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Encyclopedia > Druze
Druze دروز
Druze Star
Total population

450,000 to 2,000,000 Image File history File links Druze_star. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Syria Syria 865,000[citation needed]
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon 280,000[1] to 350,000[2]
Flag of Israel Israel 118,000[3] *
Flag of Jordan Jordan 20,000[4]
Outside the Middle East 100,000
In the Flag of the United States United States 20,000[5]
Religions
Druzism
Scriptures
Rasa'il al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Qur'an
Languages
Arabic.
English.
Hebrew (Only In Israel).
French (Only In Lebanon and Syria).
*Includes Druze in the Golan Heights

Part of a series on
Shi'a Islam

Ismaili Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ...


Image File history File links Size of this preview: 150 × 120 pixelsFull resolution (150 × 120 pixel, file size: 9 KB, MIME type: image/gif) It was found here http://www. ...

Branches

Nizari · Mustaali · Druze
Main article: Ismaili The Nizārīyya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the Ismāīlī (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of Ismāīlī Muslims. ... This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ...

Concepts
The Qur'an · The Ginans

Reincarnation · Panentheism
Imam · Pir · Da'i al-Mutlaq
Aql · Numerology · Taqiyya
Zahir · Batin An esoteric interpretation of the Qur’an is an interpretation of the Qur’an which includes attribution of esoteric or mystic meanings to the text by the interpretater and in this aspect its method is different from the conventional exegesis of the Qur’an called tafsir. ... The Ginans are Nizari Ismaili religious texts. ... The belief in reincarnation in Nizari Ismailism is attested to in the Ginans and Ismailis perform chantas yearly, one of which is for sins committed in past lives. ... With the exception of the Mustaali Ismaili, most Ismaili believe in panentheism, meaning God is both reality and transcendent of it. ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine). ... A Pir (Persian: پیر) meaning Old Man. ... The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق) literally means the absolute or unrestricted missionary. In IsmāīlÄ« Islām, the term dāˤī has been used to refer to important religious leaders other than the hereditary Imāms and the Daˤwa or Mission is a clerical-style organisation. ... Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ... Ismailis believe that numbers have religious meanings. ... Within Islamic tradition, the concept of Taqiyya (التقية - fear, guard against)[1] refers to a controversial dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. ... The exterior or apparent meaning of the Quran. ... The interior or hidden meaning of the Quran. ...

Seven Pillars

Guardianship · Prayer · Charity
Fasting · Pilgrimage · Struggle
Purity · Profession of Faith Shia Ismaili Seven Pillars of Islam have three doctrines that are not included in the Sunni Five Pillars of Islam: Walayah, Taharah and Jihad. ... Guardianship is a Ismaili and Druze pillar of Islam. ... Salat redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... , // Shāhāda is a town in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India, now in Nandurbār District (formerly in Dhule District). ...

History

Fatimid Empire
Hamza ibn Ali  · ad-Darazi
Hassan-i-Sabbah  · Hashashin
Dawoodi  · Sulaimani  · Alavi
Hafizi · Taiyabi  · Ainsarii
Seveners  · Qarmatians
Sadardin  · Satpanth
Baghdad Manifesto The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Hamza ibn-Ali ibn-Ahmad was an 11th century Muslim preacher, and is counted among the founders of the Druze. ... Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazi (Arabic: ) was a 11th century Ismaili preacher and early leader of Druze. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ... Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा) are the main branch of the Bohras, a Mustaˤlī subsect of Ismāīlī Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... Sulaimani Bohra are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ... Alavi Bohra (Arabic: علوی بوہرہ) are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ... The Mustaˤlī (Arabic: مستعلي) group of Ismāīlī Muslims are so named because they accepted al-Mustaˤlī as the ninth Fatimid caliph and the legitimate successor to his father, al-Mustansir. ... A branch of Mustaali Ismailism that split with the Fatimid supporting Hafizi branch by believing Tayyab Abī l-Qāsim was the rightful Imam. ... The Ainsarii were a sect of the Ismaili Assassins who survived the destruction of the stronghold of Alamut. ... Seveners are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ... The Qarmatians (from Arabic qaramita قرامطة, also spelled Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians etc. ... Pir Sadardin or Pir Sadruddin was a fourteenth century spiritual leader and is regarded as the founder of Khoja Ismaili sect otherwise known as Satpanth. ... // The people of the Satpanth are originally from the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan. ... The manifesto of Baghdad is the testimony given by number of Muslim Sunni and Twelvers Shiite Genealogists and law scholars known all across the Islamic world in 402/1011, doubting the Sacred Mohammedan-‘Alid lineage of the Fatimids, they were declared to be descended from a Jew by the Name...

Early Imams

Ali · Hasan · Husayn
al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq
Ismail · Muhammad
Ahmad · at-Taqi · az-Zaki
al-Mahdi · al-Qa'im · al-Mansur
al-Muizz · al-Aziz · al-Hakim
az-Zahir · al-Mustansir · Nizar
al-Musta'li · al-Amir · al-Qasim
This is a list of the Imams recognized by the Ismaili Shiites and their sub-branches. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... ... Ismail bin Jafar (Arabic: إسماعيل بن جعفر) was the eldest son of the sixth Shia Imam, Jafar as-Sadiq. ... Muhammad ibn Ismail was the son of Ismail bin Jafar and an Ismaili Imam. ... The eighth Ismaili Imam, surnamed al-Wafi. ... The ninth Ismaili Imam. ... The tenth Ismaili Imam, surnamed az-Zaki. ... Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah a. ... Muhammad al-Qaim Bi-Amrillah (893 - 17 May 946) (Arabic: محمد القائم بأمر الله) was the second Caliph of the Fatimids in Ifriqiya and ruled from 934 to 946. ... Isma`îl al-Mansûr (913 - 953) was the third Caliph of the Fatimids in Ifriqiya and ruled from 946 to 953. ... Was the fourth Fatamid caliph. ... Al-Aziz (* 955; † 996) was the fifth Caliph of the Fatimids (975-996). ... Tāriqu l-Ḥakīm, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... ˤAlī az-Zāhir (20 June 1005 – 13 June 1036) (Arabic: الظاهر بالله) was the Seventh Caliph of the Fātimids (1021 - 1036). ... Al-Mustansir (July 2, 1029 - January 10, 1094), was born in Cairo on 16th Jamada II, 420/ and eight months afterwards was declared to succeed his father. ... Abu Mansur al-Nizar, (who was surnamed al-Mustapha al-dinillah, meaning the chosen for Gods religion) is a Nizari Ismaili Imam. ... Ahmad al-Mustali (d 1101) was the ninth Fatimid Caliph. ... Al-Amir (b. ... The 21st Fatimid Imam and son of the 20th Fatimid Imam Mansur al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah. ...

