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Encyclopedia > Drum machine
A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine
A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine

A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. Drum machine A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine. ... Drum machine A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine. ... An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... A percussion instrument can be any object which produces a sound by being struck with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration. ...


Most modern drum machines are sequencers with a sample playback (rompler) or synthesizer component that specializes in the reproduction of drum timbres as well as the sound of other traditional percussion instruments. Though features vary from model to model, many modern drum machines can also produce unique sounds (though usually percussive in nature), and allow the user to compose unique drum beats. In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was originally any device that recorded and played back a sequence of control information for an electronic musical instrument. ... Rompler is a nickname for an electronic musical instrument that specializes in the playback of samples stored in ROM chips. ... A synthesizer (or synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument designed to produce electronically generated sound, using techniques such as additive, subtractive, FM, physical modelling synthesis, phase distortion, or Scanned synthesis. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... In music, timbre, also timber (from Fr. ... A percussion instrument can be any object which produces a sound by being struck with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration. ... A drum beat, a beat on a drum, is any single strike on a single drum, drum machine, or a series of beats on various percussion instruments creating a rhythmic or metric pattern. ...

Contents

History

Early drum machines

Music educator Joseph Schillinger and the Rhythmicon (1932)
Music educator Joseph Schillinger and the Rhythmicon (1932)

Early drum machines were often referred to as "rhythm machines." In 1930–31, the spectacularly innovative and complex Rhythmicon was realized by Léon Theremin on the commission of composer-theorist Henry Cowell, who wanted an instrument with which to play compositions whose multiple rhythmic patterns, based on the overtone series, were far too difficult to perform on existing keyboard instruments. The invention could produce sixteen different rhythms, each associated with a particular pitch, either individually or in any combination, including en masse, if desired. Received with considerable interest when it was publicly introduced in 1932, the Rhythmicon was soon set aside by Cowell and was virtually forgotten for decades. The next generation of rhythm machines played only preprogrammed rhythms such as mambo, tango, or the like. The first commercially available rhythm machines were included in organs in the late 1960s, and were intended to accompany the organist. Image File history File links Joseph_Schillinger_and_the_Rhythmicon. ... Image File history File links Joseph_Schillinger_and_the_Rhythmicon. ... Joseph Schillinger (1895-1943) was born in Kharkiv, Ukraine (at that time, part of Russia). ... The Rhythmicon or Polyrhythmophone was an early drum machine. ... A young Léon Theremin playing a theremin Léon Theremin (born Lev Sergeyevich Termen, Лев Сергеевич Термен in Russian) (August 15, 1896–November 3, 1993) was a Russian inventor. ... Henry Cowell (March 11, 1897 - December 10, 1965) was an American composer, musical theorist, pianist, teacher, publisher, and impresario. ... A rhythmic unit is a durational pattern which occupies a period of time equivalent to a pulse or pulses on an underlying metric level, as opposed to a rhythmic gesture. ... Pitched musical instruments are usually based on a harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... Mambo is a Cuban musical form and dance style. ... A couple dances Argentine Tango. ...


The first largely successful drum machine was the Rhythm Ace. It was released around 1970 by a company then called Ace Tone (later called Roland). The Rhythm Ace was a preset-only unit; it was not possible for the user to alter or modify the pre-programmed rhythms. A number of other preset drum machines were later released in the 1970s. The first major pop song to use a drum machine was a cover version of Sly and the Family Stone's "Somebody's Watching You" recorded by Little Sister. The song, produced and composed by Sly Stone, entered the R&B charts in 1971. The first album in which a drum machine produced all the percussion was Arthur Brown/Kingdom Come's Journey, recorded in November 1972 using a Bentley Rhythm Ace. Roland Corporation TYO: 7944 is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, electronic equipment and software. ... Sly & the Family Stone were an American rock band from San Francisco, California. ... Little Sister was an American all-female vocal harmony group, which served primarily as the background vocalists for the influential rock/funk band Sly & the Family Stone in concert and on record. ... Sly Stone on The Ed Sullivan Show performing Everyday People, December 28, 1968. ... The Rev. ...


Drum sound synthesis

A key difference between such early machines and more modern equipment is that they used analog sound synthesis rather than digital sampling in order to generate their sounds. For example, a snare drum or maraca sound would typically be created using a burst of white noise whereas a bass drum sound would be made using sine waves or other basic waveforms. This meant that while the resulting sound was not very close to that of the real instrument, each model tended to have a unique character. For this reason, many of these early machines have achieved a certain "cult status" and are now sought after by DJs and producers for use in production of modern techno and electronic music. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Analog electronics. ... A synthesizer (or synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument designed to produce electronically generated sound, using techniques such as additive, subtractive, FM, physical modelling synthesis, phase distortion, or Scanned synthesis. ... A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) strethced across the bottom head. ... Maracas (sometimes called rhumba shakers) are simple percussion instruments (idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried gourd shell (cuia - kOO-ya) or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. ... White noise spectrum White noise( ) is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. ... It has been suggested that vruk be merged into this article or section. ... In trigonometry, an ideal sine wave is a waveform whose graph is identical to the generalized sine function y = Asin[ω(x − α)] + C, where A is the amplitude, ω is the angular frequency (2π/P where P is the wavelength), α is the phase shift, and C... Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... In the music industry, a record producer (or music producer) has many roles, among them controlling the recording sessions, coaching and guiding the musicians, and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... Electronic music is a term for music created using electronic devices. ...


