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Encyclopedia > Drupal

Home page of a default Drupal installation (with a Lorem Ipsum article).
Latest release 6.2 / April 9th, 2008 changelog
OS Cross-platform
Genre Content management framework, Content management system, Community and Blog software
License GPL
Website http://drupal.org

Drupal (pronounced /ˈdruːpəl/) is a free and open source modular framework and content management system (CMS) written in the programming language PHP. Drupal, like many modern CMSs, allows the system administrator to create and organize content, customize the presentation, automate administrative tasks, and manage site visitors and contributors. Although there is a sophisticated programming interface, most tasks can be accomplished with little or no programming. Drupal is sometimes described as a "web application framework," as its capabilities extend from content management to enabling a wide range of services and transactions. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Using lorem ipsum to focus attention on graphic elements in a website design proposal. ... Code complete redirects here. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... A content management framework is an application programming interface for creating a customized content management system. ... A content management system (CMS) is a program used to create a framework for the content of a Web site. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... Blog software, also called blog publishing system is software for publishing blogs. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... GPL redirects here. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... A software framework is a reusable design for a software system (or subsystem). ... A content management system (CMS) is a program used to create a framework for the content of a Web site. ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... A web application framework is a software framework that is designed to support the development of dynamic websites, Web applications and Web services. ...

Drupal runs in many environments, including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and any platform that supports either the Apache (version 1.3+), or IIS (version IIS5+) Web server and the PHP language (version 4.3.3+). Drupal requires a database such as MySQL or PostgreSQL to store content and settings. 1. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to simply as Apache, is a web server notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. ... Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly called Internet Information Server) is a set of Internet-based services for servers using Microsoft Windows. ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... MySQL (pronounced (IPA) , my S-Q-L[1]) is a multithreaded, multi-user SQL database management system (DBMS)[2] which has, according to MySQL AB, more than 10 million installations. ... PostgreSQL is a free software object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), released under a BSD-style license. ...



Originally written by Dries Buytaert as a bulletin board system, Drupal became an open source project in 2001. Drupal is an English transliteration of the Dutch word “druppel,” which means “drop” (as in “a water droplet”). The name was taken from the now-defunct Drop.org website, whose code slowly evolved into Drupal. Buytaert wanted to call the site “dorp” (Dutch for “village,” referring to its community aspects), but made a typo when checking the domain name and thought it sounded better.[1] Dries Buytaert (19 November 1978) is a free/libre open-source software programmer and the founder of the Drupal CMS (Content Management System). ... BBS redirects here. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...

From May 2006 to April 2007, Drupal was downloaded from the Drupal.org website more than 600,000 times.[2] A large community now helps develop Drupal.[3]

As of April 2008, Drupal 6.2 is the latest release.[4]

Drupal Core

The core Drupal install comes with a blog system, forum, and a menu system to create either a classic "brochureware" website or an interactive community website. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A typical Internet forum discussion, with common elements such as quotes and spoiler brackets A page from a forum showcasing emoticons and Internet slang An Internet forum is a web application for holding discussions and posting user generated content. ...

As in WordPress or Joomla!, content is stored independent of a hierarchical menu. The user can choose to provide this "classical" navigation and/or make use of the Taxonomy System which sorts tagged content into categories. This article is about the self-hosted blog software. ... Joomla! is a free, open source content management system for publishing content on the world wide web and intranets. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...

Modules included in Drupal's 5.x core[5] enable users to:

  • Post, revise, and categorize content
  • Conduct searches on internal site content
  • Post comments
  • Take part in forums
  • Vote in polls
  • Work on collaborative writing projects
  • Post and view personal profiles
  • Communicate among themselves or with the managers of a site
  • Change the look of a site with off-the-shelf or custom-made themes
  • Build multi-level menus
  • Provide users with an interface in their local language
  • Provide RSS feeds
  • Aggregate content from the RSS feeds of other sites
  • Register and manage user accounts
  • Assign fine-grained user roles, granting users permission to use selected features of a site
  • Use access rules to deny site access to specified usernames, e-mail addresses, and IP addresses
  • Provide statistics and reports for administrators
  • Manage caching and throttling to improve how a site performs in heavy traffic
  • Construct and specify various input filters and content types
  • Generate easy-to-remember URLs that can also be more easily interpreted by search engines (for example, "www.mysite.com/products" rather than "www.mysite.com/?q=node/432) "Clean Urls" (removing the ?q= ) are possible by default on most servers, but some may require special configuration.

