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Encyclopedia > Drought
Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions
Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions

A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region. Although droughts can persist for several years, even a short, intense drought can cause significant damage[1] and harm the local economy[2] According to the UN, an area of fertile soil the size of Ukraine is lost every year because of drought, deforestation and climate instability.[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2250x924, 586 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Drought ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2250x924, 586 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Drought ... The Benambra Uniting Church, erected 1905 Benambra is a small town located 22km north-east of Omeo and 437km east of the state capital Melbourne, in the Australian Alps of East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...

Contents

Implications

Lake Chad in a 2001 satellite image, with the actual lake in blue. The lake has shrunk by 95% since the 1960's.
Lake Chad in a 2001 satellite image, with the actual lake in blue. The lake has shrunk by 95% since the 1960's.[4][5]

Drought is a normal, recurring feature of the climate in most parts of the world. Having adequate drought mitigation strategies in place can greatly reduce the impact. Recurring or long-term drought can bring about desertification. Recurring droughts in the Horn of Africa have created grave ecological catastrophes, prompting massive food shortages, still recurring. To the north-west of the Horn, the Darfur conflict in neighboring Sudan, also affecting Chad, was fueled by decades of drought; combination of drought, desertification and overpopulation are among the causes of the Darfur conflict, because the Arab Baggara nomads searching for water have to take their livestock further south, to land mainly occupied by non-Arab farming peoples.[6] Description: A composite of images showing the diminishing Lake Chad from 1973 to 2001. ... Description: A composite of images showing the diminishing Lake Chad from 1973 to 2001. ... Lake Chad (in French: Lac Tchad) is a large, shallow lake in Africa. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. ... Catastrophe (Gk. ... Location of Ethiopia, as Ethiopian borders were as of the famine, prior Eritrean independence in 1993. ... Affected countries The 2006 Horn of Africa food crisis is an acute shortage of food affecting four Horn of Africa countries: Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti and Ethiopia. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Baggara or Baqqarah (Arabic: البقارة) are a nomadic Bedouin people inhabiting Africa from between Lake Chad and the Nile, in the states of Sudan (particularly Darfur), Niger, Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and the Central African Republic. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ...


According to a UN climate report, the Himalayan glaciers that are the sources of Asia's biggest rivers - Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Mekong, Salween and Yellow - could disappear by 2035 as temperatures rise.[7] Approximately 2.4 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers.[8] India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by droughts in coming decades. Drought in India affecting the Ganges is of particular concern, as it provides drinking water and agricultural irrigation for more than 500 million people.[9][10][11] For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Ganga redirects here. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng; Wade-Giles: Chang Chiang... The Mekong is one of the world’s major rivers. ... The Salween River (also spelt Salwin, a. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... The dry bed of the Niranjana River, Bihar. ... Tap water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested through drinking by humans. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


In 2005, parts of the Amazon basin experienced the worst drought in 100 years.[12][13] A 23 July 2006 article reported Woods Hole Research Center results showing that the forest in its present form could survive only three years of drought.[14][15] Scientists at the Brazilian National Institute of Amazonian Research argue in the article that this drought response, coupled with the effects of deforestation on regional climate, are pushing the rainforest towards a "tipping point" where it would irreversibly start to die. It concludes that the rainforest is on the brink of being turned into savanna or desert, with catastrophic consequences for the world's climate. According to the WWF, the combination of climate change and deforestation increases the drying effect of dead trees that fuels forest fires.[16] Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... The Woods Hole Research Center was established in 1985 in the village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts by Dr. George M. Woodwell. ... The National Institute of Amazonian Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia or INPA) is a public educational and research Institution in Manaus, Brazil. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... The phrase tipping point or angle of repose is a sociology term that refers to that dramatic moment when something unique becomes common. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Savannah redirects here. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Paradoxically, some proposed short-term solutions to global warming also carry with them increased chances of drought.[17] Solar shades are a somewhat more radical approach to the mitigation of global warming through planetary engineering. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. ...


Causes

Dry earth in the Sonora desert, Mexico.
Dry earth in the Sonora desert, Mexico.

Generally, rainfall is related to the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere, combined with the upward forcing of the air mass containing that water vapour. If either of these are reduced,the result is a drought. Factors include:

A pressure system is a region of the Earths atmosphere where air pressure is unusually high or low. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña are major temperature fluctuations in the tropical Pacific Ocean. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...