Contemporary Leaders

Aga Khan IV
Mohammed Burhanuddin
al-Fakhri Abdullah
Taiyeb Ziyauddin Saheb
Mowafak Tarif
Asghar Ali Engineer
Karīm al-Hussaynī, Āgā Khān IV KBE CC GCC (Arabic: سمو الأمیر شاہ کریم الحسیني آغا خان الرابع) -- (born December 13, 1936) is the current (49th) Imām of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims. ... Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin // The 52nd Vicegerent Of The Fatimid Imam His Holiness Dr. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin is the 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq of the largest group of Mustali Ismailis, the Dawoodi Bohras. ... The 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq of the Ismaili Sulaimani Bohra religious community. ... Saiyedna Abu Haatim Taiyeb Ziyauddin Saheb (born August 6, 1932) is the forty fourth and current Dai-e-Mutlaq (Spiritual & Temporal Head) of the Taiyebi Alavi Dawat community, in succession from the first Dai-e-Mutlaq, Saiyedna Zoeb bin Moosa. ... Shaykh Muwaffak Tarīf (موفق طريف) is the current spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel. ... Asghar Ali Engineer, The Laaentie was born in Bohra priestly family (amils family) on 10th March, 1939 in Salumbar, Rajasthan (near Udaipur) where Qurban Husain, his father, was an amil at that time. ...

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The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; Hebrew: דרוזים‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a religious community found primarily in Lebanon, Israel, and Syria whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo-Platonic and other philosophies. Because of such incorporation many Islamic scholars label the Druze as non-Muslims or at least as an “unorthodox” Islamic sect. Arabic redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one script into another script. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ...


Theologically, Druze consider themselves "an Islamic Unist, reformatory sect".[6] The Druze call themselves Ahl al-Tawhid ("People of Unity") or al-Muwahhidūn (Unitarians). The origin of the name Druze is traced to Nashtakin ad-Darazi, one of the first preachers of the religion, even though the primary leader of the faith was the Persian mystic Hamza Bin Ali. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Al-MuwahhidÅ«n (Arabic الموحدون) is an Arabic word meaning monotheists or those who believe in the unity of God (tawhid) (or literally unitarians), and has been applied to various groups of Muslims at various times. ... Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazi (Arabic: ) was a 11th century Ismaili preacher and early leader of Druze. ... Hamza ibn-Ali ibn-Ahmad was an 11th century Muslim preacher, and is counted among the founders of the Druze. ...

Contents

Location

Druze leaders meeting in Jebel al-Druze, Syria, 1926.
Druze leaders meeting in Jebel al-Druze, Syria, 1926.

The Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon and Israel, with a smaller community in Jordan.[7] The Israeli Druze are mostly in the Galilee (70%) and around Haifa (25%). The Jordanian Druze can be found in Amman and Zarka, about 50% live in the town of Azraq, and a smaller number in Irbid and Aqaba. The Golan Heights, the mountainous region between Israel and Syria, is home to about 20,000 Druze.[8] The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40%-50% of Druze live in Syria, 30%-40% in Lebanon, 6%-7% in Israel, and 1%-2% in Jordan.[9][10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The western slopes of Jabal ad Duruz. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Government City District Haifa Population 266,300 (city) 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Zarqa (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Az Zarqāʼ; local pronunciation ez-Zergā or ez-Zera) is a city in Jordan located to the northeast of Amman. ... Azraq (Arabic: الأزرق ) is a small town with a population of approximately 5,000 people (1990) in central-eastern Jordan, 100km east of Amman. ... Irbid (Arabic: إربد), known in ancient times as Arabella, is a city in Jordan located about 70 km north of Amman on the northern ridge of the Gilead. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ...


Large communities of expatriate Druze also live outside the Middle East in Australia, Canada, Europe, Latin America, the United States and West Africa. They use the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to the other East Mediterraneans of the region.[11] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


There are thought to be as many as 1 million Druze worldwide, the vast majority in the Levant or East Mediterranean.[12] However, some estimates of the total Druze population have been as low as 450,000.[13] The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Ethnic origin and genetics

Traditionally there have been two branches of Druze living in Lebanon. The Yemeni Druze, headed by the Hamdan and Al-Atrash families, and the Kaysi Druze, headed by the Jumblat and Arsalan families. Salim Ahmed Hamdan is a Yemeni, captured during the invasion of Afghanistan. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Jumblatt Family (جنبلاط in Arabic, also transliterated as Joumblatt, Junblat and Junblatt) is an influential Druze family who settled in the Lebanon mountains (coming from Syria) around the 15-16th century, fleeing persecution from the Ottoman governor. ... Arslan (Turkish for lion; Ottoman ارسلان arslān and اصلان aṣlān) was used as a title by Seljuk and Ottoman rulers. ...


The Hamdan family was banished from Mount Lebanon following the battle of Ain Dara in 1711. This battle was fought between two Druze factions: the Yemeni and the Kaysi. The Kaysi were represented by the Jumblat and Arslan families and the Yemeni by the Hamdan and Al-Atrash families. Following their dramatic defeat, the Yemeni faction migrated to Syria in the Jebel-Druze region and its capital, Soueida. Salim Ahmed Hamdan is a Yemeni, captured during the invasion of Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... Its a famous battle that took place in Ain Darra 1711. ... The Jabal or Jebel el Druze was an autonomous state in the French Mandate of Syria from 1921 to 1936. ... Location of the governorate of As Suwayda As Suwayda (also Sweida; Arabic: ) is a mainly Druze town located in southwestern Syria, close to the border with Jordan. ...


According to DNA testing, Druze are remarkable for their high frequency (35%) of males who carry the Y-chromosomal haplogroup L, which is otherwise uncommon in the Mideast (Shen et al 2004).[14] This haplogroup originates from prehistoric South Asia. The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L (M20) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


History

Druze woman wearing a tantur, Chouf, 1870s.
Druze woman wearing a tantur, Chouf, 1870s.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lebanese princess wearing a tantur, 19th century. ... Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf, in Arabic جبل الشوف Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon. ...