Programmable drum machines

The first stand-alone drum machine, the PAiA Programmable Drum Set, also happened to be the very first programmable drum machine. It was first introduced in 1975 [1], and was sold as a kit, with parts and instructions which the buyer would use to build the machine. PAiA Electronics, Inc. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


In 1978, the Roland CR-78 drum machine was released. It was one of the first programmable rhythm machines, and had four memory locations which allowed the user to store their own patterns. The following year, Roland offered the Boss DR-55. It was the first fully programmable drum machine for under $200. The DR-55 had four sounds, and enough memory for only 16 rhythms. Hardly passable by modern standards, but in its time, the DR-55 was a relatively affordable breakthrough. The Roland CR-78 Drum Machine The Roland CompuRhythm CR-78 is a drum machine that was released in 1978. ...


Digital sampling

The Linn LM-1 Drum Computer (released in 1980 and pricey at $4,999) was the first drum machine to use digital samples. Only 500 were ever made, but the list of those who owned them was impressive. Its distinct sound almost defines 80s pop, and it can be heard on dozens of hit records from the era, including The Human League's Dare, Gary Numan's Dance, and Ric Ocasek's Beatitude. Prince bought one of very first LM-1s and used it on nearly all of his most popular recordings, including 1999 and Purple Rain. An advertisement for the Linn LM-1, circa 1981 The LM-1 Drum Computer, manufactured by Linn Electronics, Inc. ... The Human League are an English synthpop band formed in 1977, who, after several changes in line up, achieved great popularity in the 1980s and a limited comeback in the mid-1990s. ... Gary Numan (born Gary Anthony James Webb on March 8, 1958) is an English singer, composer, musician and electropop pioneer. ... Ric Ocasek (born Richard Otcasek on March 23, 1949, in Baltimore, Maryland) is the former vocalist and frontman for The Cars and a producer for several other groups, including Bad Brains and Suicide. ... Prince Rogers Nelson (born June 7, 1958), known from 1993 to 2000 as (or informally, The Artist Formerly Known as Prince, TAFKAP, or simply The Artist), is a popular and influential American musician. ...


Many of the drum sounds on the LM-1 were composed of two chips that were triggered at the same time, and each voice was individually tunable with individual outputs. Due to memory limitations, a crash cymbal sound was not available except as an expensive third-party modification. A cheaper version of the LM-1 was released in 1982 called the LM-2 (or simply LinnDrum). It cost around $3,000 and not all of its voices were tunable, making it less desirable than the original LM-1. The Linndrum included a crash sound as standard, and like its predecessor the LM-1, featured swappable sound chips. The Linndrum can be heard on records such as Men Without Hats' Rhythm of Youth and The Cars' Heartbeat City. A crash cymbal is a type of cymbal that produces a loud, sharp, but comparatively short-duration crash used mainly as an occasional accent effect. ... The LinnDrum is a drum machine manufactured by Linn Electronics. ... Men Without Hats are a Canadian pop group from Montreal, Quebec who were popular in the early 1980s. ... The Cars were a American New Wave band, fronted by Ric Ocasek, that emerged out of the early punk scene in the late 1970s. ...


It was feared the LM-1 would put every session drummer in Los Angeles out of work and it caused many of L.A's top session drummers (Jeff Porcaro is one example) to purchase their own drum machines and learn to program them themselves in order to stay employed. Jeffrey Thomas Porcaro (April 1, 1954 – August 5, 1992) was a highly regarded session drummer and a founding member of the Grammy Award winning band Toto. ...


Roland "x0x" machines

The famous Roland TR-808 was also launched in 1980. At the time it was regarded with little fanfare, as it did not have digitally sampled sounds; drum machines using digital samples were a good deal more popular. In time though, the TR-808, along with its successor, TR-909 (released in 1983), would soon become a fixture of the burgeoning underground dance, techno, and hip-hop genres, mainly because of its low cost (relative to that of the Linn machines), and the unique character of its analogue-generated sounds. The TR-808's sound only became truly desirable in the late 1980s, about five years after the model was discontinued. In a somewhat ironic twist, it is the analogue-model Rolands that have endured over time as the Linn sound became somewhat overused and dated by the end of the decade. The 808's and the 909's beats have since been widely featured in pop music, heard on countless recordings up to the present day. The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer was one of the first programmable drum machines (TR serving as an acronym for Transistor Rhythm). Introduced by the Roland Corporation in late 1980, it was originally manufactured for use as a tool for studio musicians to create demos. ... Roland TR-909 The TR-909 was a partially analog, partially sample-based drum machine built by Roland Corporation in 1984. ... For popular music (music produced commercially rather than art or folk music), see Popular music. ...