Consequences

Periods of drought can have significant environmental, economic and social consequences. The most common consequences include:

The effect varies according to vulnerability. For example, subsistence farmers are more likely to migrate during drought because they do not have alternative food sources. Areas with populations that depend on subsistence farming as a major food source are more vulnerable to drought-triggered famine. Drought is rarely if ever the sole cause of famine; socio-political factors such as extreme widespread poverty play a major role. Drought can also reduce water quality, because lower water flows reduce dilution of pollutants and increase contamination of remaining water sources. Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... In agriculture, crop yield (also known as agricultural output) is a measure of the yield per unit area of land under cultivation. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Backburning in Townsville, Australia. ... Satellite photo of a Saharan dust cloud (2000) over the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Unrest is an indie rock band from the Washington DC area. ... Mass migration refers to the movement of a large group of people from one geographical area to another, as distinguished from individual, smaller scale or seasonal migrations that occur all the time. ... Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution, war or natural disaster, but has not crossed an international border. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Families Acrochordidae Aniliidae Anomalepididae Anomochilidae Atractaspididae Boidae Bolyeriidae Colubridae Cylindrophiidae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Leptotyphlopidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Typhlopidae Uropeltidae Viperidae Xenopeltidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... The Lachine Canal, in Montreal, is badly polluted Pollution is the release of harmful environmental contaminants, or the substances so released. ...


Stages of drought

Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea.
Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea.

As a drought persists, the conditions surrounding it gradually worsen and its impact on the local population gradually increases. Droughts go through three stages before their ultimate cessation [27]: ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 569 KB) Summary Abandoned ship on the bed of the Aral Sea. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 569 KB) Summary Abandoned ship on the bed of the Aral Sea. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ...

  1. Meteorological drought is brought about when there is a prolonged period with less than average precipitation. Meteorological drought usually precedes the other kinds of drought.
  2. Agricultural droughts are droughts that affect crop production or the ecology of the range. This condition can also arise independently from any change in precipitation levels when soil conditions and erosion triggered by poorly planned agricultural endeavors cause a shortfall in water available to the crops. However, in a traditional drought, it is caused by an extended period of below average precipitation.
  3. Hydrological drought is brought about when the water reserves available in sources such as aquifers, lakes and reservoirs falls below the statistical average. Like an agricultural drought, this can be triggered by more than just a loss of rainfall. For instance, Kazakhstan was recently awarded a large amount of money by the World Bank to restore water that had been diverted to other nations from the Aral Sea under Soviet rule [28]. Similar circumstances also place their largest lake, Balkhash, at risk of completely drying out. [29]

// Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... In biology, the range of an species is the geographical area within which that species can be found. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Look up Reserve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... ... For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Averages redirects here. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Categories: Lakes of Kazakhstan | Rift lakes | Stub ...

Drought mitigation strategies

  • Desalination of sea water for irrigation or consumption.
  • Drought monitoring - Continuous observation of rainfall levels and comparisons with current usage levels can help prevent man-made drought. For instance, analysis of water usage in Yemen has revealed that their water table (underground water level) is put at grave risk by over-use to fertilize their Khat crop. [30] Careful monitoring of moisture levels can also help predict increased risk for wildfires, using such metrics as the Keetch-Byram Drought Index [31] or Palmer Drought Index.
  • Land use - Carefully planned crop rotation can help to minimize erosion and allow farmers to plant less water-dependent crops in drier years.
  • Rainwater harvesting - Collection and storage of rainwater from roofs or other suitable catchments.
  • Recycled water - Former wastewater (sewage) that has been treated and purified for reuse.
  • Transvasement - Building canals or redirecting rivers as massive attempts at irrigation in drought-prone areas.
  • Water restrictions - Water use may be regulated (particularly outdoors). This may involve regulating the use of sprinklers, hoses or buckets on outdoor plants, the washing of motor vehicles or other outdoor hard surfaces (including roofs and paths), topping up of swimming pools, and also the fitting of water conservation devices inside the home (including shower heads, taps and dual flush toilets).
  • Cloud seeding - an artificial technique to induce rainfall. [32]

Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ... Binomial name (Vahl) Forssk. ... The Keetch-Byram Drought Index, created by John Keetch and George Byram in 1968 for the United States Department of Agricultures Forest Service, outlines mathematical models for predicting the likelihood of wildfire based on soil moisture and other conditions related to drought. ... The Palmer Drought Index, sometimes called the Palmer Drought Severity Index, is an often-used measurement of dryness based on recent precipitation and temperature. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... View of a Johad at village Thathawata View of a stepwell at Fatehpur, Shekhawati. ... Recycled water is wastewater that has been recovered for potable or nonpotable use, such as reclaimed water. ... A transvasement is an artificial passing of water from one river basin to another one, to solve problems of hydrographic imbalance. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... An outdoor water-use restriction is a ban or other lesser restrictions put into effect that restricts the outdoor use of water supplies. ... Cessna 210 with cloud seeding equipment Cloud seeding, a form of weather modification, is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. ...

