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Encyclopedia > Drug Enforcement Administration
Drug Enforcement Administration
Abbreviation DEA
Logo of the Drug Enforcement Administration.
Badge of the Drug Enforcement Administration.
Agency Overview
Formed 1973 July 1
Preceding agencies
Employees 10,891 (2006)
Annual Budget $2.415 billion USD (2006)
Legal personality Governmental agency
Jurisdictional Structure
Federal agency United States
General nature
  • Civilian agency
  • Federal law enforcement
Operational Structure
Headquarters Arlington, Virginia
Special Agents 5,500+
Elected officer responsible Michael Mukasey, Attorney General
Agency executives
  • (Vacant), Administrator
  • Michele Leonhart, Deputy Administrator
Parent agency United States Department of Justice
Website
http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States Department of Justice law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the U.S. Not only is the DEA the lead agency for domestic enforcement of the drug policy of the United States (sharing concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation), it also has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing U.S. drug investigations abroad. DEA badge. ... The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau of Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs directly preceded the Drug Enforcement Administration. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... An operating budget is the annual budget of an activity stated in terms of Budget Classification Code, functional/subfunctional categories and cost accounts. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) is a generic term used for local and state police, as well as federal agencies (such as the FBI, the BATF, DHS, Europol, Interpol, etc. ... Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) is a generic term used for local and state police, as well as federal agencies (such as the FBI, the BATF, DHS, Europol, Interpol, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Michael B. Mukasey (born 1941) is a Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Michele Leonhart Michele Leonhart is the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration by the U.S. Senate on March 8, 2004, following her nomination by President George W. Bush. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) is a generic term used for local and state police, as well as federal agencies (such as the FBI, the BATF, DHS, Europol, Interpol, etc. ... For the Barenaked Ladies song War on Drugs, see Everything to Everyone. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...

Contents

History and mandate

Two DEA agents in a shoot house exercise.
Two DEA agents in a shoot house exercise.

The Drug Enforcement Administration was established on 1 July 1973, by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973, signed by President Richard Nixon on 28 March 1973.[1] It proposed the creation of a single federal agency to enforce the federal drug laws as well as consolidate and coordinate the government's drug control activities. Congress accepted the proposal, as they were concerned with the growing availability of drugs.[2] As a result, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD), the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement (ODALE), and other Federal offices merged together to create the DEA.[3] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Bureau of Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs directly preceded the Drug Enforcement Administration. ...


In 1999, the DEA opened the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum in Arlington, Virginia. In February 2003, the DEA established a Digital Evidence Laboratory within its Office of Forensic Sciences.[4] Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000...

U.S. drug regulation
Prescription drugs
Over-the-counter drugs
This box: view  talk  edit

A prescription drug is a medication that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription and without a visit to a medical professional, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (CSA) In the USA, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and subsequent modifications require the pharmaceutical industry to maintain physical security and strict record keeping for certain types of drugs. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PDMA) of 1987 (P.L. 100-293, 102 Stat. ... The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, informally known as the Hatch-Waxman Act [Public Law 98-417], is a 1984 United States federal law which established the modern system of generic drugs. ... DHHS redirects here. ... FDA redirects here. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ... The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research is a division of the FDA that deals with the approval of drugs. ... Drug development or preclinical development is defined in many pharmaceutical companies as the process of taking a new chemical lead through the stages necessary to allow it to be tested in human clinical trials, although a broader definition would encompass the entire process of drug discovery and clinical testing of... The New Drug Application (NDA) is the vehicle through which drug sponsors formally propose that the FDA approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the U.S. The goals of the NDA are to provide enough information to permit FDA reviewer to reach the following: Is the drug... The Food and Drug Administrations Investigational New Drug (IND) program is the means by which a pharmaceutical company obtains permission to ship an experimental drug across state lines (usually to clinical investigators) before a marketing application for the drug has been approved. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... Pharmacovigilance the pharmacological science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long term and short term side effect, of medicines (Source: The Importance of Pharmacovigilance, WHO 2002). ... The International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) is a project that brings together the regulatory authorities of Europe, Japan and the United States and experts from the pharmaceutical industry in the three regions to discuss scientific and technical aspects of pharmaceutical... The Uppsala Monitoring Centre (the UMC), located in Uppsala, Sweden, is the field name for the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring. ... WHO redirects here. ... The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) is an international, nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization established jointly by WHO and UNESCO in 1949. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ...