Origin of the Name

Even though much speculation surrounds the origin of the word Druze, some sources indicate that its source is the Arabic-Persian word Darazo (درز), meaning "heaven"; others claim that it is derived from the name of the Fatimid military commander Abi Mansur Anushtakeen Al Darazi or that of a Fatimid Egyptian landlord, Sheik Hussien Al-Darazi, who was one of the early converts to the faith[15].Other Western scholars have attributed it to the Comte de Dreux and even to the Druids[16], but the most plausible theory is that the term is traceable to Mohammad Bin Ismail Al Darazi (also known as Nashtakin ad-Darazi), one of the early leaders of the faith. Al Darazi was responsible for the weakening of the movement, as he revealed the faith in the year 1016 and added to it many heretical and blasphemous teachings. For this he was expelled by Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad.[17]. From a religious standpoint, Mohammad Bin Ismail Al Darazi plays a role similar to that of Christianity's Judas, and for this reason Druze prefer the name Mowahdeen ("Unitarians"). The name "Druze", however, is used as the official name both for identification and for historical reasons. Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... Hamza ibn-Ali ibn-Ahmad was an 11th century Muslim preacher, and is counted among the founders of the Druze. ... Judas (Greek: Ιούδας) is the anglicized Greek rendering of the Hebrew name Yehudah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה), also rendered in English as Judah. ...


In the early stages of the movement the word 'Druze' is rarely mentioned by historians, and in Druze religious texts only the word Mowahidoon ("Unitarian") appears. The only early Arab historian who mentions the Druze is the 11th century Christian scholar Yehya Bin Saeed Al Antaki, who clearly makes reference to the heretical group created by the Darazi rather than the followers of Hamza Bin Ali[18]. As for Western sources, Benjamin of Tudela, the Jewish traveler who passed through Lebanon in or about 1165 was one of the first European writers to refer to the Druzes by name. The word Dogziyin ('Druzes') occurs in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, but it is clear that this is a scribal error. Be that as it may, he described the Druze as "mountain dwellers, monotheists, who believe in "soul eternity" and reincarnation."[19] Map of the route Benjamin of Tudela (flourished 12th century) was a medieval Spanish Jewish Rabbi, traveler and explorer. ...


From 1017 AD to 1031 AD

The Druze faith began as a movement in Ismailism that favored the traditional and more liberal eastern order of Ismailism that was mainly influenced by Greek philosophy and Gnosticism and it apposed certain religious and philosophical ideologies that was present during that epoch. Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ...


The faith was officially revealed in the year 1017 by Hamza ibn ˤAlī ibn Ahmad. Hamza Bin Ali, who was a Persian Ismaili mystic and scholar, came to Egypt in 1014 AD and assembled a group of scholars and leaders from across the Islamic world to form the Unitarian Order. The Order was created to combat perceived corruption and alteration of the Ismaili doctrine in North Africa and to create a "Unitarian nation".[citation needed] The Order's meetings were held in the Mosque of Raydan, situated near the palace of Al-Hakim.[citation needed] According to the Druze and the Fatimid Christian historian Yehya Bin Saeed Al Antaki, the meetings were blessed and supported by the Caliph Al-Hakim.[citation needed] Hamza Bin Ali had not intended to create a new ideology, but to revive a certain branch of Ismailism secretly preserved by previous Ismaili Da'is;[citation needed] accordingly, the word kashif ('reveal') is used in the Druze faith when referring to the year 1017.[citation needed] Furthermore, the leaders of the faith who preceded Hamza Bin Ali during the Ismaili epoch are mentioned in Druze scriptures.[citation needed] Hamza ibn-Ali ibn-Ahmad was an 11th century Muslim preacher, and is counted among the founders of the Druze. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Al-Hakim Mosque is one of the largest Fatimid mosques in Cairo. ... The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق) literally means the absolute or unrestricted missionary. In IsmāīlÄ« Islām, the term dāˤī has been used to refer to important religious leaders other than the hereditary Imāms and the Daˤwa or Mission is a clerical-style organisation. ...


After gaining the support of the Fātimid caliph Al-Hakim .Hamza ibn ˤAlī started to work on spreading the faith facing a lot of hostility from many prominent Fatimid figures who caused a lot turbulences in the Fatimid Empire, specially after Al-Hakim was accused of undermining the Islamic law by publishing a decree promoting religious freedom [1]. Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


Al-Hakim was replaced by his underage son az-Zahir after he mysteriously disappeared, one theory holds that he was assassinated by the head of the Fatimid Army with the collaboration of his older sister Sitt al-Mulk, while tens of other theories are found in historic books written during the Fatimid period.Knowing that non of the stories talking about the disappearance of Al-Hakim had been considered undoubtedly credible by most scholars or historians. ˤAlī az-Zāhir (20 June 1005 – 13 June 1036) (Arabic: الظاهر بالله) was the Seventh Caliph of the Fātimids (1021 - 1036). ... Sitt al-Mulk (970–1023) (Arabic: ), Ruler of the Fatimids (1021-1023), was the elder sister of Al-Hakim. ...


Persecution during the Fatimid times

The Druze sect prominent in the Levant, North Africa, Egypt, Arabia, Iraq , Persia, Yemen and other parts of the Near East, refused to acknowledge az-Zahir as its caliph but followed Hamza Bin Ali as its imam, so Az-Zahir ordered his army to terminate the Druze movement.[citation needed] The killing ranged from Antioch to Alexandria, where tens of thousands of Druze were slaughtered by the Fatimid Army.[citation needed] The largest massacre was at Antioch, where 5000 Druze religious leaders were killed,[citation needed] followed by that of Aleppo.[citation needed] The massacres are well described in the remaining scriptures written by Bahaa El Deen Al-Samuki,[citation needed] who assumed leadership of the Druze during the persecution.[citation needed] Al-Samuki recorded how the Fatimid army brutally put to death infants, women and men.[citation needed] The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ...


The Closing of the faith

The persecution lasted only seven years, ending with the death of az-Zahir.[citation needed] Subsequently, the remaining Druze, who had survived in the mountains of Lebanon, Northern Syria and in some parts of the Fatimid Caliphate, were surrounded by a hostile environment.[citation needed] During the period of persecution, most of the deaths of the faithful had been caused by information given by spies infiltrating the faith. In many cases those same spies also created an ideological menace, weakening the faith.[citation needed] Druzism also consists of a complicated hierarchy of dai, or preachers, most of whom were killed by the Fatimids. Accordingly, Bahaa El Deen chose to close the faith in 1031 and banned others from converting to it.[citation needed] By this step El Deen ensured that the Druze ideology would be safe from hypocritical converts and that the political and religious danger of the caliphs to its adherents would decrease, protecting the survivors from future persecution.