See also

Look up Drought in
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Drought
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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Drought in Australia is defined as rainfall over a three month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past. ... Remember about Those Who Starve! A Soviet poster from 1921. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ...

References

  1. ^ Living With Drought
  2. ^ Australian Drought and Climate Change, retrieved on June 7th 2007.
  3. ^ 2008: The year of global food crisis
  4. ^ Disappearing Lakes, Shrinking Seas
  5. ^ Shrinking African Lake Offers Lesson on Finite Resources
  6. ^ Looking to water to find peace in Darfur
  7. ^ Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers Threaten a Billion
  8. ^ Big melt threatens millions, says UN
  9. ^ Ganges, Indus may not survive: climatologists
  10. ^ Glaciers melting at alarming speed
  11. ^ Himalaya glaciers melt unnoticed
  12. ^ Environmental News Service - Amazon Drought Worst in 100 Years
  13. ^ Drought Threatens Amazon Basin - Extreme conditions felt for second year running
  14. ^ Amazon rainforest 'could become a desert' , The Independent, July 23, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  15. ^ Dying Forest: One year to save the Amazon, The Independent, July 23, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  16. ^ Climate change a threat to Amazon rainforest, warns WWF, World Wide Fund for Nature, March 22, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  17. ^ Sunshade' for global warming could cause drought.
  18. ^ NOAA DROUGHT AND CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WEST Dec 2002
  19. ^ Record rise in wheat price prompts UN official to warn that surge in food prices may trigger social unrest in developing countries
  20. ^ Fuel costs, drought influence price increase
  21. ^ http://usinfo.state.gov/af/Archive/2005/Oct/26-779234.html Nigerian Scholar Links Drought, Climate Change to Conflict Africa Oct, 2005
  22. ^ http://txforestservice.tamu.edu/shared/article.asp?DocumentID=406&mc=fire Texas Forest Service description of the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) from 12/27/2002
  23. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/03/06/MNGE2BL7161.DTL Parched village sues to shut tap at Coke March 6, 2005
  24. ^ http://www.greenpeace.org/international/news/sweden-nuclear-closure-040806 Greenpeace reports on a Swedish drought and its potential impact on their nuclear power industry. 04 August 2006
  25. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6282075.stm Australians Face Snake Invasion.
  26. ^ http://scriptures.lds.org/en/ether/9 Ancient peoples of the Americas describe increase in snake encounters due to drought in the Mormon book of Scripture called The Book of Mormon
  27. ^ http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/climate/Drought.pdf NOAA factsheet, retrieved April 100th 2007
  28. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6538219.stm BBC article on the World Bank loan to save the Aral Sea
  29. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3397077.stm BBC article from 2004 concerning the risk of Kazakhstan losing the lake
  30. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/6530453.stm BBC's From Our Own Correspondent on khat water usage
  31. ^ http://txforestservice.tamu.edu/shared/article.asp?DocumentID=406&mc=fire Texas Forest Service description of the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) from 12/27/2002
  32. ^ Cloud seeding helps alleviate drought

For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... From Our Own Correspondent is a programme on BBC Radio 4 in which BBC correspondents broadcast monologues on topical current events from countries outside the UK. External links From Our Own Correspondent website Categories: BBC stubs | Radio programme stubs ...