Organization

The DEA is headed by an Administrator of Drug Enforcement appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. The Administrator reports to the Attorney General through the Deputy Attorney General.[5] The Administrator is assisted by a Deputy Administrator, the Chief of Operations, the Chief Inspector, and three Assistant Administrators (for the Operations Support, Intelligence, and Human Resources Divisions). Other senior staff include the Chief Financial Officer and the Chief Counsel. The Administrator and Deputy Administrator are the only Presidentially-appointed personnel in the DEA; all other DEA officials are career government employees. DEA's headquarters is located in Arlington, Virginia across from the Pentagon. It maintains its own DEA Academy located on the United States Marine Corps base at Quantico, Virginia along with the FBI Academy. It maintains 21 domestic field divisions with 227 field offices and 86 foreign offices in 62 countries.[6] With a budget exceeding 2.415 billion dollars, DEA employs over 10,800 people, including over 5,500 Special Agents. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... United States Deputy Attorney General is a high ranking official in the United States Department of Justice. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Quantico, Virginia is in Prince William County, 23 miles north-northeast of Fredericksburg, Virginia, near Dumfries and Stafford along Highway 619. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The FBI Academy is located in Quantico, Virginia. ... Special Agent is the United States governments title for a detective or investigator of the Series 0081 in the Office of Personnel Management or OPM handbook. ...


Job applicants who have a history of hard drug use are excluded from consideration. Investigation usually includes a polygraph test for special agent, diversion investigator, and intelligence research specialist positions.

Applicants who are found, through investigation or personal admission, to have experimented with or used narcotics or dangerous drugs, except those medically prescribed, will not be considered for employment with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Exceptions to this policy may be made for applicants who admit to limited youthful and experimental use of marijuana. Such applicants may be considered for employment if there is no evidence of regular, confirmed usage and the full-field background investigation and results of the other steps in the process are otherwise favorable.[7]

The DEA's relatively firm stance on this issue is in contrast to that of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which, in 2005, considered relaxing its hiring policy relevant to individual drug use history. [8] Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


Mobile Enforcement Teams

Mobile Enforcement Teams (METs) are specialized squads designed as a support service dedicated to attacking and dismantling drug trafficking and urban violence in close cooperation with local authorities. METs are located throughout the United States in DEA's 21 field divisions. They often focus their efforts in rural and some smaller urban areas that are deficient in the law enforcement resources to combat organized drug gangs. Look up urban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Impact on the drug trade

Main article: Illegal drug trade

In 2005, the DEA seized a reported $1.4 billion in drug trade related assets and $477 million worth of drugs.[9] However, according to the White House's Office of Drug Control Policy, the total value of all of the drugs sold in the U.S. is as much as $64 billion a year[10], making the DEA's efforts to intercept the flow of drugs into and within the U.S. less than 1% effective. Defenders of the agency's performance record argue that the DEA has had a positive effect beyond their relatively small annual seizures by placing pressure on traffickers, raising prices for consumers which, it is hoped, may reduce the affordability of drugs. Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ...


Critics of this theory (including the Nobel Prize winning economist Milton Friedman, prior to his death a member of Law Enforcement Against Prohibition) point out that demand for illegal drugs shows little price sensitivity; the people who are buying drugs will continue to buy them with little regard to price, often turning to crime to support expensive drug habits when the drug prices rise. One recent study published in the The Atlantic lending credence to the criticism shows that in every major U.S. city, from New York to Los Angeles, the price of street cocaine has dropped. [11] The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ...


Narcotics registration

The DEA has a registration system in place which authorizes medical professionals, researchers and manufacturers access to "Schedule I" drugs. Authorized registrants receive a "DEA number" that is to be solely used for tracking controlled substances. The DEA number, however, is often used by the industry as a general "prescriber" number as a unique identifier for anyone who can prescribe medication. This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States Department of Justice law enforcement agency tasked with enforcing the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. ...


Diversion control system

Many problems associated with drug abuse are the result of legitimately-manufactured controlled substances being diverted from their lawful purpose into the illicit drug traffic. Many of the narcotics, depressants and stimulants manufactured for legitimate medical use are subject to abuse, and have therefore been brought under legal control. The goal of controls is to ensure that these "controlled substances" are readily available for medical use, while preventing their distribution for illicit sale and abuse. Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ...