During the Crusades

It was during the period of Crusader rule in Syria (1099-1291) that the Druze first emerged into the full light of history, in the Gharb region of the Chouf mountains. As redoubtable warriors serving the Muslim rulers of Damascus against the alien invaders, the Druze were given the task of keeping watch over the Crusaders in the seaport of Beirut, with the aim of preventing them from making any encroachments inland. Subsequently, the Druze chiefs of the Gharb placed their considerable military experience at the disposal of the Mamluk rulers of Egypt (1250-1516); first, to assist them in putting an end to what remained of Crusader rule in coastal Syria, and later to help them safeguard the Syrian coast against Crusader retaliation by sea.[2][20] Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf, in Arabic جبل الشوف Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic...


In the early period of the Crusading era the Druze feudal power was in the hands of two families, the Tanukhs and the Arslans. From their fortresses in the Gharb district (modern Aley province) of southern Mount Lebanon, the Tanukhs led their incursions into the Phoenician coast and finally succeeded in holding Beirut and the marine plain against the Franks. Because of their fierce battles with the crusaders the Druzes earned the respect of the Sunni Muslim Caliphs and thus gained important political powers. After the middle of the twelfth century, the Ma’an family superseded the Tanukhs in Druze leadership. The origin of the family goes back to a prince Ma’an who made his appearance in the Lebanon in the days of the ‘Abbasid Caliph al-Mustarshid (1118 AD-1135 AD). The Ma’ans chose for their abode the Chouf district in the southern part of Western Lebanon, overlooking the maritime plain between Beirut and Sidon, and made their headquarters in Baaqlin, which is still a leading Druze village. They were invested with feudal authority by Sultan Nur-al-Dīn and furnished respectable contingents to the Muslim ranks in their struggle against the Crusaders. The Aley River is a Russian river. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Al-Mustarshid (d. ...


Persecution during the Mamluk and Ottoman period

Having cleared Syria from the Franks, the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt turned their attention to the schismatic Muslims of Syria. In 1305, after the issuing of a Fatwa by the Sunni scholar Ibn Taymiya calling for Jihad against the Druze, Alawites, and Ismaili Shiites, al-Malik al-Nasir inflicted a disastrous defeat on the Druzes at Kisrawan and forced outward compliance on their part to "orthodox" Sunni Islam. Later, under the Ottoman Turks, they were severely attacked at Ayn-Ṣawfar in 1585 after the Ottomans claimed that they assaulted their caravans near Tripoli. Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Taqi Ad-din Abu Al-abbas Ahmad Ibn abd As-salam Ibn abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Taymiya (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني) (January 22, 1263 - 1328), was an Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ...


Consequently, the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were to witness a succession of armed Druze rebellions against the Ottomans, countered by repeated Ottoman punitive expeditions against the Chouf, in which the Druze population of the area was severely depleted and many villages destroyed. These military measures, severe as they were, did not succeed in reducing the local Druze to the required degree of subordination. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf would be granted in iltizam (that is, in fiscal concession) to one of the region’s emirs, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed emir. This arrangement was to provide the cornerstone for the privileged status which ultimately came to be enjoyed by the whole of Mount Lebanon in Ottoman Syria, Druze and Christian areas alike.[21] Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ...


Ma’an Dynasty, The Druze Power at its Height

With the advent of the Ottoman Turks and the conquest of Syria by Sultan Selim I in 1516, the Ma’ans threw in their lot with the conquering invaders and were acknowledged by the new rulers as the feudal lords of southern Lebanon. Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under Ma’an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of Jabal Bayt-Ma’an (the mountain of the Ma’an family) or Jabal al-Druze. The latter title has since been usurped by the Hawran region, which since the middle of the nineteenth century has proven a haven of refuge to Druze emigrants from Lebanon and has become the headquarters of Druze power. The Hauran or Hawran (Arabic: حوران) is the southern region of modern-day Syria. ...


Under Fakhreddin II (1585-1635) the Druze dominion increased until it included almost all Syria, extending from the edge of the Antioch plain in the north to Ṣafad in the south, with a part of the Syrian desert dominated by Fakhr-al-Dīn's castle at Tadmur (Palmyra), the ancient capital of Zenobia. The ruins of this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town. Fakhr-al-Dīn became too strong for his Turkish sovereign in Constantinople. He went so far in 1608 as to sign a commercial treaty with Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany containing secret military clauses. The Sultan then sent a force against him, and he was compelled to flee the land and seek refuge in the courts of Tuscany and Naples in 1614. Fakhr-al-Din II also the Great was a Lebanese prince, son of prince Qurqumaz from the Maan Druze dinasty and princess Nassab. ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... This article is about the Queen of the Palmyrene Empire who conquered Egypt. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


Fakhr-al-Din was the first ruler in modern Lebanon to open the doors of his country to foreign Western influences. Under his auspices the French established a khān (hostel) in Sidon, the Florentines a consulate, and the Christian missionaries were admitted into the country. Beirut and Sidon, which Fakhr-al-Dīn beautified, still bear traces of his benign rule. Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ...


Shihab Dynasty,The Last Feudal Chiefs

As early as the days of Saladin, and while the Ma’ans were still in complete control over southern Lebanon, the Shihab tribe, originally Ḥijaz Arabs but later settled in Ḥawran, advanced from Ḥawran, in 1172, and settled in Wadi-al-Taym at the foot of Mt. Hermon. They soon made an alliance with the Ma’ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in Wadi-al-Taym. At the end of the seventeenth century (1697) the Shihabs succeeded the Ma’ans in the feudal leadership of Druze southern Lebanon, although they professed Sunni Islam. Secretly, they showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their subjects. Because of their blood relationship to the Quraysh, the family of the Prophet Muhammad, the Shihab, next to the Quraysh, is the noblest family in the Arabic world. Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan River water Mount Hermon (Arabic: Jabalu sh-Shaykh) is a mountain in the Anti-Lebanon range, on the border between Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ...