Additional core administrative functions included in Drupal 6.x: For other meanings of RSS, see RSS (disambiguation). ... Look up Aggregate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An IP address is a unique number, akin to a telephone number, used by machines (usually computers) to refer to each other when sending information through the Internet using the Internet Protocol. ... A rewrite engine is a piece of web server software used to modify URLs before fetching the requested item, for a variety of purposes. ... A typical search results page Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via natural (organic or algorithmic) search results for targeted keywords. ...

  • Development tools (clear the cache, view theme functions and variables, view load time, etc.)
  • Triggers and Actions - a simple workflow tool.
  • Update Status module - automatically notifies the administrator of any new releases to installed modules and themes.
  • Redirect log
  • Support for OpenID login.

The Drupal core has been designed with a system of hooks, or callbacks, that allow modules to insert functions into Drupal's path of execution. Functions and presentation can be added through pluggable modules and themes. A workflow is a reliably repeatable pattern of activity enabled by a systematic organization of resources, defined roles and mass, energy and information flows, into a work process that can be documented and learned. ... OpenID is a decentralized system to verify ones online identity. ... Hooking in programming is a technique employing so called hooks to make a chain of procedures as a handler. ... For a discussion of callback with computer modems, see callback (telecommunications). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Modularity (programming). ...

Drupal maintains a detailed changelog of core feature updates by version[6] A changelog is a log or record of changes made to a project, such as a website or software project. ...

Contributed Modules

The Drupal website provides more than 3390 [7] free modules (as of March 19, 2008) written and contributed back by the Drupal community, including: A module is a self-contained component of a system, which has a well-defined interface to the other components; something is modular if it is constructed so as to facilitate easy assembly, flexible arrangement, and/or repair of the components. ...

  • CCK - the Content Construction Kit[8]
  • CCK-associated modules[9]
  • Views[10]
  • Organic Groups[11]
  • Panels[12]
  • e-commerce systems[13][14]
  • Photo galleries
  • XML sitemaps
  • Amazon Associate Tools[15]
  • Mailing list management
  • A Constituent Relationship Management (CRM) System, CiviCRM
  • Integration with CVS
  • Workflow features - "Triggers" and "Action" modules are part of 6.x core
  • System version tracking

Drupal modules can "override" the core's built-in features, extending or even replacing Drupal's default behavior without directly manipulating the programmed code in Drupal's core files. This modularization policy increases flexibility and security, and allows users to cleanly upgrade to newer releases, as the core code remains untouched. Electronic commerce, EC, e-commerce or ecommerce consists primarily of the distributing, buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. ... The Sitemaps Protocol allows a webmaster to inform search engines about URLs on a website that are available for crawling. ... An electronic mailing list, a type of Internet forum, is a special usage of e-mail that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users. ... Customer relationship management (CRM) is a broad term that covers concepts used by companies to manage their relationships with customers, including the capture, storage and analysis of customer, vendor, partner, and internal process information. ... The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is an open-source version control system invented and developed by Dick Grune in the 1980s. ...


Custom themes, which can be added without disturbing Drupal's core, use standardized formats that can be generated by third-party theme design engines.

Most themes for Drupal are written in the PHPTemplate engine[16] or to a lesser extent, XTemplate engine[17]. Some templates use hard-coded PHP.

The color module was introduced in the Drupal 5.x series, which allows administrators to change the color scheme of certain themes. This feature was added in order to allow a higher level of customization for the average non-coder.