Under federal law, all businesses which manufacture or distribute controlled drugs, all health professionals entitled to dispense, administer or prescribe them, and all pharmacies entitled to fill prescriptions must register with the DEA. Registrants must comply with a series of regulatory requirements relating to drug security, records accountability, and adherence to standards. For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ...


All of these investigations are conducted by Diversion Investigators (DIs). DIs conduct investigations to uncover and investigate suspected sources of diversion and take appropriate civil and administrative actions.


MDMA DEA Scheduling Overturn

In 1985 MDMA and its analogues were under review by the American government as a drug for potential of abuse. During this time, several public hearings on the new drug were held by the DEA. Based on all of the evidence and facts presented at the time, the DEA's administrative law judge did not see MDMA and its analogues as being of large concern and recommended that they be placed in Schedule III. The DEA administrator, expressing concern for abuse potential, overruled the recommendation and ruled that MDMA be put in Schedule I, the Controlled Substances Act's most restrictive category.[12][13] ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...


Criticism

The DEA has been criticized for placing highly restrictive schedules on a few narcotics which researchers in the fields of pharmacology and medicine regard as having medical uses. Critics assert that some such decisions are motivated primarily by political factors stemming from the U.S. government's War on Drugs, and that many benefits of such substances remain unrecognized due to the difficulty of conducting scientific research. A counterpoint to that criticism is that under the Controlled Substances Act it is the Department of Health and Human Services (through the Food and Drug Administration and the National Institute on Drug Abuse), not the DEA, which has the legal responsibility to make scientific and medical determinations with respect to drug scheduling; no drug can be scheduled if the Secretary of Health and Human Services recommends against it on a scientific or medical basis, and no drug can be placed in the most restrictive schedule (Schedule I) if DHHS finds that the drug has a currently accepted medical use. Jon Gettman's essay Science and the End of Marijuana Prohibition describes the DEA as "a fall guy to deflect responsibility from the key decision-makers" and opines, "HHS calls the shots when it comes to marijuana prohibition, and the cops at DEA and the general over at ONDCP take the heat."[14] Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For the Barenaked Ladies song War on Drugs, see Everything to Everyone. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... DHHS redirects here. ... FDA redirects here. ... Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ... Gettman at the Third National Clinical Conference on Cannabis Therapeutics. ...


The DEA is also criticized for focusing on the operations from which it can seize the most money[15], namely the organized cross-border trafficking of heroin and cocaine. Some individuals contemplating the nature of the DEA's charter advise that, based on order of popularity, the DEA should be most focused on marijuana. Others suggest that, based on opiate popularity, the DEA should focus much more on prescription opiates used recreationally, which critics contend is far more widespread than heroin use. Some scheduled substances are extremely rare, with no clear reason behind the scheduling of 4-Methyl-aminorex or bufotenine. Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid. ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... 4-Methyl-aminorex is a stimulant drug of the 2-Amino-5-Aryloxazoline class. ... Bufotenin, also spelled bufotenine, is also known under the names 5_hydroxy_DMT (5-OH-DMT) or dimethyl-serotonin and is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin. ...


Others, such as the Cato Institute[16] and the Drug Policy Alliance[17] criticize the very existence of the DEA and the War on Drugs as inimical to the concept of civil liberties by arguing that anybody should be free to put any substance they choose into their own bodies for any reason, particularly when legal drugs such as alcohol, tobacco and prescription drugs are also open to abuse, and that any harm caused by a drug user or addict is covered under existing law, just as it is for a non-user. Recurrently, billions are spent yearly, focusing largely on criminal law and demand reduction campaigns, which has only resulted in millions of U.S. citizens imprisoned.[citation needed] Demand for recreational drugs is somewhat static as the market for most illegal drugs has been saturated, forcing the cartels to expand their market to Europe and other areas than the United States.[citation needed] It is common for illicit drugs to be widely available in most urban, suburban, and even rural areas in the United States, which leads drug legalization proponents to claim that drug laws, like most other laws, have little effect on those who choose not to obey them, and that the resources spent enforcing drug laws, as well as many other laws, are wasted. As it relates to the DEA specifically, the vast majority of individual arrests stemming from illegal drug possession and distribution are narrow and more local in scope and are made by local law enforcement officers, while the DEA tends to focus on larger, interstate and international distribution networks and the higher ranking members of such organizations in addition to operating in conjunction with other local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies along U.S. borders[citation needed]. The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... This article is about law in society. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Zoloft, an antidepressant and antianxiety medication A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... Demand reduction is a term used by drug control authorities to refer to educational and other efforts aimed at stopping people from seeking drugs, as opposed to cutting off their supply. ...


