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Encyclopedia > Drum
Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin
Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin

The drum is a member of the percussion group, technically classified as a membranophone. Drums consist of at least one membrane, called a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with parts of a player's body, or with some sort of implement such as a drumstick, to produce sound. Drums are the world's oldest and most ubiquitous musical instruments, and the basic design has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years.[citation needed] Most drums are considered "untuned instruments", however many modern musicians are beginning to tune drums to songs; Terry Bozzio has constructed a kit using diatonic and chromatically tuned drums. A few such as timpani are always tuned to a certain pitch. Often, several drums are arranged together to create a drum set that can be played by one musician with all four limbs. Drum may mean: drum, a musical instrument Drum kit, a drum set drum (communication), a communication device drum (container), a type of cylindrical container cylindrical objects in various contexts, such as machinery and architecture drum (fish), any of several fish in the family Sciaenidae an organ of several types of... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Percussion redirects here. ... A membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. ... This article is about the organ. ... A drumhead is a membrane stretched over one or both of the open ends of a drum. ... A drum stick is an item used to hit percussion instruments to produce sound. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... Terry John Bozzio (born December 27, 1950, San Francisco, California) is an American drummer. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... An extended 4-piece drum kit A drum kit (or drum set or trap set - the latter an old-fashioned term) is a collection of drums, cymbals and other percussion instruments arranged for convenient playing by a sole percussionist (drummer), usually for jazz, rock, or other types of contemporary music. ...

Contents

Construction

The shell almost invariably has a circular opening over which the drumhead is stretched, but the shape of the remainder of the shell varies widely. In the western musical tradition, the most usual shape is a cylinder, although timpani, for example, use bowl-shaped shells. Other shapes include a frame design (tar, Bodhrán), truncated cones (bongo drums, Ashiko), goblet shaped (djembe), and joined truncated cones (talking drum), A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... Look up Bowl in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A tar is a single-headed drum played from Turkey to Morocco. ... Bodhrán with tipper The bodhrán (IPA or ; plural bodhráns or bodhráin) is an Irish frame drum ranging from 25 to 65cm (10 to 26) in diameter, with most drums measuring 35 to 45cm (14 to 18). The sides of the drum are 9 to 20cm (3... For other articles titled Bongo refer to the disambiguation page. ... An Ashiko is a kind of drum shaped like a truncated cone and meant to be played with bare hands. ... Custom simbati from Egypt The goblet drum (also chalice drum) is a goblet shaped hand drum used mostly in Arabic, Jewish, Assyrian, Persian, Balkan, Greek, Armenian, Azeri and Turkish music. ... A Lenke Wood Djembe From Conakry, Guinea, West Africa A djembe (pronounced JEM-bay) also known as djimbe, jenbe, jembe, yembe, or sanbanyi in Susu; is a skin covered hand drum, shaped like a large goblet, and meant to be played with bare hands. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ...


Drums with cylindrical shells can be open at one end (as is the case with timbales), or can have two drum heads. Single-headed drums normally consist of a skin which is stretched over an enclosed space, or over one of the ends of a hollow vessel. Drums with two heads covering both ends of a cylindrical shell often have a small hole somewhat halfway between the two heads; the shell forms a resonating chamber for the resulting sound. Exceptions include the African slit drum, made from a hollowed-out tree trunk, and the Caribbean steel drum, made from a metal barrel. Drums with two heads can also have a set of wires, called snares, held across the bottom head, top head, or both heads, hence the name snare drum. Timbales (or tymbales) are shallow single-headed drums, shallower in shape than single-headed tom-toms, and usually much higher tuned. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... Steelpan (also known as Pan or Steel drum, and sometimes collectively with the musicians as a Steelband) is a musical instrument and a form of music originating in Trinidad West Indies. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ...


On modern band and orchestral drums, the drumhead is affixed to a hoop (also called a "rim"), which in turn is held onto the shell by a "counterhoop", which is then held by means of a number of tuning screws called "tension rods" (also known as lugs) placed regularly around the circumference. The head's tension can be adjusted by loosening or tightening the rods. Many such drums have six to ten tension rods. The sound of a drum depends on several variables, including shape, size and thickness of its shell, materials from which the shell was made, type of drumhead used and tension applied to it, position of the drum, location, and the velocity and angle in which it is struck. In music, a band is a company of musicians, or musical ensemble, usually popular or folk, playing parts of or improvising a musical arrangement on different musical instruments. ... Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ... A hoop is a circular band with a number of uses: Hoop rolling, an ancient game played with a hoop Hula hoop, a usually plastic hoop designed as a toy Hoop (rhythmic gymnastics), a gymnastic apparatus Hoops are also used in the popular sport basketball to shoot the ball into. ... Look up screw in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Prior to the invention of tension rods drum skins were attached and tuned by rope systems such as that used on the Djembe or pegs and ropes such as that used on Ewe Drums. A Lenke Wood Djembe From Conakry, Guinea, West Africa A djembe (pronounced JEM-bay) also known as djimbe, jenbe, jembe, yembe, or sanbanyi in Susu; is a skin covered hand drum, shaped like a large goblet, and meant to be played with bare hands. ... Ewe music is the music of the Ewe people. ...