Programming can be done (depending on the machine) in real time: the user creates drum patterns by pressing the trigger pads as though a drum kit were being played; or using step-sequencing: the pattern is built up over time by adding individual sounds at certain points by placing them, as with the TR-808 and TR-909 along a 16-step bar. For example, a 4-on-the-floor generic dance pattern could be made by placing a closed high hat on the 3, 7, 11, and 15th steps, then a kick drum on the 1, 5, 9, and 13th steps, and a clap on the 5 and 13th. This pattern could be varied in a multitude of ways to obtain fills, break-downs and other elements that the programmer sees fit, which in turn can be sequenced—essentially the drum machine plays back the programmed patterns from memory in an order the programmer has chosen. The machine will quantize entries that are slightly off-beat in order to make them exact. A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is mostly a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... Fill may refer to: In civil engineering, a fill is an artificial ridge or dam of earth or gravel (fill dirt) constructed to support a prepared right-of-way such as a railroad or highway across a valley or depression. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In digital music processing technology, quantization is the process of aligning a set of musical notes to conform to a grid. ...


If the drum machine has MIDI connectivity, then one could program the drum machine with a computer or another MIDI device. As for midi u should use cubase 4 to make midi or audio tracks. Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ...


MIDI breakthrough

Because these early drum machines came out before the introduction of MIDI in 1983, they used a variety of methods of having their rhythms synchronized to other electronic devices. Some used a method of synchronization called DIN-sync, or sync-24. Some of these machines also output analog CV/Gate voltages that could be used to synchronize or control analog synthesizers and other music equipment. Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An analog or analogue signal is any continuously variable signal. ... CV/Gate (an abbreviation of Control Voltage/Gate) was an early system to have synthesizers, sequencers, and drum machines control one another. ... The term synthesiser is also used to mean frequency synthesiser, an electronic system found in communications. ...


Drum machines can either be programmed in real time (the user hears a metronome and plays beats in time with the metronome) or in step time, where the user specifies the precise moment in time on which a note will sound. By stringing differently-programmed bars together, fills, breaks, rhythmic changes, and longer phrases can be created. Drum machine controls typically include Tempo, Start and Stop, volume control of individual sounds, keys to trigger individual drum sounds, and storage locations for a number of different rhythms. Most drum machines can also be controlled via MIDI. Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ...


By the year 2000, standalone drum machines became much less common, being partly supplanted by general-purpose hardware samplers controlled by sequencers (built-in or external), software-based sequencing and sampling and the use of loops, and music workstations with integrated sequencing and drum sounds. TR-808 and other digitized drum machine sounds can be found on archives on the Internet. However, traditional drum machines are still being made by companies such as Roland Corporation (under the name BOSS), Zoom, Korg and Alesis, whose SR-16 drum machine has remained popular since it was introduced in 1991. A music workstation is piece of electronic musical equipment providing the facilities of: a sound module, a music sequencer and (usually) a musical keyboard. ... Look up boss in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Zoom is a Japanese audio company that is distributed in the U.S. under the Samson family of companies. ... Korg Corporation is a Japanese multinational corporation that manufactures electronic musical instruments. ... Alesis is a manufacturer of electronic musical instruments based in Cumberland, Rhode Island. ... The Alesis SR-16 is a popular drum machine that was originally introduced in 1991 but is still being produced today. ...


There are percussion-specific sound modules that can be triggered by pickups, trigger pads, or through MIDI. These are called drum modules; the Alesis D4 and Roland TD-8 are popular examples. Unless such a sound module also features a sequencer, it is, strictly speaking, not a drum machine. A Sound module (sometimes referred to as tone generator) is an electronic musical instrument without a human-playable interface such as a keyboard, for example. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Basic electronic drum set made by Pintech. ...


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Drum Machines , Boss DR-670 Dr. Rhythm Drum Machine,Alesis SR-16 Stereo Drum Machine, SKB SKB-1714 ATA Drum Machine & ... (92 words)
Drum Machines, Boss DR-670 Dr. Rhythm Drum Machine,Alesis SR-16 Stereo Drum Machine, SKB SKB-1714 ATA Drum Machine & Sequencer Case, iZotope iDrum Software Drum Machine Macintosh, Hal Leonard 200 Drum Machine Patterns Book
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The Drum Machine - Free Drum Lessons and Drum Tuition. (408 words)
Drum lessons are often presented in the popular Drum Tab format, and some times with an accompanying MIDI file.
Their in a sort of 'lazy man's" drum notation, as they are written for me to read, not publish.
If you would like to help write Drum Lessons for The Drum Machine, you are more than welcome, or if you have any lesson idea's, suggestions or just some general tips on how I might better serve you, please feel free to contact me !
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