Some groups advocate legalization of certain controlled substances under the premise that doing so may reduce the volume of illicit trafficking and associated crime as well as yield a valuable tax source, although some of the results of drug legalization have raised doubt about some of these beliefs. For example, marijuana is now available as a palliative agent, in Canada, with a medical prescription. Yet 86% of Canadians with HIV/AIDS, eligible for a prescription, continue to obtain marijuana illegally (AIDS Care. 2007 Apr;19(4):500-6.) However, this could be due to the availability, and often the quality of illegal cannabis compared to the procedural hoops a patient has to jump through when receiving it from the government. A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ...


The DEA was accused in 2005 by the Venezuelan government of collaborating with drug traffickers, after which President Hugo Chávez decided to end any collaboration with the agency. In 2007, after the U.S. State Department criticized Venezuela in its annual report on drug trafficking, the Venezuelan Minister of Justice reiterated the accusations: "A large quantity of drug shipments left the country through that organization,...[]..We were in the presence of a new drug cartel."[18] Current President Hugo Chávez was elected in December 1998 on a platform that called for the creation of a National Constituent Assembly in order to write a new Constitution. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... Department of State redirects here. ...


In the Netherlands both the Dutch government and the DEA have been criticized for violations of Dutch sovereignty in drug investigations. According to Peter R. de Vries, a Dutch journalist present at the 2005 trial of Henk Orlando Rommy, the DEA has admitted to activities on Dutch soil. Earlier, then minister of justice Piet Hein Donner, had denied to the Dutch parliament that he had given permission to the DEA for any such activities, which would have been a requirement by Dutch law in order to allow foreign agents to act within the territory [19]. Like a number of other European countries with proportional representation, the Dutch have always had coalition governments. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... This article is about the legislative institution. ...


Administrators

This table lists all Administrators of the DEA, their dates of service, and under which administration they served.

Administrator Term Administration
John R. Bartels, Jr. 1973–1975 Nixon, Ford
Peter B. Bensinger 1976–1981 Ford, Carter, Reagan
Francis M. Mullen 1981–1985[20] Reagan
John C. Lawn 1985-1990[21] Reagan, G.H.W. Bush
Robert C. Bonner 1990-1993 G.H.W. Bush, Clinton
Stephen H. Greene (Acting) 1993-1994 Clinton
Thomas A. Constantine 1994-1999 Clinton
Donnie R. Marshall 1999-2001[22] Clinton, G.W. Bush
Asa Hutchinson 2001-2003 G.W. Bush
Karen Tandy 2003-2007 G.W. Bush
Michele Leonhart (Acting) 2007– G.W. Bush

John Lawn, speaking at the swearing in of Administrator Karen Tandy on 7 September 2003. ... Robert C. Bonner Robert C. Bonner, born in Wichita, Kansas on January 29, 1942, is currently Commissioner of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection service. ... Constantine speaking at the DEAs 25th anniversary celebration. ... Donnie R. Marshall. ... Asa Hutchinson Asa Hutchinson (born December 3, 1950) is a former U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas, U.S. Congressman from the Third District of Arkansas, Director of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and the first-ever Under Secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Michele Leonhart Michele Leonhart is the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration by the U.S. Senate on March 8, 2004, following her nomination by President George W. Bush. ...