Drum carried by John Unger, Company B, 40th Regiment New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Mozart Regiment, December 20, 1863
Drum carried by John Unger, Company B, 40th Regiment New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Mozart Regiment, December 20, 1863

Drum carried by John Unger, Company B, 40th Regiment New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Mozart Regiment, December 20, 1863 Source: National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Drum carried by John Unger, Company B, 40th Regiment New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Mozart Regiment, December 20, 1863 Source: National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Sound of a drum

Several factors determine the sound a drum produces, including the type of shell the drum has, the type of drumheads it has, and the tension of the drumheads. Different drum sounds have different uses in music. For example, a jazz drummer may want drums that sound crisp, clean, and a little on the soft side, whereas a rock and roll drummer may prefer drums that sound loud and deep. Because these drummers want different sounds, their drums will be constructed differently. A drumhead is a membrane stretched over one or both of the open ends of a drum. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...


The drumhead has the most effect on how a drum sounds. Each type of drumhead serves its own musical purpose and has its own unique sound. Thicker drumheads are lower-pitched and can be very loud. Drumheads with a white plastic coating on them muffle the overtones of the drumhead slightly, producing a less diverse pitch. Drumheads with central silver or black dots tend to muffle the overtones even more. And drumheads with perimeter sound rings mostly eliminate overtones (Howie 2005). Some jazz drummers avoid using thick drumheads, preferring double ply drumheads or drumheads with perimeter sound rings. Rock drummers often prefer the thicker or coated drumheads. See Loudness. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Approximate harmonic overtones on a string An overtone is a natural resonance or vibration frequency of a system. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... This article is about the distance around an object. ...


The second biggest factor affecting the sound produced by a drum is the tension at which the drumhead is held against the shell of the drum. When the hoop is placed around the drumhead and shell and tightened down with bolts, the tension of the head can be adjusted. When the tension is increased, the amplitude of the sound is reduced and the frequency is increased, making the pitch higher and the volume lower. For quantum-mechanical amplitude, see probability amplitude. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ...


The type of shell also affects the sound of a drum. Because the vibrations resonate in the shell of the drum, the shell can be used to increase the volume and to manipulate the type of sound produced. The larger the diameter of the shell, the lower the pitch of the drum will be. The type of wood is important as well. Birch generates a bright, crisp, and clean sound, maple reproduces the frequency of the drumhead as it resonates and has a warm, wholesome sound while mahogany raises the frequency of low pitches and keeps higher frequencies at about the same speed. When choosing a set of shells, a jazz drummer may want smaller maple shells, while a rock drummer may want larger birch shells. For more information about tuning drums or the physics of a drum, visit the external links listed below. This article is about resonance in physics. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... This article is about the timber. ... In music, tuning is the process of producing or preparing to produce a certain pitch in relation to another, usually at the unison but often at some other interval. ...


Uses

Drums are usually played by the hands, or by one or two sticks. In many traditional cultures drums have a symbolic function and are often used in religious ceremonies. Drums are often used in music therapy, especially hand drums, because of their tactile nature and easy use by a wide variety of people.[1] Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. ...


Within the realm of popular music and jazz, "drums" usually refers to a drum kit or a set of drums, and "drummer" to the actual band member or person who plays them. For the music genre, see Pop music. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments, such as a cowbell, wood block, chimes or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... For the comic book character, see Drummer (comics). ...


History

Handscroll detail of a Chinese percussionist playing a drum for a dancing woman, from a 12th century remake of Gu Hongzhong's 10th century original, Song Dynasty.
Handscroll detail of a Chinese percussionist playing a drum for a dancing woman, from a 12th century remake of Gu Hongzhong's 10th century original, Song Dynasty.

