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Encyclopedia > Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Male Drosophila melanogaster
Male Drosophila melanogaster
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Drosophilidae
Subfamily: Drosophilinae
Genus: Drosophila
Subgenus: Sophophora
Species group: melanogaster group
Species subgroup: melanogaster subgroup
Species complex: melanogaster complex
Species: D. melanogaster
Binomial name
Drosophila melanogaster
Meigen, 1830[1]

Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. The species is commonly known as the common fruit fly, and is one of the most commonly used model organisms in biology, including studies in genetics, physiology and life history evolution. Flies belonging to the Tephritidae are also called fruit flies, which can lead to confusion, especially in Australia where the term fruit fly is used to refer to the Tephritidae, an economic pest in fruit production. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Drosophila melanogaster ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Subfamily Drosophilinae Steganinae Wikispecies has information related to: Drosophilidae Drosophilidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, including the genus Drosophila, which includes fruit flies, vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies. ... Genera Chymomyza Drosophila Hirtodrosophila Mycodrosophila Scaptodrosophila Scaptomyza Zaprionus Many more genera Largest subfamily in the Drosophilidae, other subfamily is the Steganinae. ... Type species Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger... The subgenus Sophophora of the genus Drosophila was first described by Alfred Sturtevant in 1939. ... The Drosophila melanogaster species group belongs to the subgenus Sophophora and contains 12 subgroups. ... The Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup contains 9 species, including the best known species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation). ... Subfamily Drosophilinae Steganinae Wikispecies has information related to: Drosophilidae Drosophilidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, including the genus Drosophila, which includes fruit flies, vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Life history theory is a method of analysis in animal and human biology, psychology, and especially evolutionary sociobiology which postulates that many of the physiological traits and behaviors of individuals may be best understood in relation to the key maturational and reproductive characteristics that define the life course. ... Diversity 500 genera, about 5,000 species Genera Bactrocera Ceratitis Paracantha Rhagoletis Tephritis Urophora Euaresta hundreds more Tephritidae is one of two fly families referred to as fruit flies. ... Diversity 500 genera, about 5,000 species Genera Bactrocera Ceratitis Paracantha Rhagoletis Tephritis Urophora Euaresta hundreds more Tephritidae is one of two fly families referred to as fruit flies. ...

Contents

Physical appearance

Male (left) and female D. melanogaster
Male (left) and female D. melanogaster

Wildtype fruit flies have brick red eyes, are yellow-brown in colour, and have transverse black rings across their abdomen. They exhibit sexual dimorphism: females are about 2.5 millimetres (0.1 inches) long; males are slightly smaller and the back of their bodies are darker. Males are easily distinguished from females based on colour differences (males have a distinct black patch at the abdomen, less noticeable in recently emerged flies (see fig)) and the sexcombs (a row of dark bristles on the tarsus of the first leg). Furthermore, males have a cluster of spiky hairs (claspers) surrounding the reproducing parts used to attach to the female during mating. There are extensive images at Fly Base. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In biology, a wild type is one of the major genotypes of a species that occur in nature, in contrast to induced mutations or artificial cross-breeding. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ...


Life cycle

Egg of D. melanogaster
Egg of D. melanogaster

The D. melanogaster lifespan is about 30 days at 29 °C (84 °F). Drosophila melanogaster egg. ...


The developmental period for Drosophila melanogaster varies with temperature, as with many ectothermic species. The shortest development time (egg to adult), 7 days, is achieved at 28 °C (82 °F).[2][3] Development times increase at higher temperatures (30 °C (86 °F), 11 days) due to heat stress. Under ideal conditions, the development time at 25 °C (77 °F) is 8.5 days,[4][2][3] at 18 °C (64 °F) it takes 19 days[2][3] and at 12 °C (54 °F) it takes over 50 days.[2][3] Under crowded conditions, development time increases,[5] while the emerging flies are smaller[5][6]. Females lay some 400 eggs (embryos), about five at a time, into rotting fruit or other suitable material such as decaying mushrooms and sap fluxes. The eggs, which are about 0.5 millimetres long, hatch after 12–15 h (at 25 °C (77 °F)).[2][3] The resulting larvae grow for about 4 days (at 25 °C) while molting twice (into 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae), at about 24 and 48 h after eclosion.[2][3] During this time, they feed on the microorganisms that decompose the fruit, as well as on the sugar of the fruit itself. Then the larvae encapsulate in the puparium and undergo a four-day-long metamorphosis (at 25 °C), after which the adults eclose (emerge).[2][3] Cold-blooded organisms, more technically known as poikilothermic, are animals that have no internal metabolic mechanism for regulating their body temperatures. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... A Pieris rapae larva An older Pieris rapae larva A Pieris rapae pupa A Pieris rapae adult Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. ...