The DEA in popular culture

  • In the Marijuana Documentary Super High Me starring Doug Benson the DEA is seen seizing Marijuana crops from legally operating dispensaries for Medicinal Marijuana in the State of California (See Prop 215)
  • Gary Oldman played a corrupt DEA Agent in Léon. It was one of his most critically acclaimed roles.
  • Luis Guzmán and Don Cheadle play two DEA agents in the movie Traffic.
  • Vin Diesel and Larenz Tate play DEA agents in the movie A Man Apart.
  • David Duchovny plays a transvestite DEA agent in Twin Peaks. The acronym 'DEA' was mistakenly said to stand for 'Drug Enforcement Agency'.
  • Max Payne is an NYPD police officer who later becomes a DEA agent in the video game series Max Payne.
  • Nancy Botwin (played by Mary-Louise Parker) finds out that her boyfriend is a DEA agent on the Showtime series "Weeds."
  • In the game Narc, one of the two playable characters is DEA Agent Marcus Hill played by Bill Bellamy
  • In The Power of the Dog Don Winslow follows the main character Art Keller through the DEA's beginnings with the War on Drugs (Operation Condor) in Sinaloa, Mexico in 1975 to the year 2004
  • In the movie Swordfish, the character Ginger (Halle Berry) claims to be an undercover DEA agent.
  • In the television program Painkiller Jane, Kristanna Loken plays the titular character, who at the beginning of the series is a DEA agent.
  • In the Third Person Shooter game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories, the DEA is Largely involved in the many missions. Most notably DEA Agent Brian Forbes.
  • In the TV police drama Miami Vice, Lt. Martin Castillo was a former DEA agent. His former service provides many of the show's plot lines. The show took a generally negative view of the agency, especially as the series progressed.
  • The ambient/electronic band The American Dollar has a song called DEA on their album The Technicolour Sleep.
  • In the soap opera Passions, Theresa Lopez-Fitzgerald Crane was rescued from shark-infested waters by DEA agents after Mexican drug kingpin Juanita Vasquez.
  • In the movie Basic, DEA agent John Travolta investigates an Army Ranger mission gone wrong.
  • In April 2008, Spike TV premiered a new show, "DEA", chronicling the day to day operations of DEA officers operating in Detroit. It was filmed over the summer of 2007.
  • The Operation Without Borders is a Chinese TV series which plays some DEA agents together with some Chinese Drug Police fight against a international drug trading group.It takes place in New York, Shanghai, Fukien, Yunnan and other places in China and United States.
  • In the game Scarface "The World is Yours" DEA agents raid Tony Montana's mansion in the beginning and will arrive later in the game if your heat level rises enough.

Doug Benson is an American comedian who has appeared on Comedy Central Presents, The Marijuana-logues, Best Week Ever and most recently as a semi-finalist on Last Comic Standing. ... Gary Leonard Oldman[1] (born March 21, 1958) is an Emmy and Screen Actors Guild-nominated, Saturn and BAFTA award-winning English-born American[2] film actor, writer and director. ... Léon (aka The Cleaner, The Professional, or Léon the Professional) is a 1994 film written and directed by French director Luc Besson. ... Luis Guzmán (born August 28, 1956[1]) is a Puerto Rican actor. ... Don Cheadle (born November 29, 1964) is an Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor. ... Traffic is an award-winning 2000 crime/drama film directed by Steven Soderbergh. ... Vin Diesel (born Mark Sinclair Vincent on July 18, 1967) is an American actor, writer, director, and producer. ... Larenz Tate (born September 8, 1975 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American actor. ... A Man Apart - Poster 1 A Man Apart - Poster 2 A Man Apart is a 2003 action film starring Vin Diesel and directed by F. Gary Gray. ... For the Bree Sharp song, see David Duchovny (song). ... A male dressed as a female. ... This article is about the television show. ... Max Payne is a third-person shooter video game developed by the Finnish company Remedy Entertainment, produced by 3D Realms and published by Gathering of Developers in July, 2001 for Windows. ... Mary-Louise Parker (born August 2, 1964) is an American actress. ... This article is about the pay TV channel. ... Weeds is an American dark comedy television series. ... Tagline: Dont Do Drugs NARC is a 1988 arcade game designed by Eugene Jarvis for Williams Electronics. ... Bill Bellamy (born April 7, 1965 in Newark, New Jersey) is an American actor and stand-up comedian. ... The Power of the Dog is a crime/thriller novel by Don Winslow, based on the DEAs involvement with the War on Drugs. ... Don Winslow is an author currently living in the United States, most recognized for his crime and mystery novels. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Sinaloa Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 18 Government  - Governor Jesús Aguilar Padilla  - Federal Deputies PRI: 6 PAN: 2  - Federal Senators PRI: 2 PAN: 1 Area Ranked 18th  - Total 58,238 km² (22,485. ... Swordvag1na (sometimes referred to as Password: Swordvag1na or Operation: Swordvag1na) is an action/thriller film. ... Halle Maria Berry (IPA: ; born August 14, 1966[1]) is an American actress, former fashion model and beauty queen. ... Painkiller Jane is a television series based on the comic book character of the same name. ... Kristanna Sommer Loken or Kristanna Sommer Løken (born October 8, 1979) is a Norwegian-American actress and former fashion model. ... For the 2006 movie, see Miami Vice (film). ... Ambient music is a musical genre in which sound is more important than notes. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... USD redirects here. ... The first TIME magazine cover devoted to soap operas, dated January 12, 1976. ... For other uses, see Passion. ... Information Gender Female Age 25 Date of birth 1982 Occupation CEO of Crane Industries Family Pilar Lopez-Fitzgerald (mother) Martin Fitzgerald (father) Spouse(s) Ethan Winthrop (August 20, 2007 (invalid)) Children Ethan Crane Jane Winthrop Address 14 Raven Hill Road Portrayed by Lindsay Hartley (1999 to Present) Priscilla Garita (Temporary... Mexican may have several meanings. ... Basic is a 2003 action/mystery film directed by John McTiernan. ... John Joseph Travolta (born February 18, 1954) is an Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor, dancer, and singer, best known for his leading roles in films such as Saturday Night Fever, Grease and Pulp Fiction. ... Spike (formerly called Spike TV), a division of MTV Networks, is an American cable network designed for an audience described demographically as young adult males. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor...

