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Encyclopedia > Drum and bass
Drum and bass
Stylistic origins
Cultural origins
late 1980s; London and Bristol, United Kingdom
Typical instruments
Mainstream popularity Small, largely based in UK at first, now global but still underground music in many countries
Derivative forms Breakcore, Dubstep[citation needed]
Subgenres
Darkstep - Drumfunk - Electrostep - Futurestep - Hardstep - Intelligent drum and bass - Jazzstep - Jump-Up - Liquid funk - Neurofunk - Ragga jungle - Techstep - Jungle Techno - J-tek
Fusion genres
Breakstep - Darkcore - Raggacore
Regional scenes
Sambass
Other topics
Drum and bass artists, Drum and bass record labels, History of drum and bass, Junglist

Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b, DnB, dnb, d'n'b, drum n bass, drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle which emerged in the late 1980s. The genre is characterised by fast tempo broken beat drums (generally between 160–180 beats per minute) with heavy sub basslines. In the 2000s, drum and bass is still considered an underground musical style, but it has nevertheless had a significant influence on popular music and culture. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Neurofunk (commonly abbreviated neuro) is a sub-genre of drum and bass pioneered by producers Ed Rush, Optical and Matrix,[1][2] during the periods of 1997 & 1998 in London, England as a progression of techstep. ... Breakbeat hardcore (popularly known as rave music, originally referred to as simply hardcore in the United Kingdom, with old school hardcore a common term in the 21st century) is a style of electronic music that primarily uses breakbeats for its rhythm lines. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ... This article is about breakbeat, the electronic dance music genre. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the English city. ... The term synthesiser is also used to mean frequency synthesiser, an electronic system found in communications. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ... In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was traditionally a device or piece of software that allows the user to record, play back and edit musical patterns. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ... An AKAI MPC2000 sampler Playing a Yamaha SU10 Sampler A sampler is an electronic music instrument closely related to a synthesizer. ... Breakcore is a genre of electronic dance music which uses rearranged, cut-up breakbeats to create extreme sounds. ... Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music which has its roots in Londons early 2000s UK garage scene. ... This is a list of electronic music genres, sub-genres and styles, though for the latter, not all possess their own article (in which case, see the main genre article). ... Darkstep is a sub-genre of Drum and Bass which became popular in the late 1990s. ... Drumfunk is a subgenre of drum & bass sometimes referred to as edits or choppage. The term came into widespread use ca. ... A sub-genre of Drum and Bass Music, trancestep (aka electrostep) is the combination of riveting drums, deep, rolling basslines, and melodic synth sequences. ... Trancestep (sometimes known as Electrostep or Futurestep) is a sub-genre of Drum and Bass music, combining the synthesized melodic elements of Trance and Electro with the drum patterns and basslines of Drum & Bass. ... Hardstep is a drum and bass subgenre which emerged in 1996 and is characterized by fast speed beats, steelhard breaks, and thumping bass lines. ... Intelligent drum and bass (IDB) (a derivation of Intelligent Jungle) is the widespread yet almost universally disliked term for the subgenre of drum and bass emphasising influences from lounge jazz and ambient music. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources, so as to avoid its being considered... Jump-Up is a subgenre of jungle and drum and bass that was popular with fans of drum and bass in the late 1990s and was designed to be played in mainstream nightclubs to get a crowd to jump up and dance. ... Liquid funk is a style of drum and bass. ... Neurofunk (commonly abbreviated neuro) is a sub-genre of drum and bass pioneered by producers Ed Rush, Optical and Matrix,[1][2] during the periods of 1997 & 1998 in London, England as a progression of techstep. ... Ragga jungle is the name given to a substyle of Jungle that emerged circa 1991-1992, with artists such as the Ragga Twins, Rebel MC and Genaside II, and has heavy influences from ragga, roots reggae and dancehall. ... Techstep (also referred to as tech) is a major subgenre of drum and bass, characterized by a dark, sci-fi mood, near-exclusive use of synthesised or sampled sound sources, and influences from industrial and techno music at the forefront. ... Dubstep is the name given to the largely South London-based dark garage sound that originally came out of productions by El-B (as part of both Groove Chronicles and the Ghost camp), Zed Bias (aka Phuturistix, Maddslinky and more) and Steve Gurley in 1999-2000. ... Darkcore is a genre of drum and bass (shouldnt be confused with recent Darkcore music, which one is a form of Hardcore techno) that became popular in the United Kingdom hardcore rave scene in 1993. ... Raggacore is a genre of music resembling breakcore but with ragga or reggae style vocals. ... This is an alphabetical list of some jungle and drum n bass artists. ... 0-9 31 Records 720 Degrees A Advance://d Recordings Audio Blueprint B Barcode Recordings BC Recordings Beta Recordings Big-H Recordings Bingo Beats Black Sun Empire Recordings Breakbeat Kaos Records Breakbeat Science Recordings C Cargo Industries Cause 4 Concern Recordings Charge Recordings Chronic Records C.I.A Records Citrus... Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to DnB, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... Mc Lowqui, a junglist Junglist is a slang term referring to a dedicated listener of jungle. ... Electronic dance music is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... Beats per minute (bpm) is a unit typically used as either a measure of tempo in music, or a measure of ones heart rate. ... In popular music a bassline, also bass line, is an instrumental part, or line, which is in the bass or lowest range and thus lower than the other parts and part of the rhythm section. ...


Drum and bass began as an offshoot of the UK's hardcore rave scene of the very early 90s, and over the first decade of its existence there were many permutations in its style, incorporating elements from ragga, dancehall, electro, funk, hip hop, house, jazz, heavy metal, reggae, rock, techno and trance. For other uses, see Rave (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

See also: Oldschool jungle

A musical style called acid house developed in the UK in the late 1980s and early 1990s, along with a "scene" which consisted of related social activities in nightclubs and other venues. Acid house music combined regular beats alongside broken, syncopated beats, strong basslines and a faster tempo than the regular house music. By 1991, musical tracks made up of only "broken" beats began to be known as "jungle" and became a separate musical genre (circa 1991-1992) popular at raves and on pirate radio in urban Britain. Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to DnB, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... Oldschool jungle is the name given to a style of electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including breakbeat hardcore, techno, rare groove and reggae/dub/dancehall. ... For the 1994 novel by Irvine Welsh, see The Acid House. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... House at Cúcuta, Colombia A house is a building typically lived in by one or more people. ... Raves can refer to: Rave party Raves, a commune in the Vosges département, in France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


These tracks often combined ragga vocal tracks with broken beats and basslines. By 1994 jungle began to gain mainstream popularity and fans of the music (known as junglists) became a recognisable part of British youth subculture. At this time jungle began to be associated with criminals and criminal activity and perhaps as a reaction or perhaps independently of this, producers began to draw away from the ragga style and create what they labelled drum and bass. There is no clear point at which jungle became drum and bass, though most jungle producers continue nowadays to produce what they call drum and bass. Not to be confused with Rāga. ... Mc Lowqui, a junglist Junglist is a slang term referring to a dedicated listener of jungle. ...


As the music style became more polished and sophisticated, it began to shift from pirate to commercial radio and gain widespread acceptance (circa 1995-1997). It also began to split into recognisable subgenres such as jump-up. As a lighter sound of drum and bass began to win over the musical mainstream, many producers continued to work on the other end of the spectrum, resulting in a series of releases which highlighted a dark, technical sound which drew more influence from techno music and the soundscapes of science fiction and anime films, this sub-genre became know as techstep (circa 1997-1998). Jump-Up is a subgenre of jungle and drum and bass that was popular with fans of drum and bass in the late 1990s and was designed to be played in mainstream nightclubs to get a crowd to jump up and dance. ... Intelligent drum and bass (IDB) (a derivation of Intelligent Jungle) is the widespread yet almost universally disliked term for the subgenre of drum and bass emphasising influences from lounge jazz and ambient music. ... Techstep (also referred to as tech) is a major subgenre of drum and bass, characterized by a dark, sci-fi mood, near-exclusive use of synthesised or sampled sound sources, and influences from industrial and techno music at the forefront. ...


Whilst evolving musically, drum and bass found itself suddenly upstarted by the UK garage sound, which drew a key part of its inspiration from drum and bass. This genre quickly eclipsed drum and bass in popularity and nearing the turn of the millennium, statements were made to the effect that "drum and bass is dead". Drum and bass however survived this event and the turn of the millennium has seen a revival in its popularity and continuing development, i.e. the appearance of the liquid funk subgenre which draws its inspiration from house and disco alongside a new wave of artists, joining the "jungle" pioneers. It remains a fairly unknown musical style but makes frequent unrecognised appearance in the mainstream as well as being highly influential on other musical styles and some of its artists, notably Goldie, are widely known. It remains most popular in its birthplace in the UK but has spread worldwide over the short period of its existence.[1] UK garage (also known as UKG or just garage) refers to several different varieties of modern electronic dance music generally connected to the evolution of house in the United Kingdom in the mid 1990s. ... Liquid funk is a style of drum and bass. ... For other uses, see Goldie (disambiguation). ...