Mating fruit flies. Note sexcombs male insert
Mating fruit flies. Note sexcombs male insert

Females become receptive to courting males at about 8-12 hours after emergence.[7] Males perform a sequence of five behavioral patterns to court females. First, males orient themselves while playing a courtship song by horizontally extending and vibrating their wings. Soon after, the male positions itself at the rear of the female's abdomen in a low posture to tap and lick the female genitalia. Finally, the male curls its abdomen, and attempts copulation. Females can reject males by moving away and extruding their ovipositor. The average duration of successful copulation is 30 minutes, during which males transfer a few hundred very long (1.76mm) sperm cells in seminal fluid to the female.[8] Females store the sperm, which may need to compete with other males' stored sperm to fertilize eggs.


Model organism in genetics

D. melanogaster types (clockwise): brown eyes with black body, cinnabar eyes, sepia eyes with ebony body, vermilion eyes, white eyes, and wild-type eyes with yellow body.
D. melanogaster types (clockwise): brown eyes with black body, cinnabar eyes, sepia eyes with ebony body, vermilion eyes, white eyes, and wild-type eyes with yellow body.
Drosophila melanogaster mutation: yellow cross-veinless forked fruit fly.
Drosophila melanogaster mutation: yellow cross-veinless forked fruit fly.
A wild fruit fly (left) has antennae, while a fly with the antennapedia mutation (right) has an extra set of feet in the place of antennae.
A wild fruit fly (left) has antennae, while a fly with the antennapedia mutation (right) has an extra set of feet in the place of antennae.

Drosophila melanogaster is the most studied organism in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology. There are several reasons: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (799x999, 237 KB) Eye colors (clockwise): brown, cinnabar, sepia, vermilion, white, wild. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (799x999, 237 KB) Eye colors (clockwise): brown, cinnabar, sepia, vermilion, white, wild. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (549x828, 227 KB) A yellow crossveinless forked fruit fly. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (549x828, 227 KB) A yellow crossveinless forked fruit fly. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (757x992, 318 KB) A wild fruit fly compared with a fruit fly with the antennapedia mutation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (757x992, 318 KB) A wild fruit fly compared with a fruit fly with the antennapedia mutation. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ...

  • It is small and easy to grow in the laboratory.
  • It has a short generation time (about two weeks) and high fecundity (females can lay >800 eggs in life time i.e. one egg per 30 min with enough food).
  • The mature larvae show giant chromosomes in the salivary glands called polytene chromosomes—"puffs" indicate regions of transcription and hence gene activity.
  • It has only four pairs of chromosomes: three autosomes, and one sex chromosome.
  • Males do not show meiotic recombination, facilitating genetic studies.
  • Genetic transformation techniques have been available since 1987.
  • Its compact genome was sequenced and first published in 2000.[9]

Charles W. Woodworth is credited with being the first to breed Drosophila in quantity and for suggesting to W. E. Castle that they might be used for genetic research during his time at Harvard University. Beginning in 1910, fruit flies helped Thomas Hunt Morgan accomplish his studies on heredity. "Thomas Hunt Morgan and colleagues extended Mendel's work by describing X-linked inheritance and by showing that genes located on the same chromosome do not show independent assortment. Studies of X-linked traits helped confirm that genes are found on chromosomes, while studies of linked traits led to the first maps showing the locations of genetic loci on chromosomes" (Freman 214). The first maps of Drosophila chromosomes were completed by Alfred Sturtevant. Fecundity is the potential reproductive capacity of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (e. ... Polytene chromosomes in a Chironimus salivary gland cell Polytene chromosome To increase cell volume, some specialised cells undergo repeated rounds of DNA replication without cell division (endomitosis), forming a giant polytene chromosome. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... Drosophila sex-chromosomes The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila) and some plants (Ginkgo). ... Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of the genetic material (usually DNA; but can also be RNA) is broken and then joined to the end of a different DNA molecule. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... Charles W. Woodworth (1865–1940) was the founder of the Entomology Department at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Professor William Ernest Castle ( October 25, 1867 — June 3, 1962) was an early American geneticist Biography Castle was born on a farm in Ohio and took an early interest in natural history. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American geneticist and embryologist. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... Alfred Henry Sturtevant (November 21, 1891–April 5, 1970) was an American geneticist, Sturtevant constructed the first genetic map of a chromosome in 1913. ...