The earliest known drum-like instrument is from Mezhirich, near Kiev, Ukraine, and dates back to approximately 15,000 years ago. The instrument was found at the site of the oldest known house, constructed of mammoth bones. They were found in 1965 by a farmer digging a new basement six feet below the ground. The drum-like instrument is a hollow mammoth skull with signs of wear from being hit by mammoth bones decorated with red paint.[2] Gu Hongzhong (ca 937-975 C.E) was a Chinese painter during the Five Dynasties period of Chinese history. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ...


In the past drums have been used not only for their musical qualities, but also as a means of communication, especially through signals. The talking drums of Africa can imitate the inflections and pitch variations of a spoken language and are used for communicating over great distances. Throughout Sri Lankan history drums have been used for communication between the state and the community, and Sri Lankan drums have a history stretching back over 2500 years. Japanese troops used Taiko drums to motivate troops, to help set a marching pace, and to call out orders or announcements. Fife-and-drum corps of Swiss mercenary foot soldiers also used drums. They used an early version of the snare drum carried over the player's right shoulder, suspended by a strap (typically played with one hand using traditional grip). It is to this instrument that English word "drum" was first used. Often invented and used by cultures living in forested areas, drums served as an early form of long distance communication, and were used during ceremonial and religious functions. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... The recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. ... It has been suggested that Japanese_Taiko_Drumming be merged into this article or section. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... Traditional grip is a technique used to hold drum sticks to play percussion instruments. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Weiss, Rick (1994), "Music Therapy", The Washington Post (no. Jul 5,1994), <http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/72257976.html?dids=72257976:72257976&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=JUL+05%2C+1994&author=Rick+Weiss&pub=The+Washington+Post&desc=MUSIC+THERAPY&pqatl=google> 
  2. ^ Gregorovich, Andrew (1994), "Ancient Inventions of Ukraine", <http://www.infoukes.com/history/inventions/> 

See also

Several American Indian-style drums for sale at the National Museum of the American Indian.
Several American Indian-style drums for sale at the National Museum of the American Indian.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Drums

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1689x1388, 1436 KB) Drums for sale at the National Museum of the American Indian. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1689x1388, 1436 KB) Drums for sale at the National Museum of the American Indian. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C., viewed from the northeast Interior view looking down toward the entrance. ... Blast beats are the torrents of alternating snare and bass drums which increase the speed, density, and percussiveness of death metal, black metal and grindcore. ... Double drumming (or double drums as it is sometimes referred to) is a musical technique, used mostly in rock music, where two drummers play two drum kits at the same time. ... A drum beat, a beat on a drum, is any single strike on a single drum, drum machine, or a series of beats on various percussion instruments creating a rhythmic or metric pattern. ... A drum circle is any group of people playing (usually) hand-drums and percussion in a circle. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments, such as a cowbell, wood block, chimes or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... This article is about the percussion unit of a marching band. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ... Drum replacement is the practice in modern western music production, of a recording engineer editing a recording of a live drummer and replacing every sound of a particular drum with a pre-recorded sample. ... For the comic book character, see Drummer (comics). ... In mathematics, hearing the shape of a drum relates to a series of results that do just that, i. ... A gallop is a drum beat typically used in power metal songs, using a double kick pedal. ... This is a list of notable drummers, mostly in the fields of metal, rock, and jazz. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... Practice pads are used for quiet drum practice. ... The Percussive Arts Society (PAS) is an international music service organization promoting percussion education, research, performance and appreciation. ... A drum stick is an item used to hit percussion instruments to produce sound. ... Basic electronic drum set made by Pintech. ...