Musicology of drum and bass

Goldie, one of the most recognizable drum and bass artists.
Goldie, one of the most recognizable drum and bass artists.[2]

There are many views of what constitutes "real" drum and bass as it has many scenes and styles within it, from the highly electronic, industrial sounds of techstep through to the use of conventional, acoustic instrumentation that characterise the more jazz-influenced end of the spectrum. It has been compared with jazz where the listener can get very different sounding music all coming under the same music genre, because like jazz, it is more of an approach, or a tradition, than a style.[3] The sounds of drum and bass are extremely varied - and to a person unfamiliar to them, there may seem to be little connection between the subgenres. One common, though by no means universal, element is a prominent snare drum falling on the 2nd & 4th beats, with a less regular kick pattern around it. Download high resolution version (320x656, 28 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (320x656, 28 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Goldie (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


Drum and bass could at one time be defined as a strictly electronic musical genre with the only 'live' element being the DJ's selection and mixing of records during a set. 'Live' drum and bass using electric, electronic and acoustic instruments played by musicians on stage has appeared and is a growing aspect of the genre.[4][5][6]


For the already mentioned reasons, the musicology of drum and bass is difficult to precisely define; however, the following key characteristics may be observed: For album by Prince, see Musicology (album). ...


Importance of drum and bassline elements

The name "drum and bass" should not lead to the assumption that tracks are constructed solely from these elements. Nevertheless, they are by far and away the most critical features, and usually dominate the mix of a track. Despite the apparent simplicity of drum and bass productions to the untrained ear, an inordinate amount of time is spent on preparing tracks by the more experienced producers.


The genre places great importance on the "bass line", a deep sub-bass musical pattern which is felt physically as much as it is heard. There has also been considerable exploration of different timbres in the bass line region, particularly within techstep. Bass lines exist in many forms, but most notably they originate from sampled sources or synthesizers. Bass lines performed with a bass instrument, whether it is electric, acoustic or a double bass, are rare. Sampled basslines are often taken from double bass recordings or from publicly available loops. Synthesized bass lines are however just as common. Sub-bass is a term used to describe audible sounds below 90Hz - sound in the range below this (under 16-17Hz) would be termed infrasound. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... This article is about reusing existing sound recordings in creating new works. ... Synth redirects here. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


In drum and bass productions, the bass lines are subjected to many and varied sound effects, including standard techniques such as dynamic compression, flanger, chorus, over-drive, equalization, etc. and drum and bass specific techniques such as the "Reese Bass", in fact not a technique per se, but the degrees of processing, distortion and filtering placed upon a widely-used sample of Kevin Saunderson's most infamous 'Reese' bass line sample - from 1988's classic "Just Another Chance". Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... Inner City (Kevin Saunderson and Paris Grey) Kevin Saunderson (born in Brooklyn, New York on May 9, 1964) is an American electronic music producer. ...


Of equal importance is the "808" kick drum, an artificially pitch-downed or elongated bass drum sound sampled from Roland's classic TR-808 drum machine, and a sound which has been subject to an enormous amount of experimentation over the years.[7] A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... Roland TR-808 Introduced in late 1980, the Roland TR-808 was one of the first programmable drum machines. ...


These bass techniques are fully appreciated in a club or rave environments where high quality woofers and powerful amplifiers are required to fully reproduce the eponymous basslines at high volume levels. This has led to the creation of very large and intensely loud touring soundsystems by producers wishing to show off their tracks, such as dubs from Soundman and dubs from Dillinja's Valve Sound System. This does not mean, however, that the music cannot be appreciated at home or accurately reproduced on personal equipment. Soundman (born Antonio Straughn on April 24, 1967) is an English sound engineer, record producer and inventor. ... Pendulum playing the Valve Sound System with MC IC3 at the Sheffield Octagon 05/03/06 The Spralve Sound System is a touring sound system specifically designed for the high fidelity playback of drum and bass music. ...


The complex syncopation of the drum tracks' breakbeat, is another facet of production on which producers spend a very large amount of time. A drum phrase lasting seconds may often take a day or more to prepare, depending on the dedication of the producer. The Amen break is generally acknowledged to have been the most-used (and often considered the most powerful) break in drum and bass.[8] For other uses of the same name, see Syncopation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Break. ... The wave form of the Amen break. ...


It would not be too much of an exaggeration to say that drum and bass (at least in its early days) was a style built around a single broken beat element which was a single sample, the Amen, but other samples have had a significant impact, including the Apache break, the Funky Drummer, and others.[9] The Funky Drummer has perhaps superseded the Amen in modern productions. Apache was a popular 1960 instrumental song written by Jerry Lordan and recorded by British group The Shadows. ... The funky drummer break is one of the most used sampled drum loops in hip-hop and drum and bass music, together with the Amen break, which is more related to drum-and-bass. ...


A commonly used break is the Tramen, a combined beat that is perhaps the ultimate statement on the fusion of musical styles in drum and bass as it combines the Amen, a James Brown funk breakbeat ("Tighten Up" or "Samurai" break) and an Alex Reece drum and bass breakbeat.[10] The tramen is drum loop which is very popular in drum and bass, made by combining several other classic breakbeats. ... For other persons named James Brown, see James Brown (disambiguation). ... Alex Reece is also known for inventing the popular Reece bassline,called by him, which is one of the ruffest sounds ever invented in jungle/drum and bass. ...


The very fast (objectively) drum beat forms a canvas on which a producer can create tracks to appeal to almost any taste and often will form only a background to the other elements of the music. However, without a fast & broken beat, a drum and bass track would not be a drum and bass track but could be classified as a gabber, techno, breaks or house music track.[11] Gabber (IPA pronunciation: ), gabba, or hardcore, is a style of electronic music and a subgenre of hardcore techno. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ... This article is about breakbeat, the genre. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ...


Tempo

Drum and bass is usually between 160-180 BPM, in contrast to other forms of breakbeat such as nu skool breaks which maintain a slower pace at around 130-140 BPM. A general upward trend in tempo has been observed during the evolution of drum and bass. The earliest old skool rave was around 125/135 bpm in 1989/1991, early (late 1992-1993) jungle/breakbeat hardcore was around 155-165 BPM. Since around 1996, drum and bass tempos have predominantly stayed in the 173 to 180 range. Recently some producers have started to once again produce tracks with slower tempos (ie. in the 150s and 160s), but the mid-170 tempo is still the hallmark of the drum and bass sound.[12][13] This article is about breakbeat, the electronic dance music genre. ... Nu skool breaks (often abbreviated to nuskool or breaks) is a term used to describe a sub-genre of breakbeat. ...


A track combining the same elements (broken beat, bass, production techniques) as a drum and bass track, but with a slower beat (say 140 BPM), would not be drum and bass but a drum and bass-influenced breakbeat track.[14]


The speed of drum and bass is not however only characterised by that of the broken beat. Drum and bass has a bassline, which will typically play at half the speed of the drums, bringing its speed down to that of, for instance, a laid back hip-hop track. A listener or dancer can concentrate on this element rather than the faster drums.


Since the speed of music is subjective, an aggressively produced track with a complicated beat and synthesizer sounds may 'sound faster' than one with a sampled double bass bassline, guitar riffs and simpler beat, however the second track may be in strict BPM terms faster. Radio friendly tracks like Shy FX's "Shake Ur Body" often have higher BPMs than ominous techstep productions which might eject the uninitiated very quickly from a dancefloor.


The faster a track is in BPM terms, the less complex its drum patterns can be because at higher step the elements cease to be heard separately, turning them into a wall of sound. A faster drum and bass track will therefore generally have a less complex drum pattern than a slower one.


Live performances of drum and bass music on electric and acoustic instruments will often entail a drop in relative BPM (though not necessarily), unsurprising in light of the complexity of drum patterns and the high exertion required of a drummer.


Context

Pendulum playing the Valve Sound System with MC IC3 at the Sheffield Octagon 05/03/06
Pendulum playing the Valve Sound System with MC IC3 at the Sheffield Octagon 05/03/06

For the most part, drum and bass is a form of dance music, mostly designed to be heard in clubs. It exhibits a full frequency response and physicality which often simply cannot be fully appreciated on home listening equipment. As befits its name, the bass element of the music is particularly pronounced, with the comparatively sparse arrangements of drum and bass tracks allowing room for basslines that are deeper than most other forms of dance music. Consequently, drum and bass parties are often advertised as featuring uncommonly loud and bass-heavy sound systems.[15][16] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 319 KB) Summary photo taken 05/04/06 at Sheffield Octagon Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 319 KB) Summary photo taken 05/04/06 at Sheffield Octagon Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Pendulum are a drum & bass group originally hailing from Perth, Australia. ...


There are however many albums specifically designed for personal listening. The mix CD is a particularly popular form of release, with a big name DJ/producer mixing live, or on a computer, a variety of tracks for personal listening. Additionally, there are many albums containing unmixed tracks, suited for home or car listening.[17]


Importance of the DJ and MC

‎Drum and bass is often heard via a DJ. Because most tracks are designed to be mixed by a DJ, their structure typically reflects this, with intro and outro sections designed for a DJ to use while beat-matching, rather than being designed to be heard in entirety by the listener. The DJ typically mixes between records so as not to lose the continuous beat. In addition, the DJ may employ hip hop style "scratching", "double-drops" (where two tracks are synchronized such that both tracks drop at the same time) and "rewinds."[18] DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique used to produce sounds for some types of music. ... The drop is the point in a track where a switch of rhythm or bassline occurs and usually follows a recognisable build section and breakdown. ...

