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Encyclopedia > Drug rehabilitation

Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is an umbrella term for the processes of medical and/or psychotherapeutic treatment, for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and so-called street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines. The general intent is to enable the patient to cease substance abuse, in order to avoid the psychological, legal, financial, social, and physical consequences that can be caused, especially by extreme abuse. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Cocaine (see also: crack) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Heroin ((INN) Diacetylmorphine, (BAN) diamorphine) is an opioid synthesized directly from the extracts of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. ... Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ...


Drug rehabilitation tends to address a stated two-fold nature of drug dependency: physical and psychological dependency. Physical dependency involves a detoxification process to cope with withdrawal symptoms from regular use of a drug. With regular use of many drugs, legal or otherwise, the brain gradually adapts to the presence of the drug so that normal functioning can occur. This is how physical tolerance develops to drugs such as heroin, amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine or alcohol. It also explains why more of the drug is needed to get the same effect with regular use. The abrupt cessation of some drugs, especially opiates and alcohol, can lead to withdrawal symptoms where the body may take weeks or months (depending on the drug involved) to return to normal. Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Heroin ((INN) Diacetylmorphine, (BAN) diamorphine) is an opioid synthesized directly from the extracts of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. ... Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... Cocaine (see also: crack) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Distinguish from Niacin, which is the nicotinic acid, and has a very different biological effect. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ...


Psychological dependency is addressed in many drug rehabilitation programs by attempting to teach the patient new methods of interacting in a drug-free environment. In particular, patients are generally encouraged or required not to associate with friends who still use the addictive substance. Twelve-step programs encourage addicts not only to stop using alcohol or other drugs, but to examine and change habits related to their addictions. Many programs emphasize that recovery is a permanent process without culmination. For all drugs, complete abstention--rather than attempts at moderation, which may lead to relapse--is also emphasized ("One is too many; a thousand never enough.") Whether moderation is achievable by those with a history of abuse remains a controversial point but is generally considered unsustainable. The Twelve-step program is a set of guiding principles for recovery from addictive, compulsive, or behavioural problems, originally developed by the fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous (abbreviated A.A.) to guide recovery from alcoholism. ... Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes. ... A relapse (etymologically, who falls again) occurs when a person is affected again by a condition that affected them in the past. ...


Various types of programs offer help in drug rehabilitation, including: residential treatment (in-patient), out-patient, local support groups, extended care centres, and sober houses.


Pharmacotherapies to a greater or lesser extent have come to play a part in drug rehabilitation. Certain opioid medications such as methadone and more recently buprenorphine are widely used and show significant efficacy in the treatment of dependence on other opioids such as heroin, morphine or oxycodone. Methadone and buprenorphine are sometimes used as maintenance therapies, with an intent of stabilizing an abnormal opioid system and used for long durations of time though both may be used to withdraw patients from narcotics over short term periods as well. Ibogaine is an experimental medication proposed to interrupt both physical dependence and psychological craving to a broad range or drugs including narcotics, stimulants, alcohol and nicotine. Some antidepressants also show use in moderating drug use, particularly to nicotine, and it has become common for researchers to re-examine already approved drugs for new uses in drug rehabilitation. Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic and in the treatment of narcotic addiction. ... Buprenorphine, also colloquially referred to as bupe or subbies, is an opioid drug with partial agonist and antagonist actions. ... Heroin ((INN) Diacetylmorphine, (BAN) diamorphine) is an opioid synthesized directly from the extracts of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Distinguish from oxytocin. ... Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid, a long-acting hallucinogen which has gained attention due to its application in the treatment of opioid addiction and similar addiction syndromes. ...


Drug rehabilitation is sometimes part of the criminal justice system. People convicted of minor drug offences may be sentenced to rehabilitation instead of prison, and those convicted of driving while intoxicated are sometimes required to attend Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. There have been lawsuits filed, and won, regarding the requirement of attending Alcoholics Anonymous and other twelve-step meetings as being inconsistent with the United States' Constitutional mandate of separation of church and state, although there is no such provision in the Constitution itself. Opponents cite a personal letter from President Thomas Jefferson, and attribute it to the First Amendment right. (source: http://www.usconstitution.net/jeffwall.html) (source: http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9806/danpre.html) Criminal justice system flowchart Criminal Justice refers to the system used by government to maintain social control, prevent crime, enforce laws, and administer justice. ... Drunk driving (drink driving in the UK) or drinking and driving is the act of operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol (i. ... Logo for AA Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an informal society for recovering alcoholics. ...


Some psychotherapists question the validity of the "diseased person" model used within the drug rehabilitation environment. Instead, they state that the individual person is entirely capable of rejecting previous behaviours. Further, they contend that the use of the disease model of addiction simply perpetuates the addicts' feelings of worthlessness, powerlessness, and inevitably causes inner conflicts that would be easily resolved if the addict were to approach addiction as simply behaviour that is no longer productive, the same as childhood tantrums. Drug rehabilitation does not utilize any of these ideas, inasmuch as they intrinsically contradict the assumption that the addict is a sick person in need of help. Psychotherapy is a set of techniques believed to cure or to help solve behavioral and other psychological problems in humans. ... The classical definition of a person is a human being regarded as an individual. ... The disease model of addiction describes addictions as a biologically based, lifelong disease that involve a loss of control over behavior and requires medical or spiritual treatment for recovery. ... Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of mental disorder. ... A tantrum is an emotional outburst wherein higher brain functions are unable to stop the emotional expression of the lower (emotional and physical) brain functions. ...


Traditional addiction treatment is based primarily on counselling. However, recent discoveries have shown that those suffering from addiction often have chemical imbalances that make the recovery process more difficult. Often times, these imbalances may be corrected through improved diet, nutritional supplements and leading a healthy lifestyle. Some of the more innovative treatment centres are now offering a "Biochemical Restoration" process to supplement the counselling portion of treatment.


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  Results from FactBites:
 
Narconon Australia Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation: Ongoing program evaluation (1917 words)
Mixtures of drugs were a problem for a large percentage of this study population.
Although this does not preclude continuing drug use, the low levels suggest that what we are seeing is ongoing elimination of drug metabolites in most of these clients, particularly given the fact that they were on the detoxification program at the time.
Detectable levels of drugs continue to be eliminated for some weeks in at least a third of the Narconon clients tested.
Drug rehabilitation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (642 words)
Drug rehabilitation (often shortened to drug rehab or just rehab) is an umbrella term for the processes of medical and/or psychotherapeutic treatment, for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and so-called street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.
For legal drugs such as alcohol complete abstention rather than attempts at moderation, which may lead to relapse are also emphasized ("One drink is too many; one hundred drinks is not enough.") Whether moderation is achievable by persons with a history of abuse remains a controversial point but is generally considered unsustainable.
Drug rehabilitation is sometimes part of the criminal justice system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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