The Shihab leadership continued till the middle of the last century and culminated in the illustrious governorship of Amir Bashir Shihab II (1788-1840) who, after Fakhr-al-Din, was the greatest feudal lord Lebanon produced. Though governor of the Druze Mountain Bashir was a crypto-Christian, and it was he whose aid Napoleon solicited in 1799 during his campaign against Syria. Bashir Shihab II (born 1767 in Ghazir, died 1850 in Constantinople) was a Lebanese emir who ruled Lebanon in the first half of the 19th century and was as such the second ruler who managed to do this (the first one was Fahkr-al-Din II in the 17th century). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


Having consolidated his conquests in Syria (1831-1838), Ibrahim Pasha, son of the viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha, made the fatal mistake of trying to disarm the Christians and Druzes of the Lebanon and to draft the latter into his army. This was contrary to the principles of the life of independence which these mountaineers had always lived, and resulted in a general uprising against Egyptian rule. The uprising was encouraged, for political reasons, by the British. The Druzes of Wadi-al-Taym and Ḥawran, under the leadership of Shibli al-Aryan, distinguished themselves in their stubborn resistance at their inaccessible headquarters, al-Laja, lying southeast of Damascus. Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... See Mehemet Ali (Turkey) for the Turkish foreign minister and regent. ...


Qaysites and the Yemenites

The conquest of Syria by the Muslim Arabs in the middle of the seventh century introduced into the land two political factions later called the Qaysites and the Yemenites. The Qaysite party represented the Ḥijaz and Bedouin Arabs who were regarded as inferior by the Yemenites who were earlier and more cultured emigrants into Syria from southern Arabia. Druzes and Christians grouped in political rather than religious parties so the party lines in Lebanon obliterated racial and religious lines and the people grouped themselves regardless of their religious affiliations, into one or the other of these two parties. The sanguinary feuds between these two factions depleted, in course of time, the manhood of the Lebanon and ended in the decisive battle of Ain Dara in 1711, which resulted in the utter defeat of the Yemenite party. Many Yemenite Druzes thereupon immigrated to the Hawran region and thus laid the foundation of Druze power there. Yemenites can be either: Citizens of Yemen or persons residing in Yemen (see: Demographics of Yemen); The Yemenite Jew minority group within Israel. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... Its a famous battle that took place in Ain Darra 1711. ...


Civil War of 1860

Meeting of Druze and Ottoman leaders in Damascus, about the control of Jebel Druze.
Meeting of Druze and Ottoman leaders in Damascus, about the control of Jebel Druze.

The Druzes and their Christian Maronite neighbors, who had thus far lived as religious communities on friendly terms, entered a period of social disturbance in the year 1840, which culminated in the civil war of 1860. For this disturbance the Ottoman Sultan was, in a great measure, responsible. The Sultan, realizing that the only way to bring the semi-independent people of Lebanon under his direct control was to sow the seeds of discord among the people themselves, inaugurated in the mountain a policy long tried and found successful in the Ottoman provinces, the policy of "divide and rule". Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


Also, after the Shehab dynasty converted to Christianity the Druze community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with the collaboration of the Catholic Church, and the Druze lost most of their political and feudal powers. Also, the Druze formed a strong ally with Protestant Britain and allowed Protestant missionaries to enter Mount Lebanon, creating tension between them and the Catholic Maronites. The civil war of 1860 cost the Christians some ten thousand lives in Damascus, Zahle, Deir al-Qamar, Hasbaya and other towns of Lebanon. The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... This article is about a town in Lebanon. ... Hasbeya or Hasbeiya (Arabic: ‎) is a town in Lebanon, situated about 36 miles to the south east of Beirut, at the foot of Mount Hermon, overlooking a deep amphitheatre from which a brook flows to the Hasbani. ...


The European powers then determined to interfere and authorized the landing in Beirut of a body of French troops under General Beaufort d’Hautpoul, whose inscription can still be seen on the historic rock at the mouth of the Dog River (Nahr El-Kalb). Following the recommendations of the powers, the Ottoman Porte granted Lebanon local autonomy, guaranteed by the powers, under a Christian governor. This autonomy was maintained until World War I.[22][23] “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Modern Druze History

In Lebanon, Syria and Israel the Druze have official recognition as a separate religious community with its own religious court system. Their symbol is an array of five colors, green, red, yellow, blue and white. Each color pertains to a symbol defining its principles: green for ˤAql "the Universal Mind", red for Nafs "the Universal Soul", yellow for Kalima "the Truth/Word", blue for Sabq "the Antagonist/Cause" and white for Talī "the Protagonist/Effect". These principles are why the number five has special considerations among the religious community, it is usually represented symbolically as a five-pointed star. Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Lebanon

Prophet Job shrine in Lebanon the Chouf region.
Prophet Job shrine in Lebanon the Chouf region.
Walid Jumblatt.

The Druze community played an important role in the formation of the modern state of Lebanon, and even though they are a minority they played an important role in the Lebanese political scene. Before and during the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the Druze were in favor of Pan-Arabism and Palestinian resistance represented by PLO. Most of the community supported the Progressive Socialist Party formed by the Lebanese leader Kamal Jumblatt and they fought alongside other leftist and Palestinian parties against the Lebanese Front that was mainly constituted of Christians. After the assassination of Kamal Jumblatt on March 16, 1977, his son Walid Jumblatt took the leadership of the party and played an important role in preserving his father’s legacy and sustained the existence of the Druze community during the sectarian bloodshed that lasted till 1990. Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf, in Arabic جبل الشوف Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historical region of Lebanon, and also an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... The Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) (Arabic al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) is a political party in Lebanon. ... Kamal Jumblatt (Arabic: كمال جنبلاط; (December 6, 1917 – March 16, 1977) was an important Lebanese politician. ... The Lebanese Front (Arabic: الجبهة اللبنانية) was a right-wing coalition of mainly Christian parties formed in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Picture of Walid Jumblatt Walid Jumblatt (Arabic: وليد جنبلاط‎) (born August 7, 1949) is the current leader of the Progressive Socialist Party of Lebanon and the most prominent leader of the Druze community. ...