Goldie with Mc LowQui
Goldie with Mc LowQui

Many mixing points begin or end with the "drop". The drop is the point in a track where a switch of rhythm or bassline occurs and usually follows a recognisable build section and "breakdown". Sometimes the drop is used to switch between tracks, layering components of different tracks, though as the two records may be simply ambient breakdowns at this point, though some DJs prefer to combine breakbeats, a more difficult exercise. Some drops are so popular that the DJ will "rewind" or "reload" by spinning the record back and restarting it at the build. "The drop" is often a key point from the point of view of the dancefloor, since the drumbreaks often fade out to leave an ambient intro playing. When the beats re-commence they are often more complex and accompanied by a heavier bassline, encouraging the crowd to dance. The name of a genre of drum and bass, "jump up" initially referred to the urge for those seated to dance at this point. Image File history File links Goldiednbravewithmcchina. ... Image File history File links Goldiednbravewithmcchina. ... The drop is the point in a track where a switch of rhythm or bassline occurs and usually follows a recognisable build section and breakdown. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


DJ support (that is playing a track) in a club atmosphere or on radio is critical in track success, even if the track producer is well known.[19] To this end, DJs will receive dubplates a long time before a general release of a track, sometimes many months before, in order to spark interest in it as well as benefit the DJ (exclusive and early access to tracks is a hallmark of DJ success, i.e. the case of Andy C). Sometimes a DJ will receive versions of tracks that are not planned for general release, these are so-called VIP mixes. A dubplate is an acetate disc — usually 12 inches, 10 inches or 7 inches in diameter — used in mastering studios for quality control and test recordings before proceeding with the final master, and subsequent pressing of the record to be mass produced on vinyl. ... Andy C, real name Andrew Clarke, is an English DJ and producer and co-founder of record label RAM Records. ...


DJs are often accompanied by one or more MCs, drawing on the genre's roots in hip hop and reggae/ragga.[20] A Master of Ceremonies or MC (sometimes spelled emcee), sometimes called a compere or an MJ for microphone jockey, is the host of an official public or private staged event or other performance. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ...


The role of MCs in the music cannot be underestimated but they do not generally receive the same level of recognition as producer/DJs. There are relatively few well-known drum and bass MCs, Dynamite MC, MC Fats, MC Conrad, Skibadee, Shabba D, Eksman, Bassman, MC Fun and Stevie Hyper D (deceased) as examples.[21] Dynamite MC, (born 7 October 1973) is an MC from Gloucester, England. ...

"You and me - me and you! We haffi brock a smile and don bother screw dis one dedicated to all massive and crew, we haffi get lively inna di venue! mi bawl ... Where's the noise? I want you jump up and swing an sway, and move your body with no delay. Hyper on the microphone, I've nuff to say, nuff to say, nuff to say." - Congo Natty "Stevie Hyper D Tribute" (Congo Natty) 2005

Subgenres

Recently, smaller scenes within the drum and bass community have developed and the scene as a whole has become much more fractured into specific sub-genres. The generally accepted and major sub-genres of drum and bass include:

The following are to a lesser and great degree, arguable subgenres, they would generally be described as separate genres by their proponents: Darkstep is a sub-genre of Drum and Bass which became popular in the late 1990s. ... Drumfunk is a subgenre of drum & bass sometimes referred to as edits or choppage. The term came into widespread use ca. ... A sub-genre of Drum and Bass Music, trancestep (aka electrostep) is the combination of riveting drums, deep, rolling basslines, and melodic synth sequences. ... Trancestep (sometimes known as Electrostep or Futurestep) is a sub-genre of Drum and Bass music, combining the synthesized melodic elements of Trance and Electro with the drum patterns and basslines of Drum & Bass. ... Hardstep is a drum and bass subgenre which emerged in 1996 and is characterized by fast speed beats, steelhard breaks, and thumping bass lines. ... Intelligent drum and bass (IDB) (a derivation of Intelligent Jungle) is the widespread yet almost universally disliked term for the subgenre of drum and bass emphasising influences from lounge jazz and ambient music. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources, so as to avoid its being considered... Jump-Up is a subgenre of jungle and drum and bass that was popular with fans of drum and bass in the late 1990s and was designed to be played in mainstream nightclubs to get a crowd to jump up and dance. ... Liquid funk is a style of drum and bass. ... Neurofunk (commonly abbreviated neuro) is a sub-genre of drum and bass pioneered by producers Ed Rush, Optical and Matrix,[1][2] during the periods of 1997 & 1998 in London, England as a progression of techstep. ... Techstep (also referred to as tech) is a major subgenre of drum and bass, characterized by a dark, sci-fi mood, near-exclusive use of synthesised or sampled sound sources, and influences from industrial and techno music at the forefront. ...

  • Breakcore (arguably a different genre, not a subgenre, with many differences)
  • Darkcore (both a precursor and a descendant of drum and bass since modern darkcore productions share much with darkstep)
  • Raggacore (arguably a different genre, not a subgenre, with many differences)
  • Ragga jungle (arguably a different genre, not a subgenre - a modern sound which shares most if not all characteristics with early jungle music - difficult to differentiate - perhaps through frequent mention of H.I.M. Haile Selassie and other Rastafarian themes)[12]

As with all attempts to classify and categorize music, the above should not be treated as definitive. Many producers release albums and tracks which touch into many of the above styles and there are significant arguments as to the classification of tracks as well as the basic defining characteristics of subgenres. The list of arguable subgenres in particular should not be treated as definitive. Breakcore is a genre of electronic dance music which uses rearranged, cut-up breakbeats to create extreme sounds. ... Darkcore is a music genre that became popular in the United Kingdom hardcore rave scene in 1993. ... Raggacore is a genre of music resembling breakcore but with ragga or reggae style vocals. ... Ragga jungle is the name given to a substyle of Jungle that emerged circa 1991-1992, with artists such as the Ragga Twins, Rebel MC and Genaside II, and has heavy influences from ragga, roots reggae and dancehall. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ...


The modern distinctive ragga jungle style (arguably subgenre or even separate genre) is a direct throwback to the 1994-1995 style of drum and bass production. However, many modern drum and bass mainstream productions contain ragga, dancehall and regga elements, they are just not as dominant as previously. Ragga jungle is the name given to a substyle of Jungle that emerged circa 1991-1992, with artists such as the Ragga Twins, Rebel MC and Genaside II, and has heavy influences from ragga, roots reggae and dancehall. ...


Clownstep is a derisory term for varieties of drum and bass not appreciated by certain listeners (in particular the jump-up variety) and is prevalent on the internet, whilst not being a subgenre as such. Most producers would feel insulted by the labelling of their music as "clownstep".[22] Clownstep is a pejorative term used to describe a certain type of sound found in the electronic music genre drum and bass. ...


Jungle vs. drum and bass

See also: Oldschool jungle
 Music sample:

4 track illustration of the evolution and continuity of the drum and bass sound Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to DnB, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... Oldschool jungle is the name given to a style of electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including breakbeat hardcore, techno, rare groove and reggae/dub/dancehall. ... Image File history File links Evolution_of_drum_and_bass. ...

2 minute sample. This clip contains 4 tracks ranging from proto-jungle "Tribal Bass" (1991) to a jungle "Here I Come" (1995) to an ominous early drum and bass remix (1995) to an Aphrodite modern drum and bass remix in the jump up style (2005), "Tribal Natty". All contain the same Barrington Levy vocals (originally contained in the title song of the album Here I Come). Listen and compare the sound. Barrington Levy's vocals illustrate the wide degree of cross over with dancehall/ragga.
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Nowadays the difference between jungle (or oldschool jungle) and drum and bass is a common debate within the "junglist" community. There is no universally accepted semantic distinction between the terms "jungle" and "drum and bass". Some associate "jungle" with older material from the first half of the 1990s (sometimes referred to as "jungle techno"), and see drum and bass as essentially succeeding jungle. Others use jungle as a shorthand for ragga jungle, a specific sub-genre within the broader realm of drum and bass. In the U.S., the combined term "jungle drum and bass" (JDB) has some popularity, but is not widespread elsewhere. Barrington Levy (born 30 April 1964, in Clarendon, Jamaica) is a reggae and dancehall recording artist. ... Oldschool jungle is the name given to a style of electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including breakbeat hardcore, techno, rare groove and reggae/dub/dancehall. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Proponents of a distinction between jungle and drum and bass argue that:

  • Drum and bass has an integrated percussion and bass structure while jungle has a distinct bass line separated from the percussion.
  • The relatively simple drum break beats of modern drum and bass (generally a two-step beat) are less complex than the 'chopped' 'Amen' breakbeats of jungle[23]
  • The usage of ragga vocals differs drum and bass from jungle.
  • Jungle is the music of the early nineties and drum and bass appeared at a later time.

Opponents of a distinction would argue that there are many modern drum & bass productions with separated basslines, complex breakbeats and ragga vocals.


Probably the widest held viewpoint is that the terms are simply synonymous and interchangeable: drum and bass is jungle, and jungle is drum and bass.


"At the end of the day I am an ambassador for Drum and Bass the world over and have been playing for 16 years under the name Hype... To most of you out there Drum and Bass will be an important part of your lives, but for me Drum and Bass/Jungle is my life and always has been... We all have a part to play and believe me when I say I am no fucking bandwagon jumper, just a hard working Hackney man doing this thing called Drum and Bass/Jungle." DJ Hype[24] DJ Hype is a stage name of drum and bass producer and DJ Kevin Ford. ...