See also

United States portal
Law enforcement/Law enforcement topics portal
  • List of United States federal law enforcement agencies

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

References

  1. ^ "Drug Enforcement Administration: Drug Abuse Prevention Service Award". Learning for Life. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  2. ^ "History of the DEA: 1970 - 1975". www.deamuseum.org. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  3. ^ "Marijuana Timeline". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
  4. ^ "1999-2003". DEA. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  5. ^ "Title 28, C.F.R., Part 0.102". Department of Justice. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  6. ^ "DEA Office Locations". DEA. Retrieved on 2008-07-09.
  7. ^ "Drug Questionnaire". U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  8. ^ "FBI ay relax hiring policy on drug use".
  9. ^ "Drug Enforcement Administration Highlights Year’s Accomplishments". dea.gov (December 28, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  10. ^ "What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs 1988–1998". Office of National Drug Control Policy (December 2000). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  11. ^ http://www.sharedresponsibility.gov.co/?idcategoria=697,How Cocaine Defies the First Rule in Economics,Shared Responsibility
  12. ^ http://www.drugtext.org/library/research/mdma/archive/15/default.htm, 24 MDMA,Chorles S. Grob and Russell E Polond
  13. ^ Video Documentary: "Hooked - Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way: LSD, Ecstasy and Raves",The History Channel
  14. ^ Millennium Marijuana March
  15. ^ http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=959869 ,Policing for Profit: The Drug War's Hidden Economic Agenda
  16. ^ Boaz, David; Timothy Lynch (2004-08-12). "The war on drugs". Cato Handbook on Policy. Cato Institute. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  17. ^ Drug Policy Alliance. "Mission and Vision". Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  18. ^ Christopher Toothaker. "Venezuela rejects U.S. drug report, accuses DEA of collaborating with traffickers". New County Times. Retrieved on 2007-03-02.
  19. ^ de Vries, Peter R. (2005-10-02). "Dossier: ‘De zwarte Cobra’" (in Dutch). Programma. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  20. ^ From July 1981 - November 1983, Mullen served as Acting Administrator. He was nominated by President Ronald Reagan on 21 January 1982, confirmed by the U.S. Senate on 30 September 1983, and sworn in as Administrator on 10 November 1983.
  21. ^ From March - July 1985, Lawn served as Acting Administrator. He was nominated by President Reagan on 4 April 1985, confirmed by the U.S. Senate on 16 July 1985, and sworn in as Administrator on 26 July 1985.
  22. ^ From July 1999 - June 2000, Marshall served as Acting Administrator.

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Drug Enforcement Administration: Information from Answers.com (1759 words)
Not only is the DEA the lead agency for domestic enforcement of federal drug laws (sharing concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation), it also has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing U.S. drug investigations abroad.
The DEA is headed by an Administrator of Drug Enforcement appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the US Senate.
The DEA's relatively firm stance on this issue is in contrast to that of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which is considering relaxing its hiring policy on drug use.
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