Types of drum

Aburukuwa is a drum from Ghana. ... An Ashiko is a kind of drum shaped like a truncated cone and meant to be played with bare hands. ... A bass drum in a drum kit A bass drum is a large, heavy drum that produces a thump of low but indefinite pitch. ... Bodhrán with tipper The bodhrán (IPA or ; plural bodhráns or bodhráin) is an Irish frame drum ranging from 25 to 65cm (10 to 26) in diameter, with most drums measuring 35 to 45cm (14 to 18). The sides of the drum are 9 to 20cm (3... For other articles titled Bongo refer to the disambiguation page. ... A bougarabou (actual spelling BouGARabou) is a set of three to four drums commonly used in West Africa. ... A cajón (Spanish for crate, drawer, or box, pronounced ka. ... Thayambaka performance by Mattanur Sankarankutty using chenda Chenda is a cylindrical wooden drum from Kerala state of India. ... For other uses, see Conga (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tapan. ... The dhol (Punjabi: ਢੋਲ, ڈھول; Hindustani: ढोल, ڈھول; Armenian: Դոլ) dohol (Persian: ), is a drum (a percussion musical instrument) widely used in India and Pakistan, usually the Punjab region, the Indian/Pakistani province of Punjab, Maharastra and Gujarat. ... A Lenke Wood Djembe From Conakry, Guinea, West Africa A djembe (pronounced JEM-bay) also known as djimbe, jenbe, jembe, yembe, or sanbanyi in Susu; is a skin covered hand drum, shaped like a large goblet, and meant to be played with bare hands. ... A bronze drum, unearthed in 1964 from Luobowan, Guangxi, China. ... This article is about the Mande bass drum. ... Ewe music is the music of the Ewe people. ... Custom simbati from Egypt The goblet drum (also chalice drum) is a goblet shaped hand drum used mostly in Arabic, Jewish, Assyrian, Persian, Balkan, Greek, Armenian, Azeri and Turkish music. ... A hand drum is any type of drum that is typically played by striking it with the bare hand rather than a stick, mallet, hammer, or other type of beater. ... Kpanlogo is a type of drum that is associated with kpanlogo music. ... A log drum is a type of unpitched percussion instrument that creates is resonance with two toungues that are carved into a hollow box. ... A mridangam The mridangam (Tamil: மிருதங்கம்) is a percussion instrument from India, especially South India. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings. ... An example of a slit drum from the Philippines known as a kagul by the Maguindanaon people[1] slit drums are percussion instruments, usually made from bamboo, that have parallel slits in one side and one slit across the middle, not always at the center point. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... Steelpan (also known as steeldrums or pans, and sometimes collectively with the musicians as a steelband) is a musical instrument and a form of music originating in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Tabor, or tabret, refers to a portable snare drum. ... “Buben” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Japanese_Taiko_Drumming be merged into this article or section. ... The tabla (Hindi: तब्ला, tablā, Urdu: تبلہ) is a popular Indian percussion instrument used in the classical, popular and religious music of the Indian subcontinent and in Hindustani classical music. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Davul. ... A tar is a single-headed drum played from Turkey to Morocco. ... A tenor drum is a low-pitched cylindrical drum, but slightly higher pitched than a bass drum. ... Timbales (or tymbales) are shallow single-headed drums, shallower in shape than single-headed tom-toms, and usually much higher tuned. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... A tom-tom (not to be confused with a tamtam) is a cylindrical drum with no snare. ...

External links

  • Drums My Life—the largest drum forum.
  • 411 Drums—one of the internet's largest drum information portals, with drum lessons, drumtabs, drum tips, and more.
  • Drumdojo—encyclopaedic drum information since 1998 - all drum types. Now with Online Drum Community
  • Free Drum Lessons—120+ original free streaming video drum lessons.
  • Drum Glossary—Explaining the various elements of the drumset
  • Drum Tuning—- Foolproof advice for getting great sounds from your drums
  • Drums and Drummers—resources on drummers from 1900 to the present.
  • Drumtopia Drum News—drumming news, drum tab search and a directory of drum resources.
  • Drummer World—a large collection of online drum clinics as well as drum videos.
  • [1]—Downloadable Video Drum Lessons
  • Virtual drums and resources for drummers
  • WikiRecording's Guide to Recording Drums
  • Drums Addict Festival Official Website - the biggest and most beautiful drum dedicated event in France, pictures and videos...
  • Field Drums Blog Photos, information, critical commentary and analysis of field drums, focusing on drums of the American Civil War
  • National Music Museum
Drum. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Drums - DRUM LESSONS / DRUM TABS - Drums: Over 500 Free Drum Lessons and Free DrumTabs! #1 Drums and Percussion ... (3365 words)
This drums database is a music compilation (directory, portal, collection, catalog, etc.) and a great education lesson plans resource for teachers and band directors.
The snare drum plays 8ths while the drums are accented by the hands and kick drum.
Drum videos and links to more rock beats, jazz beats, linear grooves, latin beats, permutation, ostinato, drum rolls, and more drumset related stuff.
Drum - LoveToKnow 1911 (1708 words)
The sound is produced by striking the centre of the vellum on the one end of the drum with a stick having a large soft round knob composed of wood covered with cork, sponge or felt.
The notation for the side drum is similar to that in use for the bass drum; the value of the note is alone of importance; the place of the note on the staff is immaterial and purely a matter of custom.
The popularity of all kinds of drums in the most ancient civilizations is established beyond a doubt by the numerous representations of the instrument in a variety of shapes and sizes on the monuments and paintings of Egypt, Assyria, India and Persia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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