Influences

Influences on drum and bass

"A lot of the people who are producing now are influenced only by drum 'n' bass so they're losing contact with the outside world. It's a really narrow-minded sound right now. Years ago the producers were listening to all sorts of styles to make their music -- they were into hip-hop and jazz and hearing new sounds. Now there's a new generation that grew up on drum 'n' bass and that's all they know. It's like it's created its own monster." - Dillinja[15]

Drum and bass music, born in samplers, has been and is heavily influenced by other music genres, though this influence has perhaps been lessened in the shift from jungle to drum and bass and the intelligent drum and bass and techstep revolution.[25][26][27][28][29] It still remains a fusion music style.[3]


Miles Davis has been named as one the most important influences,[30] and blues artists like Leadbelly, Robert Johnson, Charlie Patton, Muddy Waters & B.B King have also been cited by producers as inspirations. Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Leadbelly, also known as Lead Belly (born Huddie William Ledbetter; January 20, 1889 (although this is debatable) - December 6, 1949), was an American folk and blues musician, notable for his clear and forceful singing, his virtuosity on the twelve string guitar, and the rich songbook of folk standards he introduced. ... Robert Johnson, born Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911 – August 16, 1938) is among the most famous of Delta blues musicians. ... Charlie Patton, better known as Charley Patton (May 1, 1891 - April 28, 1934) is best known as an American Delta blues musician. ... McKinley Morganfield (April 4, 1915 – April 30, 1983), better known as Muddy Waters, was an American blues musician and is generally considered the Father of Chicago blues. He is also the actual father of blues musician Big Bill Morganfield. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


As a musical style built around a funk or syncopated rock & roll beat, Al Green, Marvin Gaye, Ella Fitzgerald, Gladys Knight & the Pips, Temptations, Jackson 5, Billie Holiday, Aretha Franklin, Otis Redding, Smokey Robinson, Diana Ross, the Supremes, the Commodores, George Clinton, Ray Charles, Jerry Lee Lewis, Herbie Hancock,James Brown and even Michael Jackson, are funky influences on the music.[31][32][33][34][35][12] For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... This article is about the singer. ... Marvin Gaye (born Marvin Pentz Gay Jr. ... Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996), also known as Lady Ella and the First Lady of Song, is considered one of the most influential jazz vocalists of the 20th Century. ... Gladys Maria Knight (born May 28, 1944 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA) is a seven-time Grammy Award-winning American R&B/soul singer, actress and author. ... For the BBC pips, see Greenwich Time Signal. ... The Classic 5 lineup of the Temptations, circa 1965. ... The cover to the Jackson 5s first LP, Diana Ross Presents the Jackson 5, released on Motown Records in 1969. ... Billie Holiday (born Eleanora Fagan; April 7, 1915 – July 17, 1959) was an American jazz singer and songwriter. ... Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25, 1942) is an American singer, songwriter, and pianist. ... Otis Ray Redding, Jr. ... William Smokey Robinson, Jr. ... For the author-illustrator, see Diana Ross (author). ... For other uses, see Supremes (disambiguation). ... The Commodores was a highly successful soul/funk band in the 1970s. ... For other persons named George Clinton, see George Clinton (disambiguation). ... For Ray Charles, the composer and conductor of the Ray Charles Singers, see Ray Charles (composer). ... Jerry Lee Lewis (born September 29, 1935), also known by the nickname The Killer, is an American rock and roll and country music singer, songwriter, and pianist. ... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Academy Award and Grammy award-winning American jazz pianist and composer. ... For other persons named James Brown, see James Brown (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Michael Jackson, see Michael Jackson (disambiguation). ...


A very obvious and strong influence on jungle and drum and bass is the original dub and reggae sound out of Jamaica, with pioneers like King Tubby, Peter Tosh, Sly & Robbie, Bill Laswell, Lee Perry, Mad Professor, Roots Radics, Bob Marley and Buju Banton heavily influencing the music.[36][37] This influence has lessened with time but is still evident with many tracks containing ragga vocals. For other uses, see Dub. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... King Tubby King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941 – February 6, 1989) was a Jamaican electronics and sound engineer, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987[1]) was the guitarist in the original Wailing Wailers, a pioneer reggae musician, and a trailblazer for the Rastafari movement. ... Sly and Robbie are probably reggaes most prolific and long lasting production team. ... Bill Laswell (born February 12, 1955 in Salem, Illinois and raised in Albion, Michigan) is an American bassist, producer and record label owner. ... Lee Scratch Perry, The Upsetter in Dub Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry March 20, 1936) is one of the most influential people in the development of reggae and dub music in Jamaica. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Roots Radics Band was formed in 1978 when bass player Flabba Holt joined forces with the now late guitarist Bingy Bunny. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... Buju Banton (born Mark Anthony Myrie on July 15, 1973) is a Jamaican dancehall, ragga, and reggae musician. ...


Early hip-hop is an extremely important influence on drum and bass,[38][39] with the genres sharing the same broken beat. Drum and bass shares many musical characteristics with hip-hop, though it is nowadays mostly stripped of lyrics. Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaata, De La Soul, 2 Live Crew, Jungle Brothers, Kool Keith, Run DMC, Public Enemy, Schooly D, N.W.A, Wu-Tang Clan, Dr Dre, Mos Def, Beastie Boys and the Pharcyde are very often directly sampled, regardless of their general influence.[13] Breakdance, an early form of hip hop dance, often involves battles, showing off skills without any physical contact with the adversaries. ... Joseph Biggie Grand Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a American hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... Afrika Bambaataa (born April 10, 1960) is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who in the late 1970s, was instrumental in the early development of hip hop. ... De La Soul is a Grammy-award winning hip hop group from Long Island, New York. ... 2 Live Crew is a rap group. ... The Jungle Brothers are an American hip hop group who pioneered the fusion of jazz and hip-hop and also became the first hip hop group to use an in house producer. ... Keith Matthew Thornton (born c. ... Run-DMC is a hip hop crew founded by Jason Jam Master Jay Mizell that included Joseph Run Simmons and Darryl DMC McDaniels. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... Schoolly D (born Jesse B. Weaver) is one of Philadelphias hip hop pioneers. ... This article is about the hip-hop group. ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ... Andre Young (born February 18, 1965 in Los Angeles, California), better known as Dr. Dre, became a pioneer in todays hip-hop culture and gangsta rap. ... Dante Terrell Smith (born December 11, 1973), better known by his stage name Mos Def, is an American rapper and actor. ... The Beastie Boys are a hip hop musical group from New York City consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch, Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... The Pharcyde is one of the most celebrated underground West Coast alternative hip hop acts. ...


Even modern avant-garde composers such as Henryk Gorecki have influenced drum and bass.[40] Henryk Mikołaj Górecki (born December 6, 1933) is a Polish composer of classical music. ...


Many tracks belonging to other genres are 'remixed' into drum and bass versions. The quality of these remixes varies from the simple and primitive adding of broken beats to a vocal track or to complete reworkings that may exceed the original in quality and effort put into them. Original artists will often ask for drum and bass remixes of their tracks to be made in order to spark further interest in their tracks (e.g. Aphrodite's remix of Jungle Brothers' "Jungle Brother"). The Jungle Brothers are an American hip hop group who pioneered the fusion of jazz and hip-hop and also became the first hip hop group to use an in house producer. ...


On the other hand, some tracks are illegally remixed and released on white label (technically bootleg), often to acclaim. For example, DJ Zinc's remix of The Fugees' "Ready or Not", also known as "Fugee Or Not", was eventually released with the Fugees' permission after talk of legal action, though ironically the Fugees' version infringed Enya's copyright to an earlier song.[41][13] White labels along with dubplates play an important part in drum and bass musical culture. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Promotional recording. ... The Fugees are a critically acclaimed music band from the United States, popular during the mid-1990s, whose repertoire includes primarily hip hop, with elements of soul, and Caribbean music (particularly reggae). ... Ready or Not is the second single from The Fugees highly succesful album, The Score. ... For the letter Ñ pronounced Enye, see Ñ. Enya (born Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin[4] on 17 May 1961, Gaoth Dobhair, County Donegal, Ireland), sometimes presented in the media as Enya Brennan, is an Irish singer and songwriter. ... A dubplate is an acetate disc — usually 12 inches, 10 inches or 7 inches in diameter — used in mastering studios for quality control and test recordings before proceeding with the final master, and subsequent pressing of the record to be mass produced on vinyl. ...


One of the most influential tracks in drum and bass history was Amen Brother by The Winstons. Without the "Amen break" sample, drum and bass if had appeared at all, would have a very different sound. The Winstons is a funk and soul music outfit, based in Washington, D.C., from the 1960s who are most notable for recording a track called Amen, Brother (a B-side to the single Color Him Father recorded in 1969). ... The wave form of the Amen break. ...


Direct influence

In mentioning drum and bass influences, special mention needs to be given to a few scenes and individuals.


The first is the US breakbeat scene which emerged in the 1980s, the most famous artist being NYC's Frankie Bones whose infamous 'Bones Breaks' series from the late '80s onwards helped push the house-tempoed breakbeat sound (especially in the UK) and can be said to be a direct precursor to the UK breakbeat/hardcore scene. Frankie Bones Frankie Bones (born Frank Mitchell) is an American techno and house music disc jockey from New York City. ...