Earlier versions of Drupal's theming system were criticized [18] as being less design-oriented and more complicated than the systems for Mambo, Joomla! and Plone. The inclusion of the PHPTemplate and XTemplate engines in Drupal has addressed some of these criticisms. The new Drupal 6 theming system utilizes Template processor in an attempt to further separate HTML/CSS from PHP. A new Drupal development module (Devel) provides assistance to Drupal themers who use Drupal 6. Mambo (formerly named Mambo Open Source or MOS) is a free software / open source content management system (CMS) for creating and managing websites through a simple web interface. ... Plone is an open-source content management system built on top of the Zope application server. ... Shortcut: WP:TM Part of the Style and how-to series Templates are used within articles to provide a consistent look to the messages placed into them. ... HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... The acronym CSS may mean: Cansei de Ser Sexy a Brazilian musical group Cascading Style Sheets, a stylesheet language Central Security Service, an agency of the United States government, created to promote partnership between the NSA and the SCE Content Scramble System, a Digital Rights Management method used on some... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ...


As of February 2008, translations for Drupal's interface were available in 44 languages plus English (the default).[19] Some read right to left, such as Arabic and Hebrew. Drupal 6 provides improved support for content and content administration in multiple languages.


Some developers consider Drupal to have a significant learning curve compared to other CMS software. In particular, its configuration options and the appearance of a newly installed site are often compared to WordPress and Joomla!. Drupal 5.0, released January 15, 2007, shipped with a web-based installer, a newly designed visual theme, and a reorganized administration panel to act upon this. Drupal supports the use of install profiles with pre-configured site content, but few have been released as of late 2007. This article is about the self-hosted blog software. ... Joomla! is a free, open source content management system for publishing content on the world wide web and intranets. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Some programmers have criticized Drupal's exclusive use of procedural PHP rather than Object-oriented programming (OOP). Proponents of this method argue that OOP and Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) principles are present in Drupal's code, even though PHP's OOP language features are not directly used[20]. Improved support for OOP in PHP5 was cited[21] as one reason for the project's plan to drop support for PHP4 in future versions of the software. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... Separation of concerns entails breaking down a program into distinct parts that overlap in functionality as little as possible. ...


Customized Drupal distributions include some repackaged third-party modules, some with modifications to the core, including vbDrupal, which is Drupal integrated with vBulletin. vBulletin (abbreviated as vB) is a commercial Internet forum software produced by Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. ...

Drupal 4.2 [22] was used for DeanSpace, which hosted many independent Web sites supporting the 2004 presidential campaign of Howard Dean. After the Dean campaign ended, the DeanSpace project grew into CivicSpace, a Drupal-based "grassroots organizing platform that empowers collective action inside communities and cohesively connects remote groups of supporters." Thus CivicSpace is a spinoff distribution originally based on Drupal 4.2. The DeanSpace campaign was created by Zack Rosen for the Howard Dean campaign in 2004. ... Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and physician from the U.S. state of Vermont, and currently the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, the central organ of the Democratic Party at the national level. ... CivicSpace, formerly known as Deanspace and Hack4Dean, is a content management system founded in May 2004 by Zack Rosen and Neil Drumm. ...

Many innovations in CivicSpace have been incorporated back into the Drupal project itself[23]. Features particularly useful for nonprofit organizations and political campaigns are provided in the CiviCRM module for Drupal 5.0 and higher.

It has been suggested to distribute "pre-made" Drupal installations that are pre-customized with third party modules and configured towards a particular type of Web site: an online store, a music review site, a blogging site, etc. Drupal 5.x goes in this direction, providing a set of "installation profiles" tailored to specifics goals[24].

In late 2007, Acquia announced its formation. Drupal project lead Dries Buytaert is one of Acquia's founders. Acquia announced at Drupalcon Boston 2008 that it will be offering a subscription-based service for Drupal in the 2nd half of 2008. Subscriptions will include one or more Drupal distributions[25], a set of companion network-supplied value-add services, and access to a Technical Assistance Center. The announcement is comparatively notable due to Buytaert's role as CTO in the organization.

Drupal Community

Drupal has a strong community of users and developers. The last major conference was DrupalCon, held in Boston, Massachusetts. Parts of Drupal's community can be found on IRC on the freenode network. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of instant communication over the Internet. ...

See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... A content management system (CMS) is a program used to create a framework for the content of a Web site. ... This is a list of notable content management systems that are used to organize and facilitate collaborative content creation. ...


