3. ^ DuPont–Company at a Glance. Retrieved on March 29, 2006
  4. ^ http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500_archive/full/2005/ Fortune 500: 1955–2006. CNNMoney.com. Retrieved on May 16, 2007.
  5. ^ http://www.jeffgordon.com/sponsors/default.sps?itype=12221
  6. ^ Unknown Author (December 6, 2005). "DuPont Tops BusinessWeek Ranking of Green Companies". GreenBiz News. 
  7. ^ Green Leaders Show The Way Business Week
  8. ^ [http://www.peri.umass.edu/Technical-Notes.264.0.html Political Economy Research Institute Toxic 100 Corporate Toxics Information Project Technical Notes retrieved 12 Nov 2007
  9. ^ Political Economy Research Institute Toxic 100 retrieved 13 Aug 2007
  10. ^ Toxic 100 company profile
  11. ^ "State’s DuPont Nature Center at Mispillion Harbor Reserve Opens"
  12. ^ "DuPont Nature Center Dedicated in Delaware"
  13. ^ [Hemp & the Marijuana Conspiracy:] The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer, various editions.
  14. ^ The Elkhorn Manifesto: Shadow of the Swastika by R. William Davis
  15. ^ Unknown Author (Wednesday, December 14, 2005). "DuPont settles toxin case". The Associated Press. ; Eilperin, Juliet (15 December 2005). "DuPont, EPA Settle Chemical Complaint Firm Didn't Report Risks, Agency Says". Washington Post Business Week: D03. 
  16. ^ Unknown Author (17 April 1984). "High Court Rebuffs Author". The New York Times: Section C; Page 16, Column 1. ; Flaherty, Francis J. (2 April 1984). "Authors Fighting for 'Voice in the Process'". The National Law Journal: 26. ; Unknown Author (April 1984). "Federal Court of Appeals reverses award of damages to author Gerard Zilg in his breach of contract action against Prentice-Hall; District Court's dismissal of Zilg's action against E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company for tortious interference with contractual relations is affirmed". Entertainment Law Reporter 5 (11). ; Slung, Michele (9 October 1983). ""Privish" and Perish". The Washington Post: 15. 
  17. ^ DuPont Refrigerants–History Timeline, 1970. (URL accessed 29 March 2006).
  18. ^ Should You Leave It All to the Children? - September 29, 1986
  19. ^ Du Pont Millions at Issue In an Heir's Sanity Case - New York Times
  20. ^ Unknown Author (27 April 1992). "The World is Phasing Out CFCs, It Won't Be Easy". The New York Times: A7. 
  21. ^ DuPont Refrigerants– History Timeline, 1980. (URL accessed 29 March 2006).
  22. ^ US EPA: Ozone Depletion Glossary. (URL accessed 29 March 2006).
  23. ^ The Memory Hole > “The Corporations That Supplied Iraq's Weapons Program”. (URL accessed 29 March 2006).
  24. ^ Democracy Now–Top Secret Iraq Weapons Report Says the U.S. Government & Corporations Helped to Illegally Arm Iraq. (URL accessed 29 March 2006).

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