The second is Kevin Saunderson, who released a series of bass-heavy, minimal techno cuts as Reese/The Reese Project in the late '80s which were hugely influential in drum and bass terms. One of his more infamous basslines was indeed sampled on Renegade's Terrorist and countless others since, being known simply as the 'Reese' bassline. He followed these up with equally influential (and bassline-heavy) tracks in the UK hardcore style as Tronik House in 1991/1992. Another Detroit artist who was important for the scene is Carl Craig. The sampled-up jazz break on Carl Craig's Bug in the Bassbin was also influential on the newly emerging sound, DJs at the Rage club used to play it pitched up (increased speed) as far as their Technics record decks would go.[12] Inner City (Kevin Saunderson and Paris Grey) Kevin Saunderson (born in Brooklyn, New York on May 9, 1964) is an American electronic music producer. ... Carl Craig is a Detroit-based producer of techno music, and is considered to be one of the most important names[1] in the Detroit second generation of techno producers and DJs. ...


The third precursor worth mentioning here is the Miami, USA Booty Bass/Miami Bass scene, first popularised by 2 Live Crew in the mid to late '80s. There are clear sonic parallels with drum and bass here in the use of uptempo synths and drum machines in producing bass-heavy party music.


Both the New York breakbeat and the Miami Trout scenes were strongly influenced by the 'freestyle' sound of New York, Chicago and Miami in the 1980s which incorporated electro, disco and Latin flavours, and which was in turn a key influence on the UK's acid house/hardcore/rave scene.[42][43][44]


Samples
 Music sample:

2 track illustration of sampling and mixing of drum and bass tracks Image File history File links Badasslightermixingexample. ...

30 second sample. This clip contains 2 tracks, "Bad Ass" by Aphrodite & Mickey Finn (1996) sampling the film "South Central" and Sound of the Future's "Lighter" (1995) which samples the piano theme from the film "Love Story". The clip also illustrates mixing techniques from Dj Hype on the cd compilation "Jungle Massive". Both tracks are treated as classic drum and bass tracks.
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Drum and bass tracks often contain many direct samples from other tracks, some examples are listed below:[45] South Central is a 1992 drama film, written and directed by Steve Anderson. ... Love Story is a 1970 romantic drama film written by Erich Segal based on his 1970 best-selling novel, and directed by Arthur Hiller. ...

  • Afrika Bambaataa's eponymous "Planet Rock" - the beat is sampled in Hypnotist's "Pioneers Of The Warped Groove" (Rising High)
  • A-Ha's pop megahit "Take On Me" - the synths are sampled in Yolk's "Bish Bosh" (Ruffbeat)
  • Beastie Boys's highly influential "The New Style" - the word "drop" is sampled in Lemon D's "Break It Down" (Reinforced)
  • Cypress Hill's searing "I Wanna Get High" - the horn loop beat is sampled in Shy FX Feat. UK Apachi's "Original Nuttah" (Sound Of Underground Recordings)
  • De La Soul's "The Game Show" - the vocal "now, here's what we'll do" is sampled in DJ Krust's "Guess" (V)
  • Rankin Joe's "Step it Pon da Rastaman Scene" (taken from the Easy Star All-Stars' Dub Side of the Moon) - the vocal line is sampled in the DJ Fresh and Pendulum collaboration "Babylon Rising" (Breakbeat Kaos)
  • Stevie Nicks' "Edge of Seventeen" is heavily sampled in High Contrast's "Days Go By" (The Contrast)
  • Michael Jackson's "I Can't Help It" is sampled in Shy FX's "Plastic Soul" (BINGO)

Drum and bass also samples other media, including film and television: Afrika Bambaataa is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who was instrumental in the early development of hip hop throughout the 1970s. ... a-ha is a Grammy Award-nominated band from Norway. ... The Beastie Boys are a hip hop musical group from New York City consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch, Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... Cypress Hill is a mostly-Latin American hip hop group from South Gate, California, who are quite possibly most known for their song Insane in the Brain. Their consistent advocacy around the legalization of cannabis consumption has contributed to their popularity. ... De La Soul is a Grammy-award winning hip hop group from Long Island, New York. ... Easy Star All-Stars are a group of reggae artists who are signed to their own Easy Star record label, which is based in New York. ... Dub Side of the Moon is a dub reggae version of the Pink Floyd classic, The Dark Side of the Moon, by the Easy Star All-Stars. ... Stephanie Lynn Stevie Nicks (born May 26, 1948) is an American singer and songwriter, best known for her work with Fleetwood Mac and an extensive solo career, which collectively have produced over twenty Top 50 hits. ... High Contrast is the stage name of Welsh drum and bass DJ and producer Lincoln Barrett. ... For other persons named Michael Jackson, see Michael Jackson (disambiguation). ... Shy FX Shy FX is the pseudonym of Andre Williams (born 1977), an English drum and bass musician from London. ...

  • Apocalypse Now - The phrase "And for my sins they gave me one" is sampled in Hyper On Experience's "Ouiji Awakening" (Moving Shadow)
  • Blade Runner - The phrase "Angels fell" is sampled in Dillinja's "Angels Fell" (Metalheadz)
  • Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory - The song sung by Willy Wonka during the boat scene is sampled in Pendulum's "Through The Loop"
  • Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of The War of the Worlds - "And I wandered through the weird and lurid landscape of another planet" Is used by Pendulum in "Another Planet"
  • Goodfellas - The introduction narration "One day the kids from the neighborhood carried my mother's groceries all the way home. You know why? It was outta respect. ." is sampled in Shy Fx Feat. UK Apachi's "Original Nuttah" (Sound Of Underground Recordings)
  • Robocop - The phrase "You're gonna be a bad muthafucker" in A Guy Called Gerald's "Cyber Jazz"
  • Scarface - The phrase "All I have in this world are my balls and my word... and I break them for nobody" in DJ Hype's "True Playaz Anthem" (Parousia)

Apocalypse Now is a 1979 Academy Award and Golden Globe winning American film set during the Vietnam War. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... For other uses, see Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The War of the Worlds (disambiguation). ... Goodfellas (also spelled GoodFellas) is an Academy Award winning 1990 crime drama film directed by Martin Scorsese, based on the book Wiseguy by Nicholas Pileggi, the true story of mob informer Henry Hill. ... RoboCop is a 1987 science-fiction, action movie and satire of business-driven capitalism, directed by Paul Verhoeven. ... -1...

Influenced by drum and bass

Jungle/drum and bass has and continues to influence many other musical genres, thanks to its variety, experimentation and producer (borderline obsessive) professionalism.


Speed garage and 2step in the UK were born at the height of the popularity of jungle, copying the bass-lines, fast tempo (though much slowed down), ragga vocals (with frequent MC accompaniment) and production techniques. They may be referred to as descendants of drum and bass and at one time drove drum and bass into relative obscurity.[12][13][46][47] Grime and dubstep, their descendants, have driven these genres underground whilst drum and bass has survived and evolved. Dubstep combines sounds of 2step with the deep basslines and the reggae vibe of early jungle. 4x4 Garage is a variety of UK garage with a 4/4 time signature and drums consisting of a bass drum on each beat in the bar, similar in style to house music. ... 2Step (also known as 2 step, two step or 2 step garage) is a typically British style of modern dance music, and one of the two major sub-genres of UK Garage (although UK Garage is sometimes imprecisely used as a synonym for 2Step), together with its brother 4x4 Garage. ... Grime(also known as hip house) is a sub-genre of urban music which first emerged in London in the early 2000s, primarily a development of UK garage, drum and bass, dancehall and hip hop. ... Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music which has its roots in Londons early 2000s UK garage scene. ...


Born at the end of the millennium, breakcore shares many of the elements of drum and bass and to the uninitiated, tracks from the extreme end of drum and bass, may sound identical to breakcore thanks to speed, complexity, impact and maximum sonic density combined with musical experimentation. Raggacore resembles a faster version of the ragga influenced jungle music of the 1990s, similar to breakcore but with more friendly dancehall beats (dancehall itself being a very important influence on drum and bass).[48] Darkcore a direct influence on drum and bass, is itself heavily influenced by drum and bass, especially darkstep. There is considerable crossover from the extreme edges of drum and bass, breakcore, darkcore and raggacore with fluid boundaries. Breakcore is a genre of electronic dance music which uses rearranged, cut-up breakbeats to create extreme sounds. ... Raggacore is a genre of music resembling breakcore but with ragga or reggae style vocals. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Darkcore is a music genre that became popular in the United Kingdom hardcore rave scene in 1993. ...