Genome

The genome of D. melanogaster (sequenced in 2000, and curated at the FlyBase database[9]) contains four pairs of chromosomes: an X/Y pair, and three autosomes labeled 2, 3, and 4. The fourth chromosome is so tiny that it is often ignored, aside from its important eyeless gene. Its sequenced genome of 120 million base pairs has been annotated[9] and contains approximately 13,767 protein-coding genes which comprise ~20% of the genome. More than 60% of the genome appears to be functional non-protein-coding DNA[10] involved in gene expression control. Determination of sex in Drosophila occurs by the ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes, not because of the presence of a Y chromosome as in human sex determination. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... FlyBase is an online bioinformatics database of the biology and genome of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and related Drosophilid dipterans. ...


Drosophila genes are traditionally named after the phenotype they cause when mutated. For example, the absence of a particular gene in Drosophila will result in a mutant embryo that does not develop a heart. Scientists have thus called this gene tinman, named after the Oz character of the same name (Cf. Azpiazu & Frasch (1993) Genes and Development: 7: 1325-1340.). This system of nomenclature results is a wider range of gene names than in other organisms. Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) is a childrens book written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... The Tin Woodman (also known as The Tin Man or The Tin Woodsman (the latter appearing only in adaptations)) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ...


Similarity to humans

About 75% of known human disease genes have a recognizable match in the genetic code of fruit flies (Reiter et al (2001) Genome Research: 11(6):1114-25), and 50% of fly protein sequences have mammalian analogues. An online database called Homophila [1] is available to search for human disease gene homologues in flies and vice versa. Drosophila is being used as a genetic model for several human diseases including the neurodegenerative disorders Parkinson's, Huntington's, spinocerebellar ataxia and Alzheimer's disease. The fly is also being used to study mechanisms underlying aging and oxidative stress, immunity, diabetes, and cancer, as well as drug abuse. Parkinsons disease (PD; paralysis agitans) is a neurodegenerative disease of the substantia nigra (an area in the basal ganglia of the brain). ... Huntingtons disease or Huntingtons chorea (HD) is an inherited disorder characterized by abnormal body movements called chorea, and loss of memory. ... Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a genetic disease with multiple types, each of which could be considered a disease in its own right. ... Alzheimers disease (AD) or senile dementia of Alzheimers type is a neurodegenerative disease which results in a loss of mental functions due to the deterioration of brain tissue. ... Free-radical theory. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ...


Development

Embryogenesis in Drosophila has been extensively studied, as its small size, short generation time, and large brood size makes it ideal for genetic studies. It is also unique among model organisms in that cleavage occurs in a syncytium. Drosophila has long been a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embroygenesis. ... Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ... In biology, a syncytium is a large region of cytoplasm that contains many nuclei. ...

Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis
Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis

During oogenesis, cytoplasmic bridges called "ring canals" connect the forming oocyte to nurse cells. Nutrients and developmental control molecules move from the nurse cells into the oocyte. In the figure to the left, the forming oocyte can be seen to be covered by follicular support cells. Image of oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster Source: my personal image. ... Image of oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster Source: my personal image. ... Oogenesis or rarely oögenesis is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). ...


After fertilization of the oocyte the early embryo or (syncytial embryo) undergoes rapid DNA replication and 13 nuclear divisions until approximately 5000 to 6000 nuclei accumulate in the unseparated cytoplasm of the embryo. By the end of the 8th division most nuclei have migrated to the surface, surrounding the yolk sac (leaving behind only a few nuclei, which will become the yolk nuclei). After the 10th division the pole cells form at the posterior end of the embryo, segregating the germ line from the syncytium. Finally, after the 13th division cell membranes slowly invaginate, dividing the syncytium into individual somatic cells. Once this process is completed gastrulation starts. In biology, a syncytium is a large region of cytoplasm that contains many nuclei. ...