  1. ^ History http://drupal.org/node/769
  2. ^ "Drupal Download Statistics," http://buytaert.net/tag/statistics
  3. ^ "Growth Graphs," http://groups.drupal.org/node/1980
  4. ^ History http://drupal.org/drupal-6.0
  5. ^ The features of Drupal's core are described in the online "Drupal Handbook" at http://drupal.org/handbook/modules.
  6. ^ Changelog http://cvs.drupal.org/viewvc.py/drupal/drupal/CHANGELOG.txt?view=markup
  7. ^ Modules | drupal.org
  8. ^ Content Construction Kit (CCK) | drupal.org
  9. ^ Modules: CCK | drupal.org
  10. ^ Views | drupal.org
  11. ^ Organic Groups http://drupal.org/project/og
  12. ^ Panels http://drupal.org/project/panels
  13. ^ e-Commerce | drupal.org
  14. ^ Ubercart | drupal.org
  15. ^ Amazon Associate Tools http://drupal.org/node/18842
  16. ^ "PHPTemplate theme engine", Drupal.org.
  17. ^ "XTemplate theme engine", Drupal.org.
  18. ^ "How does Drupal compare to Mambo?" discussion thread, Drupal.org. - Old, but still interesting
  19. ^ "Translations," Drupal.org http://drupal.org/project/Translations (retrieved 18 February 2008)
  20. ^ Chaffer, Jonathan (2005-03-29). Drupal programming from an object-oriented perspective. drupal.org. Retrieved on 2008-03-28.
  21. ^ Drupal 7 and PHP 5.2
  22. ^ Predictions for 2004 | drupal.org
  23. ^ CivicSpace
  24. ^ See http://drupal.org/project/Installation+profiles
  25. ^ Projects | Acquia - Commercially Supported Drupal

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Douglass, Robert T., Mike Little, and Jared W. Smith. Building Online Communities With Drupal, phpBB, and WordPress. New York: Springer Verlag/Apress, 2005. ISBN 1590595629.
  • Gillmor, Dan. We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People for the People. Sebastopol, Calif.: O’Reilly, 2004. ISBN 0-596-00733-7.
  • Graf, Hagen. Drupal. Community-Websites entwickeln und verwalten mit dem Open Source-CMS. Munich: Addison-Wesley, 2006. ISBN 3827323215. (German)
  • Mercer, David. Drupal: Creating Blogs, Forums, Portals, and Community Websites. Birmingham, England: Packt Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1904811809.
  • Peacock, Michael. Selling Online with Drupal e-Commerce. Birmingham, England: Packt Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-1-847194-06-0
  • Shreves, Ric. Drupal 5 Themes. Birmingham, England: Packt Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1847191827.
  • Trippi, Joe. The Revolution Will Not Be Televised: Democracy, the Internet, and the Overthrow of Everything. New York: ReganBooks, 2004. ISBN 0-06-076155-5.
  • VanDyk, John K., and Matt Westgate. Pro Drupal Development. New York: Springer Verlag/Apress, 2007. ISBN 1590597559.

Dan Gillmor is a noted American technology writer and former columnist for the San Jose Mercury News. ... We the Media is a book written by Dan Gillmor, published in 2004 by OReilly (ISBN 0596007337). ... Joe Trippi (b. ...

External links

  • Drupal website
  • API Documentation for developers
  • Drupal Cookbook (for New Drupallers)
  • Drupal Association
  • Drupal Video Tutorials
  • Drupal Developer directory
  • Drupal Themes Live Preview
  • Free Drupal Templates
  • Drupal Dojo
  • Planet Drupal

  Results from FactBites:
Drupal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1062 words)
Drupal is a free software modular content management framework, content management system and blogging engine which was originally written by Dries Buytaert as a bulletin board system.
Drupal is an English transliteration of the Dutch word “druppel” which means “drop” (as in, “a drop of water”).
Drupal achieves clean integration between the core and the modules via a system of hooks, or callbacks, to allow modules to insert functions into Drupal's path of execution.
Drupal at AllExperts (865 words)
Drupal is a modular content management framework, content management system and blogging engine which was originally written by Dries Buytaert as a bulletin board system.
Drupal is the English spelling for the Dutch word 'druppel' which means 'drop' (as in, 'a drop of water').
Drupal has been considered by some to be more difficult to install and to configure than CMS such as Mambo, or basic blogging tools such as WordPress or Movable Type.
  More results at FactBites »



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