Despite never gaining the mainstream popularity of speed garage and 2step, drum and bass' impact in musical terms has been very significant and the genre has influenced many other genres like jazz, metal, hiphop, big beat, house music, trip hop, ambient music, techno, hardcore and pop, with artists such as Bill Laswell, Slipknot, Incubus, The Roots, Jedi Mind Tricks, Timbaland, Missy Elliott, Pharell, Fat Boy Slim, Lamb, Underworld, The Streets, The Freestylers, Nine Inch Nails and David Bowie (the last two both using elements of Goldie's "Timeless") and others quoting drum and bass and using drum and bass techniques and elements. This is only the tip of the iceberg in terms of impact and influence. The USA has adopted the sound with a genre called [Ghettotech] which have synth and basslines similar to drum & bass.[49][50][12][51] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Heavy metal music. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... Big beat (sometimes called chemical breaks) is a term deployed in the mid 1990s by the British music press to describe the work of artists such as The Chemical Brothers, Fatboy Slim and The Prodigy. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... Ambient music is a musical genre in which sound is more important than notes. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ... Problems playing the files? See media help. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... Bill Laswell (born February 12, 1955 in Salem, Illinois and raised in Albion, Michigan) is an American bassist, producer and record label owner. ... Slipknot (sometimes typeset as SlipKnoT to fit their logo) is a Grammy winning American metal band from Des Moines, Iowa. ... This article is about the US rock band. ... The Roots, a. ... For the concept in Star Wars, see Jedi mind trick. ... For other uses, see Timberland. ... Missy Elliott (born Melissa Arnette Elliott July 1, 1971 in Portsmouth, Virginia), is a five-time Grammy Award-winning American rapper, singer, songwriter, and record producer. ... Pharrell Williams Pharrell Williams (born April 5, 1973 in Virginia Beach, Virginia, United States) is one half of the primarily hip hop music production and songwriting duo, The Neptunes (with Chad Hugo), who among other things is known for bringing R&B chanteuse Kelis to national attention. ... Fatboy Slim (born on July 16, 1963, Quentin Cook) also known as Norman Cook is a British musician in the dance music genre. ... Lamb were an electronic music duo from Manchester, England, known for their trip hop and drum and bass influenced sound. ... Underworld is the principal name under which British electronic music duo Karl Hyde and Rick Smith have recorded since the late 1980s. ... Mike Skinner (born November 27, 1978), more commonly known by his stage name The Streets, is a rapper from Birmingham, England. ... Freestylers is an English electronic music and dance music trio. ... NIN redirects here. ... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English musician, actor, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ...


Media & samples

  • Rebel Mc's "Wickedest Sound" (1991)
    30 second sample illustrating dancehall ragga vocals combined with a broken beat in a proto-jungle track.
    A Guy Called Gerald's "28 Gun Bad Boy" (1992)
    30 second sample illustrating the combination of basslines, broken beats, rave melody and aesthetics in a proto-jungle or perhaps already jungle track. Arguably recognisably 'drum and bass ' in sound - see 28 Gun Bad Boy.
    Shy FX's "Original Nuttah" (1994)
    30 second sample containing references to "jungle". One of the best known drum and bass tracks and familiar to almost all listeners.
    Adam F's "Circles" (1995)
    30 second sample. Notice the subtle usage of drums and melodic elements, as contrasted to previous music samples. It still contains a fast broken beat but the beat is less audible.
    DJ Krust's "Warhead" (1997)
    30 second sample. Note that this song has no vocals and is driven by a simple, though powerful beat. This is another 'standard' track for drum and bass listeners.
    Ed Rush & Optical's "Compound" (1998)
    30 second sample of Compound by Ed Rush & Optical. Exhibiting some of the crucial elements of the early experimental stages of the neurofunk subgenre.
    Bad Company's "The Nine" (1998)
    30 second sample. This techstep tune contains all the ominous and dark elements of its subgenre and is regularly stated as a favourite by listeners and producers. Compare it to the lighter sounds of Circles or Warhead.
    Konflict, aka Kemal and Rob Data's "Messiah" (2000)
    30 second sample. This track is one the most played and influential techstep tracks with its aggressive distorted bass-lines and foreboding aggressive beats, its intentional artificiality distances it far from more traditional types of music.
    Matrix & Fierce's "Climate" (2000)
    30 second excerpt from "Climate" by Matrix & Fierce. The blending of multiple influences ranging from funk, techno, house and progressive jazz in a neurofunk track
    Cause 4 Concern's "Peep Show" (2001)
    30 second excerpt from "Peep Show" by Cause 4 Concern. Techno vibes at the forefront of production in 2001 drum & bass.
    High Contrast's "Music Is Everything" (2002)
    30 second sample. This track illustrates the development of liquid funk, a line of evolution quite separate from that of techstep and jump-up and utilizing disco sensibilities and uplifting vocals to create a quite different atmosphere to these two subgenres.
    Aphrodite's "Ganja Man" (2002)
    30 second sample. A modern jump-up track with simple beats, a Lauryn Hill sample and vocal throwbacks to the ragga era of jungle.
    Phace's Hot Rock (2005)
    30 second excerpt from "Hot Rock" by Phace. Shows the stripped-down, minimalist approach to production adopted by 2nd wave neurofunk artists.
    Matrix and Futurebound's "Knite Riderz" (2007)
    30 second sample. This track illustrates the combination of advanced production techniques and modern beats along with a melody inspired by the Knight Rider theme, a standard element of many hip-hop productions, with strong vocals from one of the most popular drum & bass MC's, MC Spyda to create something that is at the cutting edge of drum & bass evolution while staying firmly rooted in the genre's traditions.
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Rebel_Mc_Wickedest_Sound. ... Image File history File links A_Guy_Called_Gerald_28_Gun_Bad_Boy. ... 28 Gun Bad Boy is the fourth album by house music and drum and bass pioneer A Guy Called Gerald, released in 1992. ... Image File history File links Shy_fx_Original_Nuttah. ... Image File history File links Adam_F_Circles. ... Image File history File links Dj_Krust_Warhead. ... Image File history File links EdRushOptical-Compound-sample. ... Image File history File links Bad_Company_The_Nine. ... Image File history File links Konflict_Messiah. ... Image File history File links Matrix_&_Fierce_-_Climate. ... Image File history File links Cause_4_Concern_-_Peep_Show. ... Image File history File links High_Contrast_Music_Is_Everything. ... Image File history File links Aphrodite_Ganja_Man. ... Image File history File links Phace_-_Hot_Rock. ... Image File history File links Matrix_and_Futurebound_Knite_Riderz_feat_MC_Spyda. ... For the American media company, see Knight Ridder. ...

Drum and bass globally

Despite its roots in the UK, which can still be treated as the "home" of drum and bass, drum and bass has firmly established itself around the world. There are strong scenes in other English-speaking countries including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States.[52] It is popular in Europe, in countries ranging from Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Iceland, Belgium and the Netherlands. It is also popular in South America. São Paulo is sometimes called the drum and bass Ibiza. Brazilian drum and bass is sometimes referred to as "sambass", with its specific style and sound. In Venezuela and Mexico, artists have created their own forms of drum and bass combining it with experimental musical forms. Asia also has a drum and bass scene in countries and cities like Indonesia, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, Shanghai and Singapore. Established international drum & bass producers and DJ's include names like Pendulum (Australia), DJ Marky (Brazil), D.Kay (Austria), Noisia (Netherlands), Hive (United States), Dieselboy (United States), Black Sun Empire (Netherlands), XRS (Brazil), Patife (Brazil), Teebee (Norway), Makoto (Japan), Concord Dawn (New Zealand), Muffler (Finland), Mutated Forms (Estonia) and DJ Matter (Russia). This article is about the city. ... “Ebusus” redirects here. ... Pendulum are a drum & bass group originally hailing from Perth, Australia. ... DJ Marky DJ Marky is a Brazilian drum and bass DJ. His real name is Marco Antonio Silva. ... D.Kay aka David Kulenkampff born 1979 in Austria is a Drum & Bass Producer (Brigand Music) from Wien. ... Noisia (the word VISION rotated 180 degrees) is a Dutch drum and bass trio consisting of members Nik Roos, Martijn van Sonderen and Thijs de Vlieger from Groningen, (The Netherlands). ... Hive (born December, 1974) is a San Francisco-based DJ, producer, and record label owner who has contributed to dozens of recordings in the drum and bass musical genre. ... Dieselboy is the stage name of Damian Higgins, an American drum and bass DJ and producer. ... Black Sun Empire is the stage name of a team of Dutch disc jockeys and drum and bass (mostly darkstep and neurofunk) producers Rene Verdult and brothers Milan and Micha Heyboer. ... XRS aka XRS Land, real name Xerxes de Oliveira, is a name which has been familiar and drawn admiration from Brazillian Drumn Bass circles for quite a few years now. ... Teebee or DJ Teebee is a Norwegian DJ and producer of the drum and bass style of dance music. ... For other uses, see Makoto. ... Concord Dawn, Matt Harvey (AKA Matty C) & Evan Short (AKA Kiljoy), are a renowned drum and bass duo originally from Auckland, New Zealand, with popular tracks such as Dont Tell Me in conjunction with Tiki and Get Ready featuring rapper Scribe. ... DJ Muffler is Konsta Mikkonen, Finnish born drum n bass DJ and producer, who currently also lives in London and Tallinn. ...


Appearances in the mainstream

 Music sample:

Pendulum's "Tarantula" (2005) Image File history File links Pendulum_Tarantula. ...

30 second sample. One of the few drum and bass tracks regularly played on commercial popular radio. Notice the vocal element and the track's similarity to the first sample on this page, Rebel Mc's "Wickedest Sound". The tracks share a vocalist, Tenor Fly.
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

"I'll keep you in safety, forever protect you. I'll hide you away from, the world you rejected. I'll hide you, I’ll hide you." - Kosheen "Hide U" (Moksha) 1999 Kosheen are a British trip hop, drum and bass and rock group based in Bristol, England. ...