Nuclear division in the early Drosophila embryo happens so quickly there are no proper checkpoints so mistakes may be made in division of the DNA. To get around this problem the nuclei which have made a mistake detach from their centrosomes and fall into the centre of the embryo (yolk sac) which will not form part of the fly. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In cell biology, the centrosome is the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression. ...


The gene network (transcriptional and protein interactions) governing the early development of the fruitfly embryo is one of the best understood gene networks to date, especially the patterning along the antero-posterior (AP) and dorso-ventral (DV) axes (See under morphogenesis). Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation) is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation. ...


The embryo undergoes well-characterized morphogenetic movements during gastrulation and early development, including germ-band extension, formation of several furrows, ventral invagination of the mesoderm, posterior and anterior invagination of endoderm (gut), as well as extensive body segmentation [11] until finally hatching from the surrounding cuticle into a 1st-instar larva.


During larval development, tissues known as imaginal discs grow inside the larva. Imaginal discs develop to form most structures of the adult body, such as the head, legs, wings, thorax and genetalia. Cells of the imaginal disks are set aside during embryogenesis and continue to grow and divide during the larval stages - unlike most other cells of the larva which have differentiated to perform specialized functions and grow without further cell division. At metamorphosis, the larva forms a pupa, inside which the larval tissues are reabsorbed and the imaginal tissues undergo extensive morphogenetic movements to form adult structures. An imaginal disc is one of the parts of a holometabolous insect larva that will become a portion of the outside of the adult insect during the pupal transformation. ... An imaginal disc is one of the parts of a holometabolous insect larva that will become a portion of the outside of the adult insect during the pupal transformation. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ...


Behavioral genetics and neuroscience

In 1971, Ron Konopka and Seymour Benzer published "Clock mutants of Drosophila melanogaster", a paper describing the first mutations that affected an animal's behavior. Wild-type flies show an activity rhythm with a frequency of about a day (24 hours). They found mutants with faster and slower rhythms as well as broken rhythms - flies that move and rest in random spurts. Work over the following 30 years has shown that these mutations (and others like them) affect a group of genes and their products that comprise a biochemical or biological clock. This clock is found in a wide range of fly cells, but the clock-bearing cells that control activity are several dozen neurons in the fly's central brain. Seymour Benzer (October 15, 1921-November 30, 2007) was an accomplished American physicist, molecular biologist and behavioral geneticist. ... A biological clock enables an organism to anticipate periodical changes in their environment. ...


Since then, Benzer and others have used behavioral screens to isolate genes involved in vision, olfaction, audition, learning/memory, courtship, pain and other processes, such as longevity.


The first learning and memory mutants (dunce, rutabaga etc) were isolated by William "Chip" Quinn while in Benzer's lab, and were eventually shown to encode components of an intracellular signaling pathway involving cyclic AMP, protein kinase A and a transcription factor known as CREB. These molecules were shown to be also involved in synaptic plasticity in Aplysia and mammals.


Male flies sing to the females during courtship using their wing to generate sound, and some of the genetics of sexual behavior have been characterized. In particular, the fruitless gene has several different splice forms, and male flies expressing female splice forms have female-like behavior and vice-versa. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Furthermore, Drosophila has been used in neuropharmacological research, including studies of cocaine and alcohol consumption.


Vision

Stereo images of the fly eye
Stereo images of the fly eye

The compound eye of the fruit fly contains 760 unit eyes or ommatidia, and are one of the most advanced among insects. Each ommatidium contains 8 photoreceptor cells (R1-8), support cells, pigment cells, and a cornea. Wild-type flies have reddish pigment cells, which serve to absorb excess blue light so the fly isn't blinded by ambient light. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Stereo images of the hexagonal array of ommatidia in the compund eye of Drosophila. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ... The compound eye of insects is composed of hundreds of unit eyes called ommatidia. ...


Each photoreceptor cell consists of two main sections, the cell body and the rhabdomere. The cell body contains the nucleus while the 100-μm-long rhabdomere is made up of toothbrush-like stacks of membrane called microvilli. Each microvillus is 1–2 μm in length and ~60 nm in diameter.[12] The membrane of the rhabdomere is packed with about 100 million rhodopsin molecules, the visual protein that absorbs light. The rest of the visual proteins are also tightly packed into the microvillar space, leaving little room for cytoplasm. HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Categories: Stub ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrÏŒ, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... A rhodopsin molecule (yellow) with bound retinal (orange), embedded in a cell membrane (lipids shown as green, head groups as red/blue). ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ...