In August 2001 Patriarch Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir toured the predominantly Druze Chouf region of Mount Lebanon and visited Moukhtara, the ancestral stronghold of Druze leader Walid Jumblatt. The tumultuous reception that Sfeir received not only signified a historic reconciliation between Maronites and Druze, who fought a bloody war in 1983-1984, but underscored the fact that the banner of Lebanese sovereignty had broad multi-confessional appeal[24] and was a cornerstone for the Cedar Revolution. Other “pro-Syrian” political parties are supported by some Druzes such as the Lebanese Democratic Party led by Talal Arslan and other minor political figures. His Beatitude and Eminence Patriarch Mar Nasrallah Boutros Cardinal Sfeir (Arabic: الكاردينال مار نصر الله بطرس صفير) (born May 15, 1920 in Rayfoun, Lebanon) is the patriarch of Lebanons largest Christian body, the Maronite Church, an Eastern Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See. ... Cedar Revolution has become the most commonly used name for the chain of demonstrations and popular civic action in Lebanon (mainly Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005. ...


In Syria

Sultan Pasha al-Atrash.
Sultan Pasha al-Atrash.

In Syria, most Druze live in the Jabal al-Druz, a rugged and mountainous region in the southwest of the country, which is more than 90 percent Druze inhabited, some 120 villages are exclusively so. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The Jabal Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest. With a community of little more than 100,000 in 1949, or roughly three percent of the Syrian population, the Druzes of Syria's southeastern mountains constituted a potent force in Syrian politics and played a leading role in the nationalist struggle against the French. Under the military leadership of Sultan Pasha al-Atrash the Druzes provided much of the military force behind the Great Syrian Revolt of 1925-1927. In 1945 Amir Hasan al-Atrash, the paramount political leader of the Jabal, led the Druze military units in a successful revolt against the French, making the Jabal Druze the first and only region in Syria to liberate itself from French rule without British assistance. No Syrians played a more heroic role in the struggle against colonialism or shed more blood for independence than the Druzes. At independence the Druzes, made confident by their successes, expected that Damascus would reward them for their many sacrifices on the battlefield. They demanded to keep their autonomous administration and many political privileges accorded them by the French and sought generous economic assistance from the newly independent government. Sultan al-Atrash, (1891-1982) (Arabic: سلطان الأطرش) Commonly known as Sultan Pasha al-Atrash (Arabic: سلطان باشا الأطرش) Prominent Druze leader and Commander General of the Great Syrian Revolution (1925-1927). ...


Well led by the Atrash household and jealous of their reputation as Arab nationalists and proud warriors, the Druze leaders refused to be beaten into submission by Damascus or cowed by threats. When a local paper in 1945 reported that President Shukri al-Quwwatli (1943-1949) had called the Druzes a "dangerous minority" Sultan Pasha al-Atrash flew into a rage and demanded a public retraction. If it were not forthcoming, he announced, the Druzes would indeed become "dangerous" and a force of 4,000 Druze warriors would "occupy the city of Damascus." Quwwatli could not dismiss Sultan Pasha's threat. The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine. One advisor to the Syrian Defense Department warned in 1946 that the Syrian army was "useless," and that the Druzes could "take Damascus and capture the present leaders in a breeze."


During the four years of Adib Shishakli's rule in Syria (December 1949 to February 1954) the Druze community was subjected to a heavy attack by the Syrian regime. Shishakli believed that among his many opponents in Syria, the Druzes were the most potentially dangerous, and he was determined to crush them. He frequently proclaimed: "My enemies are like a serpent: the head is the Jabal Druze, the stomach Homs, and the tail Aleppo. If I crush the head the serpent will die." Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jabal Druze. Several towns were bombarded with heavy weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses. According to Druze accounts, Shishakli encouraged neighboring bedouin tribes to plunder the defenseless population and allowed his own troops to run amok. Adib ibn Hasan Shishakli (1909-1964) (Arabic: أديب بن حسن الشيشكلي) was a Syrian military leader. ... Homs (Arabic: , transliteration: ) is a western city in Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. ...


Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics. He accused the entire community of treason, at times claiming they were agents of the British and Hashimites, at others that they were fighting for Israel against the Arabs. He even produced a cache of Israeli weapons allegedly discover in the Jabal. Even more painful for the Druze community was his publication of "falsified Druze religious texts" and false testimonials ascribed to leading Druze sheikhs designed to stir up sectarian hatred. This propaganda was also broadcasted in the Arab world, mainly Egypt. Shishakli was assassinated in Brazil on September 27 1964 by a Druze seeking revenge for Shishakli's bombardment of the Jabal Druze. After the Shishakli’s military campaign, the Druze community lost a lot of its political influence but many Druze military officers played an important role when it comes to the Baathist regime currently ruling Syria.[3] is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in Damascus in the 1940s as the original secular Arab nationalist movement, to combat Western colonial rule. ...


In Israel

Prophet Jethro shrine in Israel.
Prophet Jethro shrine in Israel.
Druze man in Peki'in.
Druze man in Peki'in.

In Israel the majority of the approximately 120,000 Druze consider themselves a distinct ethnic group and do not identify themselves as Arab.[25] Since 1957 the Israeli government has also designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community, at the request of the community's leaders. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pekiin or Buqeia (‎, Arabic: ), is a local council in the Northern District of Israel located eight kilometres east of Maalot-Tarshiha in the Upper Galilee . ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

Daliyat Al-Karmel, Israeli Memorial to 355 Druze killed while fighting for Israel
Daliyat Al-Karmel, Israeli Memorial to 355 Druze killed while fighting for Israel

Druze are prominent in the Israel Defense Forces and in politics. A considerable number of Israeli Druze soldiers have fallen in Israel's wars since the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and the bond between is commonly known by the term brit damim ("covenant of blood"), although in recent years this expression has been criticized because Israel has been accused of not providing enough opportunity for Israeli Druze youth beyond the traditional military relationship.[26] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x602, 109 KB) Summary Druze memorial in Daliat el Carmel, Israel (John J. McGough) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x602, 109 KB) Summary Druze memorial in Daliat el Carmel, Israel (John J. McGough) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Daliyat Al-Karmel is a Druze town in the North District of Israel. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially...


Israeli Druze served in the Israeli army, voluntarily during 1948-1956, and at the community leaders' request, compulsorily ever since.[27] Their privileges and responsibilities are the same as those of Israeli Jews. All Druze are drafted, but exemptions are given for religious students and for various other reasons, as in the majority Jewish population. Israeli Druze have achieved high positions of command in the Israeli military, far beyond their proportion in the general population of Israel. In the 2006 Lebanon War the all-Druze Herev [sword] Battalion, through their knowledge of the Lebanese terrain, suffered no casualties and claim to have killed 20 Hezbollah fighters, triggering suggestions that the battalion be transformed into a sayeret (elite unit).[28] In 1996 Azzam Azzam, a Druze Israeli businessman, was accused by Egypt of spying for Israel and was imprisoned for eight years, an accusation denied by the Israeli government. Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Azzam Azzam (1963) is an Israeli Druze who was convicted of spying for Israel by Egypt, and jailed there for 8 years. ...