"Shotter, hitter, serial killer! Go a your funeral and all drink out your liquor, when you are bury, we a stand next to vicar. Fling on some dirt and make you bury lickle quicker, shouldn't test the youth dem in the Tommy Hilfiger." - Pendulum & Fresh & Tenor Fly "Tarantula" (Breakbeat Kaos) 2005

Certain drum and bass releases have found mainstream popularity in their own right, almost always material prominently featuring vocals.


Perhaps the earliest example was Goldie's Timeless album of 1995, along with Reprazent's New Forms in 1997 and Pendulum's Hold Your Colour in 2005 (the biggest selling Drum And Bass album of all time). Tracks such as Shy FX and T-Power's "Shake UR Body" gained a UK Top 40 Chart placing in 2005.[53] Timeless is the debut album (1995) from Goldie, a groundbreaking release which is still often nominated as the finest album ever in drum and bass. ... For his debut album on Talkin Loud/Polygram, Bristol, Englands Roni Size keeps with the labels tradition of releasing grandiose, song-oriented dance albums. ... Hold Your Colour is a 2005 drum and bass album by Pendulum. ...


More recently, video game tracks, particularly Rockstar Games' Grand Theft Auto series have contained drum and bass tracks, the MSX/MSX 98 radio station by DJ Timecode in Grand Theft Auto III and Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories. The Rockstar Games logo. ... The soundtrack of the game Grand Theft Auto III is popular not only with fans of the game, but also with lovers of mid- to late-1990s music. ... Timecode is a UK drum and bass DJ. His real name is Rob Playford. ... Grand Theft Auto III (abbreviated as GTA III or GTA3) is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and video game developed by DMA Design (now Rockstar North), and published by Rockstar Games. ...


The genre has some popularity in soundtracks, for instance Hive's "Ultrasonic Sound" was used in the Matrix's soundtrack and the EZ Rollers' song "Walk This Land" appeared in the film "Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels". Goldie himself appeared in another Guy Richie film, Snatch. Hive (born December, 1974) is a San Francisco-based DJ, producer, and record label owner who has contributed to dozens of recordings in the drum and bass musical genre. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... The EZ Rollers are a drum and bass group made up of Jay Hurren, Alex Banks & Kelly Richards. ... Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels is a 1998 English crime film directed and written by Guy Ritchie. ... Snatch is a 2000 film by British writer-director Guy Ritchie. ...


Drum and bass often makes an appearance as background music, especially in Top Gear and television commercials thanks to its aggressive and energetic beats. Cartoon Network's Toonami programming block also employs it for television spots and show intros. However, due to the relative obscurity of the genre, most listeners would not recognise the music as drum and bass. This article is about the current format of the BBC television programme. ... For Cartoon Network outside of the United States, see Cartoon Network around the world. ... For the former television channel in the United Kingdom of the same name, see Toonami (UK). ...


Record labels

Main article: List of jungle and drum'n'bass record labels

Drum and bass is dominated by a few large drum and bass-specific record labels (run by veteran drum and bass producers and DJs, eg. Dillinja's Valve label) but there exist many tiny record labels often run from bedrooms. Drum and bass labels are generally run for pleasure and profit by its artists. This is a list of noteable drum and bass record labels: 31 Records 3D Mode Recordings 720 Degrees Advance://d Recordings Advisory Against the Grain Aural Carnage Architecture Recordings Audio Blueprint Avalanche rec Back2Basics Recordings Baltic Productions Bassbin Recordings BC Recordings Beta Recordings Big City UK Big-H Recordings Bingo...


The major international music labels such as Sony Music, Universal and such are generally not interested in drum and bass artists due to their relatively low sales figures, although they have in the past made exceptions for higher profile names (for example, Grooverider's "Mysteries of Funk" album was released through a Sony subsidiary). ... Grooverider (born Raymond Bingham) is the stage name of a drum and bass DJ from London. ...


Accessing drum and bass

Purchasing

Cover of Fabric Live 18 dj mix cd.
Cover of Fabric Live 18 dj mix cd.

Drum and bass is mostly sold in 12-inch vinyl single format. With the emergence of drum and bass into mainstream music markets, more and more albums, compilations and DJ mixes are being sold on CDs. Still, purchasing drum and bass music can involve searching for new releases in specialized record shops or using one of the many online vinyl, CD and MP3 retailers. Image File history File links Fabric_Live_18. ... Image File history File links Fabric_Live_18. ... The London nightclub Fabric has released monthly compilation albums mixed by popular DJs since November 2001. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ...


Drum and bass can also be purchased in the form of "tape packs", which are a collection of recordings recorded at a selected rave or party. Each tape contains the set by one DJ at that particular rave/party including the MCs. Tapepacks are a collection of audio cassettes that feature live recordings of a music event/s. ...


Most tape packs contain 8 tapes with sets from different DJs. More recently tape packs have become available on CD as tape cassettes are being phased out and recordable CD media is more available, although the CD packs still retain their traditional name of "tape packs". Most of these packs contain 6 CDs. Tapepacks are a collection of audio cassettes that feature live recordings of a music event/s. ...


Distributors (Wholesale)

The bulk of drum and bass vinyl records and CDs are distributed globally and regionally by a relatively small number of companies.[54]


Media presence

Radio

The two highest profile radio stations playing drum and bass shows are The Drum and Bass Show with Fabio BBC Radio 1, which can be heard in the USA and Canada on Sirius Satellite Radio channel 11, and DJ Hype on the now legal Kiss 100 in London. The BBC's "urban" station BBC 1Xtra also features the genre heavily, with DJs Bailey and Crissy Criss as its advocates. The network also organises a week-long tour of the UK each year called Xtra Bass. Also worthy of mention is the pioneering and leading London pirate radio station Kool FM, which has exclusively broadcasted drum and bass since 1991. BBC Radio 1 (commonly referred to as just Radio 1) is a British national radio station operated by the BBC, specialising in popular music and speech and is aimed primarily at the 14-29[1] age group. ... DJ Hype is a stage name of drum and bass producer and DJ Kevin Ford. ... Kiss 100 is a radio station broadcasting to London on 100. ... BBC 1Xtra is a UK radio station from the BBC specialising in urban music. ... Xtra Bass is a free week long drum and bass tour of the UK hosted by the BBCs digital radio station 1Xtra. ... KOOL-FM is a very popular Oldies outlet based in Phoenix, Arizona. ...


In North America, XM Satellite, 89.5 CIUT (Toronto), Album 88.5 (Atlanta) and C89.5fm (Seattle) have shows showcasing drum and bass. Seattle also has a long standing electronica show known as Expansions on 90.3 FM KEXP. The rotating DJ's include Kid Hops, whose shows are made up mostly of drum and bass.


In the Philippines, 103.5 Max FM has "The Bass Hour" every Saturday at midnight that caters to nothing but bass music.


Magazines

The best known drum and bass publication is Kmag magazine(formerly called Knowledge Magazine). Other publications include the longest running drum and bass magazine worldwide ATM Magazine, Canadian-based Rinse Magazine and Austrian-based Resident. Kmag, previously known as Knowledge, is a monthly music publication primarily focused on the UK drum and bass scene, although also covering breakbeat and hip hop releases. ... the flyer promoting the release event resident is an austrian music magazine with strong focus on the german speaking drumnbass scene. ...


Literature

  • A History of Rock Music, 1951-2000 by Piero Scaruffi (ISBN 978-0595295654), nonfiction in HTML form
  • All Crews: Journeys Through Jungle / Drum and Bass Culture by Brian Belle-Fortune (ISBN 0-9548897-0-3), nonfiction
  • Roots 'n Future in Energy Flash by Simon Reynolds, Picador (ISBN 0-330-35056-0), nonfiction
  • Rumble in the Jungle: The Invisible History of Drum and Bass by Steven Quinn, in: Transformations, No 3 (2002), nonfiction (ISSN 1444-377) PDF file
  • State of Bass, Jungle: The Story So Far by Martin James, Boxtree (ISBN 0-7522-2323-2), nonfiction
  • The Rough Guide to Drum 'n' Bass by Peter Shapiro and Alexix Maryon (ISBN 1-85828-433-3), nonfiction
  • King Rat by China Mieville (ISBN 0-330-37098-7), fiction

Peter Shapiro is a freelance music journalist, he has written for Spin, Urb, Music Week, Uncut, Vibe, The Wire and The Times (London). ...

Online

Drum and bass has a very strong, important and vocal online presence with many dedicated portals, forums, communities and internet radio stations - the internet has to much degree superseded the role of pirate radio stations in spreading and popularising the genre, as the stations have switched to newer genres.[55] Internet sites are a source of the latest mixes (professional or amateur) and tracks by unsigned producers. The two dominant and most popular websites are Dogs On Acid and Drum and Bass Arena.[56]


See also

Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to DnB, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... Mc Lowqui, a junglist Junglist is a slang term referring to a dedicated listener of jungle. ... This is an alphabetical list of some jungle and drum n bass artists. ... This is a list of electronic music genres, sub-genres and styles, though for the latter, not all possess their own article (in which case, see the main genre article). ... Oldschool jungle is the name given to a style of electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including breakbeat hardcore, techno, rare groove and reggae/dub/dancehall. ...

References

As a musical genre that has recently emerged, drum and bass music has not been the subject of much academic or printed study. As such, reference materials are generally primary (particularly interviews with music producers, DJs, record label owners and listeners) and online.