External links

  • National Integrated Drought Information System
  • Social & Economic Costs of Drought from "NOAA Socioeconomics" website initiative
Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans through various spans of time. ... Instrumental global surface temperature measurements; see also [http://www. ... Comparison of ground based (blue) and satellite based (red: UAH; green: RSS) records of temperature variations since 1979. ... The temperature record of the past 1000 years describes the reconstruction of temperature for the last 1000 years on the Northern Hemisphere. ... The website of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration contains detailed data of the annual land and ocean temperature since 1880. ... This article is devoted to temperature changes in Earths environment as determined from geologic evidence on multi-million to billion (109) year time scales. ... National and international science academies and professional societies have assessed the current scientific opinion on climate change, in particular recent global warming. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In common with many other forms of transport, aircraft engines emit polluting gases, contribute to global warming, and cause noise pollution. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... In IPCC reports, equilibrium climate sensitivity refers to the equilibrium change in global mean surface temperature following a doubling of the atmospheric (equivalent) CO2 concentration. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ... Wikinews has related news: Scientists warn thawing Siberia may trigger global meltdown A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The Keeling Curve is a graph measuring the increase in the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since 1958. ... Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) is a term often used in climate change topics. ... Tokyo, a case of Urban Heat Island. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... Cloud forcing (sometimes described as cloud radiative forcing) is the difference between the radiation budget components for average cloud conditions and cloud-free conditions. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Global cooling in general can refer to a cooling of the Earth. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Milankovitch cycles are the collective effect of changes in the Earths movements upon its climate, named after Serbian civil engineer and mathematician Milutin Milanković. The eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earths orbit vary in several patterns, resulting in 100,000 year ice age cycles of the... Orbital forcing, or Milankovitch theory, describes the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earths axis and shape of the orbit. ... The generalised concept of radiative forcing in climate science is any change in the radiation (heat) entering the climate system or changes in radiatively active gases. ... 400 year history of sunspot numbers. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. ... General Circulation Models (GCMs) are a class of computer-driven models for weather forecasting and predicting climate change, where they are commonly called Global Climate Models. ... The politics of global warming looks at the current political issues relating to global warming, as well as the historical rise of global warming as a political issue. ... UNFCCC logo. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... The global warming controversy is a dispute regarding the nature and consequences of global warming. ... This article lists scientists and former scientists who have stated disagreement with one or more of the principal conclusions of the mainstream scientific assessment of global warming. ... This page is non-encyclopedic and represents the editorial views of notably biased publications, such as Newsweek and Mother Jones. ... Graphical description of risks and impacts from global warming from the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... As recent estimates of the rate of global warming have increased, so have the financial estimates of the damage costs. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... A view down the Whitechuck Glacier in North Cascades National Park in 1973 The same view as seen in 2006, where this branch of glacier retreated 1. ... The extinction risk of climate change -- that is, the expected number of species expected to become extinct due to the effects of global warming -- has been estimated in a 2004 Nature study to be between 15 and 37 percent of known species by 2050. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Sea level measurements from 23 long tide gauge records in geologically stable environments show a rise of around 20 centimeters per century (2 mm/year). ... Shutdown or slowdown of the thermohaline circulation is a possible effect of global warming. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. ... Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... CDM directs here. ... Joint implementation (JI) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialised countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment (so-called Annex 1 countries) to invest in emission reducing projects in another industrialised country as an alternative to emission reductions in their own countries. ... The European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) was launched in June 2000 by the European Unions European Commission. ... The United Kingdoms Climate Change Programme was launched in November 2000 by the British government in response to its commitment agreed at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). ... Crude oil prices, 1994-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) In 2005 the government of Sweden announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on petroleum, natural gas and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020. ... Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ... Emissions trading schemes (also known as ‘cap and trade’ schemes) are one of the policy instruments available for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases. ... A carbon tax is a tax on energy sources which emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ... Until recently, most carbon offsets were commonly done by planting trees. ... This article deals with carbon credits for international trading. ... A carbon dioxide (CO2) sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon dioxide source. The main natural sinks are (1) the oceans and (2) plants and other organisms that use photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere by incorporating it into... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Renewable energy commercialization involves three generations of technologies dating back more than 100 years. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... The soft energy path is an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists, such as Amory Lovins and Tom Bender; in Canada, David Suzuki has been a very prominent (if less specialized) proponent. ... The G8 Climate Change Roundtable was formed in January 2005 at the World Economic Forum in Davos. ... The issue of human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change (global warming) is becoming a central focus of the Green movement. ... Adaptation to global warming covers all actions aimed at reducing the negative effects of global warming. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... The Seven Rila Lakes in Rila, Bulgaria are typical representatives of lakes with glacial origin A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... A rainwater tank is a water tank which is used to collect and store rainwater runoff, typically from rooftops. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases was a 2005 international conference that redefined the link between atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, and the 2°C (3. ... LADSS or Land Allocation Decision Support System, is an agricultural land use planning tool being developed at The Macaulay Institute. ... This article serves as a glossary of the most common terms and how they are used. ...

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US Drought Monitor (1100 words)
The drought indicators that are synthesized into the Drought Monitor map are on this website, under Forecasts and Current Conditions.
In contrast, drought classifications persisted or worsened farther to the south and east, with D0 conditions encompassing the Twin Cities area, and conditions on the Keweenaw Peninsula in northwestern Michigan deteriorated to D2.
In Alabama, 68 percent of the cotton crop, 48 percent of peanuts, and 78 percent of pastures are in poor or very poor condition, as are 60 percent of Florida peanuts and 35 percent of Georgia cotton.
Drought - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (952 words)
Physiological drought is a condition afflicting plants that have been exposed to too much salt, preventing them from absorbing water from soil.
Decision makers at all levels need to decide ahead of time on an operational definition of drought that is relevant for their circumstances, and what actions they will take when they are in a drought.
These droughts spurred the migration of much of the population to locations such as New England, to participate in the whaling industry.
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