In January 2004 the spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel, Shaykh Mowafak Tarif, signed a declaration calling on all non-Jews in Israel to observe the Seven Noahide Laws as laid down in the Bible and expounded upon in Jewish tradition. The mayor of the Galilean city of Shfaram also signed the document.[29] The declaration includes the commitment to make a "...better humane world based on the Seven Noahide Commandments and the values they represent commanded by the Creator to all mankind through Moses on Mount Sinai."[29] Shaykh Muwaffak Tarīf (موفق طريف) is the current spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel. ... The Noahide laws are the mitzvot (commandments) that Judaism teaches that all of humankind is morally bound to follow. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... Shefa-Amr (Arabic شفا عمر Shafâ `Amr, Hebrew שפרעם Shfaram, unofficially also spelled Shefaram) is a city in the North District in Israel. ...


Support for the spread of the Seven Noahide Commandments by the Druze leaders reflects the biblical narrative itself. The Druze community reveres the non-Jewish father-in-law of Moses, Jethro, whom Muslims call Shuˤayb. According to the biblical narrative, Jethro joined and assisted the Jewish people in the desert during the Exodus, accepted monotheism, but ultimately rejoined his own people. The tomb of Jethro near Tiberias is the most important religious site for the Druze community.[30] It has been claimed that the Druze are actually descendents of Jethro. Jethro (Hebrew: יִתְרוֹ, Standard Yitro Tiberian ; His Excellence/Posterity) is a figure from the Hebrew Bible. ... Shoaib (Arabic: ‎ ; also ShuÊ•ayb, ShuÊ•aib, Shuaib, literally Who Shows the Right Path), is traditionally associated with the biblical figure Jethro. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ...


Beliefs of the Druze

The Druze are considered to be a social group as well as a religion, but not a distinct ethnic group. Also complicating their identity is the custom of Taqiya - concealing or disguising their beliefs when necessary - that they adopted from Shia Islam. Druze in different states can have radically different lifestyles. Some claim to be Muslim, some do not. The Druze faith is said to abide by Islamic principles, but they tend to be separatist in their treatment of Druze-hood. Druze does not allow conversion to the religion. Marriage between Druze and non-Druze is discouraged for religious, political and historical reasons. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... In Shia Islamic tradition, Taqiyya (التقية) is the dissimulation of one’s religious beliefs when one fears for ones life, the lives of ones family members, or for the preservation of the faith. ...


The Druze have a holy book called "Kitab Al Hikmah" or the book of wisdom.


ˤUqqāl and Juhhāl

Druze Sheikh (ˤUqqāl) wearing religious dress.
Druze Sheikh (ˤUqqāl) wearing religious dress.

The Druze are split into two groups. The largely secular majority, called al-Juhhāl (جهال) ("the Ignorant") are not granted access to the Druze holy literature. They are around 80% of the Druze population, and generally distance themselves from religious issues - for this reason they are able to fill governmental positions (sometimes disproportionately to the Druze's share of the general population) in the nations that they inhabit which endorse other religions. They often do not consider themselves to have most of the religious responsibilities that the faith includes, but practice personal prayer. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ...


The religious group, which includes both men and women (about 20% of the population), is called al-ˤUqqāl (عقال), ("the Knowledgeable Initiates"). They have a special mode of dress designed to comply with Quranic traditions. Women can opt to wear al-mandīl, a loose white veil, especially in the presence of other people. They wear al-mandīl on their head to cover their hair and wrap it around their mouth and sometimes over their nose as well. They wear black shirts and long skirts covering their legs to their ankles. Male ˤuqqāl grow moustaches, and wear dark clothing with white turbans. This article is about the article of clothing, or a religious item. ...


Al-ˤuqqāl have equal rights to al-Juhhāl, but establish an informal hierarchy of respect based on religious service. The most influential 5% of so become Ajawīd, recognized religious leaders, and from this group the local community usually chooses its official Shaykh al-ˤAql. His role is primarily as political and social leader of the community, but he is also recognized as religious authority as well - and must commit to a humble, celibate (interestingly, including celibate marriage), pious, modest lifestyle somewhat akin to some Christian clergy positions. Shaikh (شيخ, also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning an elder or a revered old man. ...


The Druze believe in the unity of God (rejecting concepts such as the holy trinity and they also do not believe in messiahs), and are often known as the "People of Monotheism" or simply "Monotheists". Their theology has a Neo-Platonic view about how God interacts with the world through emanations and is similar to some gnostic and other esoteric sects. There are Sufi influences in their philosophy as well. Some individual Druze sheikhs interpret Quranic phrases to talk about reincarnation, but contrary to popular perception this is not part of the primary theology of the faith. This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ...


Druze principles focus on honesty, loyalty, filial piety, altruism, patriotic sacrifice, and monotheism. They reject polygamy, tobacco smoking, alcohol, consumption of pork and marriage to non-Druze, though these rules are only seriously enforced among ˤUqqāl. Druze generally follow the Sunni train of thought on history, honoring Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman, Ali and others, but follow an egalitarian ethic towards other sects. Filial piety is extended into the afterlife. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of an alcohol includes many other compounds. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ...


Flag

The Druze have a five colored flag created to distinguish them from other Islamic sects. There are many differing interpretations of the flag, but the one most commonly accepted is that the five colors refer to Fatimah, her father (Muhammad), her husband (Ali), and her two sons. Other interpretations link these colors to others religious figures, prophets, and ideas. The Druze have accepted as prophets Adam, Muhammad, Noah (Nūħ), Abraham (Ibrāhīm), Sarah, Jacob (Yaˤqub), Moses (Mūsā), Solomon (Sulaymān), John the Baptist (Yahya), Jesus (Isā) and Jethro, or Shuayb. They also believe in the wisdom of classical Greek philosophers such as Plato and Pythagoras, who are recognized as prophets of a lower stature. In addition, they honor an array of "wise men" who founded the religion in the 11th century. The five colors in the flag are also sometimes interpreted as follows: Red stands for courage, bravery and love. Yellow is knowledge, wisdom, enlightenment, or wheat. Green is nature and earth. Blue is patience, forgiveness, sky and water. White is purity, peace and conciliation. Druze places of worship are usually very modest. Prayer is conducted discreetly, among family and friends. Image File history File links Flag_of_Druze. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Druze. ... The Jabal or Jebel el Druze was an autonomous state in the French Mandate of Syria from 1921 to 1936. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about the Biblical jhhhhnn . ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; born between 580 and 572 BC, died between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian Greek mathematician[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...