"The early development of drum’n’bass had occurred in a seeming journalistic vacuum due to its perceived affiliation with the critically-dismissed sounds of rave. Once it had achieved the traditional markers of success, its emergence was rewritten into the pages of musical history." - Steven Quinn, Rumble In the Jungle, the Invisible History of Drum 'n' Bass

  1. ^ For references, see History of drum and bass article.
  2. ^ "Rolling Stones review of Saturnzreturn of February 8, 1998". Retrieved on January 26, 2007.
  3. ^ a b "The History of Rock Music: 1990-1999 Drum'n'bass". Retrieved on January 18, 2007.
  4. ^ New Dawn - City Clubs Take Back The Night article, Village Voice, February 27, 2001
  5. ^ "Knowledge Magazine Article mentioning rise of live drum and bass in 2004". Retrieved on October 18, 2006.
  6. ^ "Knowledge Magazine Article on live drum and bass bands". Retrieved on October 18, 2006.
  7. ^ "TR-808". Retrieved on December 24, 2006.
  8. ^ "Amen Break video on youtube.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  9. ^ "Forever And Ever Amen article on knowledgemag.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  10. ^ "Dom & Roland interview by Ben Willmott at knowledgemag.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  11. ^ "Life in The Fast Lane: An Overview of Drum and Bass by George Broyer at drumbum.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Red Bull Academy Interview Fabio - The Root To The Shoot". Retrieved on September 4, 2007.
  13. ^ a b c d "Red Bull Academy Interview Zinc - Hardware Bingo". Retrieved on September 4, 2007.
  14. ^ "Remix Mag Interview with Rob Playford, drum and bass pioneer at remixmag.com". Retrieved on October 5, 2006.
  15. ^ a b "Eye Weekly - Dillinja builds the ultimate drum'n' bass sound system". Retrieved on February 2, 2007.
  16. ^ "Mega What? article in Knowledge Magazine". Retrieved on February 2, 2007.
  17. ^ The Good Life, No Such Thing As Society article, The Independent, July 23, 2003
  18. ^ "Mampi Swift article for IDJ Magazine". Retrieved on January 23, 2007.
  19. ^ "How To Release a Record pt2 at knowledgemag.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  20. ^ "Goldie in Shanghai on youtube.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  21. ^ "MC Evolution feature on knowledgemag.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  22. ^ "Dogs On Acid note on origin of phrase and its banning". Retrieved on October 3, 2006.
  23. ^ "The Many Faces of Drum 'n' Bass by Rob Bliss". Retrieved on June 29, 2007.
  24. ^ "DJ Hype statement on realplayaz.co.uk forum". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  25. ^ "NOOKIE by Noah Horton on weeklydig.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  26. ^ "Nigel Berman article on Goldie for the Insight, 2002". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  27. ^ "LTJ Bukem feature on knowledgemag.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  28. ^ "History of drum & bass on London News". Retrieved on January 18, 2007.
  29. ^ "Klute feature on knowledgemag.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  30. ^ "Ill Logic & Raf interview at breakbeat.co.uk";. Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  31. ^ "Liquid V Show Us The Bigger Picture article at breakbeat.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  32. ^ "Mike Bolton interview on rwdmag.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  33. ^ "Being Everything But The Girl article, Salon Magazine, September 28, 1998". Retrieved on January 26, 2007.
  34. ^ "Bailey profile on bbc.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  35. ^ "Makoto interview at 404audio.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  36. ^ "NJC – Sativa Records interview by Dhanu Le Noury at planetdnb.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  37. ^ "A Guy Called Gerald's Silent Drum & Bass Protest by Benedetta Skrufff at tranzfusion.net". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  38. ^ "Photek interview at native-instruments.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  39. ^ "MC XYZ interview at planetdnb.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  40. ^ "Goldie feature by Matthew Collin at techno.de". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  41. ^ "Discogs.com entry on Ready Or Not remixes". Retrieved on April 9, 2007.
  42. ^ "Frankie Bones". Retrieved on April 29, 2007.
  43. ^ "History of Freestyle Music". Retrieved on April 29, 2007.
  44. ^ "Renegade Soundwave - The Phantom". Retrieved on April 29, 2007.
  45. ^ "Drum 'n' Bass Sample List at wanadoo.nl". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  46. ^ "Adult Hardcore written by Simon Reynolds (originally published in The Wire) on garagemusic.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  47. ^ 2-Steps closer to America, a new dance mausic crosses the Atlantic to the beat of MJ Cole, Artful Dodge and others article, Boston Globe, July 6, 2001
  48. ^ "Raggacore article on lfodemon.com". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  49. ^ "A Guy Called Gerald feature at knowledgemag.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  50. ^ "Remix Mag Interview with Rob Playford, drum and bass pioneer at remixmag.com". Retrieved on October 5, 2006.
  51. ^ Drum N' Bass Keeps The Beat article, Boston Globe, February 6, 2003
  52. ^ The Pop Life article, New York Times, September 17, 1997
  53. ^ "Distribution feature at knowledgemag.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  54. ^ "Jungle And The Web feature at knowledgemag.co.uk". Retrieved on September 6, 2006.
  55. ^ BBC - Radio 1 - Fabio & Grooverider. BBC. Retrieved on November 4, 2007. Both listed in the 'Fabio and Grooverider's links' section.

Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to DnB, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ...

External links

  • Dogs On Acid - Major drum and bass website & forum
  • Drum and Bass Arena - Major drum and bass website & forum
  • Dub Echoes - A documentary about dub's influence on the birth of drum n bass, electronic music and hip hop
  • History of drum & bass, a BBC timeline on the history of drum & bass with track listings, quotes and samples
  • London Someting Dis a 1994 documentary on the history of drum & bass with artist interviews
For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Clownstep is a pejorative term used to describe a certain type of sound found in the electronic music genre drum and bass. ... Darkcore is a genre of drum and bass (shouldnt be confused with recent Darkcore music, which one is a form of Hardcore techno) that became popular in the United Kingdom hardcore rave scene in 1993. ... Darkstep is a sub-genre of Drum and Bass which became popular in the late 1990s. ... Drumfunk is a subgenre of drum & bass sometimes referred to as edits or choppage. The term came into widespread use ca. ... Trancestep (sometimes known as Electrostep or Futurestep) is a sub-genre of Drum and Bass music, combining the synthesized melodic elements of Trance and Electro with the drum patterns and basslines of Drum & Bass. ... Hardstep is a drum and bass subgenre which emerged in 1996 and is characterized by fast speed beats, steelhard breaks, and thumping bass lines. ... Intelligent drum and bass (IDB) (a derivation of Intelligent Jungle) is the widespread yet almost universally disliked term for the subgenre of drum and bass emphasising influences from lounge jazz and ambient music. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources, so as to avoid its being considered... Jump-Up is a subgenre of jungle and drum and bass that was popular with fans of drum and bass in the late 1990s and was designed to be played in mainstream nightclubs to get a crowd to jump up and dance. ... Liquid funk is a style of drum and bass. ... Neurofunk (commonly abbreviated neuro) is a sub-genre of drum and bass pioneered by producers Ed Rush, Optical and Matrix,[1][2] during the periods of 1997 & 1998 in London, England as a progression of techstep. ... Oldschool jungle is the name given to a style of electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including breakbeat hardcore, techno, rare groove and reggae/dub/dancehall. ... Techstep (also referred to as tech) is a major subgenre of drum and bass, characterized by a dark, sci-fi mood, near-exclusive use of synthesised or sampled sound sources, and influences from industrial and techno music at the forefront. ... A sub-genre of Drum and Bass Music, trancestep is the combination of riveting drums, deep, rolling basslines, and melodic synth sequences. ... Electronic dance music is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... This is a list of electronic music genres, sub-genres and styles, though for the latter, not all possess their own article (in which case, see the main genre article). ... Ambient music is a musical genre in which sound is more important than notes. ... This article is about breakbeat, the electronic dance music genre. ... Electro, short for electro funk (also known as robot hip hop and Electro hop) is an electronic style of hip hop directly influenced by Kraftwerk and funk records (unlike earlier rap records which were closer to disco). ... Hardcore (sometimes ardcore) is a term that has been used to describe a variety of related electronic dance music styles over almost two decades. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... Synthpop is a subgenre of New Wave in which the synthesizer is the dominant musical instrument. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ... Trance is a style of electronic music that developed in the 1990s. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... UK garage (also known as UKG or just garage) refers to several different varieties of modern electronic dance music generally connected to the evolution of house in the United Kingdom in the mid 1990s. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Drum and Bass (113 words)
Drum and bass is undeniably one of the most futuristic musical forms in existence.
Drum and bass producers struggle agonizingly to tweak sounds and samples into test tubes full of bottled lightning.
Arcing and hissing with electricity, drum and bass tunes can sound smooth and jazzy or hyperindustrial and jagged, but are usually defined by their characteristic two-step, "Amen" break drum samples.
Drum and bass | Definition | Information | Explanation | Review | WikiCity.com - Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, Free ... (1212 words)
Drum and bass is also known as Jungle, a moniker stemming from a rough area in Kingston, Jamaica originally known as Concrete Jungle.
Drum and bass started in the UK cities of London and Bristol around 1992 and mainly came out of the house/hardcore music scenes with predominant musical influences being dub music and hip-hop.
Drum and bass outside the UK One country to have recently developed a drum and bass scene is Brazil, with DJ Marky and DJ Patife amongst many others.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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