See also

Religions Alawism Scriptures Quran, Kitab al Majmu Languages Arabic, Turkish The Alawites are a Middle Eastern sect of Shiite Islam[2][3] prominent in Syria. ... Esotericism refers to knowledge suitable only for the advanced, privileged, or initiated, as opposed to exoteric knowledge, which is public. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... The Ismaili ( اسماعيلي, Persian Esmaaili) branch of Islam is the second-largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... The Jabal or Jebel el Druze was an autonomous state in the French Mandate of Syria from 1921 to 1936. ... The list of Druze includes prominent Druze figures who are notable in their areas of expertise. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Further reading

  • Minorities in the Middle East: Druze Communities 1840-1974 edited by B. Destani, 4 volumes Archive Editions.[4]
  • I, the Divine: A Novel in First Chapters by Rabih Alameddine [5]
  • The Druze Faith by Sami Nasib Makarem

References

  1. ^ Lebanon Congressional Research Service Brief, Updated March 16, 2006
  2. ^ The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status, By Dana, Nissim
  3. ^ Press Release: The Druze Population of Israel. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (April 19, 2007). (Hebrew)
  4. ^ US State Department International Religious Freedom Report 2005
  5. ^ Institute of Druze Studies - Druze Traditions
  6. ^ Al-Maðhab at-Tawḥīdī ad-Durzī p. 66 by Najib Israwi, cited in Samy Swayd 1998, The Druzes: An Annotated Bibliography, ISBN 0-9662932-0-7
  7. ^ Druze
  8. ^ Localities and Population, by District, Sub-District, Relition and Population Group. Statistical Abstract of Palestine 2006. Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics.
  9. ^ Institute of Druze Studies: Druzes
  10. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=2nCWIsyZJxUC&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99&dq=druze+population+lebanon&source=web&ots=XpkTcA-TUj&sig=0K6Vh-8YA-A6_CUCH619FPd5EJw
  11. ^ Rabah Halabi, Citizens of equal duties — Druze identity and the Jewish State, p. 55 (Hebrew)
  12. ^ Druze set to visit Syria BBC News Online, 30 August 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2006.
  13. ^ Major Branches of Religions Ranked by Number of Adherents Adherents.com. Last updated 28 October 2005. Retrieved 8 September 2006.
  14. ^ http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Shen2004.pdf
  15. ^ Al-Najjar, Abdullah (1965). The Druze Sect and the Unitarians(Math'hab AlDruz wal Muwahideen. Dar AlMaarif in Egypt. 
  16. ^ Hitti, Philip (1928). Origins of the Druze People and Religion. Colombia University Press, 15-16. 
  17. ^ The Druzes and the Maronites under the Turkish Rule from 1840 to 1860, Charles Churchill published in 1862
  18. ^ The Druze Sect and the Unitarians, Abdullah Al-Najjar published in 1965 in Arabic
  19. ^ Origins of the Druze People and Religion, Philip K. Hitti, published in 1924 pages 13-14
  20. ^ The Historical archive of Yehya Bin Saeed Al Antaki, published in 1927 page 223 (in Arabic)
  21. ^ Druze History
  22. ^ The Druzes and the Maronites under the Turkish Rule from 1840 to 1860, Charles Churchill published in 1862
  23. ^ Origins of the Druze People and Religion, Philip K. Hitti, published in 1924
  24. ^ Dossier: Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir (May 2003)
  25. ^ Identity Repertoires among Arabs in Israel, Muhammad Amara and Izhak Schnell; Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 30, 2004
  26. ^ Norton, A.R. 1996. [ISBN 9004112510]
  27. ^ The Druze Minority in Israel in the Mid-1990s by Gabriel Ben-Dor
  28. ^ "Druze Herev Battalion Fights 32 Days With No Casualties", Israel National News
  29. ^ a b Islam Religious Leader Commits to Noahide "Seven Laws of Noah". Institute of Noahide Code. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  30. ^ Druze Religious Leader Commits to Noachide "Seven Laws" - Inside Israel - Israel News - Arutz Sheva

Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה) is a state organization for the creation and maintenance of numeric data related to populations vis-à-vis the ethnic makeup of Israel and its cities. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up Druze in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Sources Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Communities

  • Druze Chat
  • Druze Faces
  • Druze News Druze News from Lebanon, Israel and the Druze world.
  • Lebanese Druze Online Community
  • American Druze Society - National
  • American Druze Society - Michigan
  • Canadian Druze Society
  • Australian Druze Community
  • South Australian Druze Community
  • Israeli Druze Online - in Hebrew
  • European Druze Society
  • Meeting Druze from all over the world
  • Druze Articles

Other links

  • Druze: A small peace of Israel from hackwriters.com
  • The Druzes and the Maronites under the Turkish Rule from 1840 to 1860. Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection. ISBN 1-429-73982-7.
  • Druze in Israel and Syria
  • The Druze by Dr. Naim Aridi
  • The Druze

  Results from FactBites:
 
Institute of Druze Studies: Druzes (1568 words)
Among Druzes today, Darazi is known as a heretic and the uttering of his name constitutes the use of profanity.
In Druze society, as in Middle Eastern culture in general, the priority of the family over the individual is predominant.
Druzes build their houses when possible on land adjacent to their parents, and extended families usually remain in close proximity to one another.
Druzes (767 words)
The Druzes attach particular importance to speaking the truth among themselves (although it is permissible to lie to outsiders and even to pretend to accept the religious beliefs of the ruling majority).
Druze religion has its origins in the second decade of the 11th century, when al-Darazi and Hamzah ibn Ali declared the sixth Fatimid caliph to be the incarnation of the godhead.
The refusal of the Druzes to involve themselves in the Arab-Israeli conflict and the loyalty of the majority of the Druzes to the state of Israel has led them to be treated relatively favourably by the Israeli authorities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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