The photoreceptors in Drosophila express a variety of rhodopsin isoforms. The R1-R6 photoreceptor cells express Rhodopsin1 (Rh1) which absorbs blue light (480 nm). The R7 and R8 cells express a combination of either Rh3 or Rh4 which absorb UV light (345 nm and 375 nm), and Rh5 or Rh6 which absorb blue (437 nm) and green (508 nm) light respectively. Each rhodopsin molecule consists of an opsin protein covalently linked to a carotenoid chromophore, 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal. [13] A rhodopsin molecule (yellow) with bound retinal (orange), embedded in a cell membrane (lipids shown as green, head groups as red/blue). ... In biology, a protein isoform is a version of a protein with some small differences, usually a splice variant or the product of some posttranslational modification. ... A rhodopsin molecule (yellow) with bound retinal (orange), embedded in a cell membrane (lipids shown as green, head groups as red/blue). ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ...

Expression of Rhodopsin1 (Rh1) in photoreceptors R1-R6
Expression of Rhodopsin1 (Rh1) in photoreceptors R1-R6

As in vertebrate vision, visual transduction in invertebrates occurs via a G protein-coupled pathway. However, in vertebrates the G protein is transducin, while the G protein in invertebrates is Gq (dgq in Drosophila). When rhodopsin (Rh) absorbs a photon of light its chromophore, 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal, is isomerized to all-trans-3-hydroxyretinal. Rh undergoes a conformational change into its active form, metarhodopsin. Metarhodopsin activates Gq, which in turn activates a phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) known as NorpA. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... G-proteins, short for guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. ... G-proteins, short for guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. ... A rhodopsin molecule (yellow) with bound retinal (orange), embedded in a cell membrane (lipids shown as green, head groups as red/blue). ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... A phospholipase is an enzyme that converts phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances. ...


PLCβ hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2), a phospholipid found in the cell membrane, into soluble inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylgycerol (DAG), which stays in the cell membrane. DAG or a derivative of DAG causes a calcium selective ion channel known as TRP (transient receptor potential) to open and calcium and sodium flows into the cell. IP3 is thought to bind to IP3 receptors in the subrhabdomeric cisternae, an extension of the endoplasmic reticulum, and cause release of calcium, but this process doesn't seem to be essential for normal vision. [14] Chemical structure of sn-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) is a minor phospholipid component of cell membranes. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Inositol triphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or IP3), together with diacylglycerol, is a second messenger molecule used in signal transduction in biological cells. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... There is a real need to make clear to what transient refers in a transient receptor potential, and the advice of the wider community is solicited to fill this need. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as Ca2+ channel activated by inositol triphosphate (IP3). ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...


Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins interact with other proteins and have been shown to be necessary for shut off of the light response. In addition, proteins called arrestins bind metarhodopsin and prevent it from activating more Gq. For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... oommen sir is a fool. ... In biochemistry, a kinase is a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific target molecules (substrates); the process is termed phosphorylation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


A sodium/calcium exchanger known as CalX pumps the calcium out of the cell. It uses the inward sodium gradient to export calcium at a stoichiometry of 3 Na+/ 1 Ca++.[15] For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ...


TRP, InaC, and PLC form a signaling complex by binding a scaffolding protein called InaD. InaD contains five binding domains called PDZ domain proteins which specifically bind the C termini of target proteins. Disruption of the complex by mutations in either the PDZ domains or the target proteins reduces the efficiency of signaling. For example, disruption of the interaction between InaC, the protein kinase C, and InaD results in a delay in inactivation of the light response. Molecular structure of the PDZ domain included in the human GOPC (Golgi-associated PDZ and coiled-coil motif-containing protein) protein. ...


Unlike vertebrate metarhodopsin, invertebrate metarhodopsin can be converted back into rhodopsin by absorbing a photon of orange light (580 nm). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... A rhodopsin molecule (yellow) with bound retinal (orange), embedded in a cell membrane (lipids shown as green, head groups as red/blue). ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ...


Approximately two-thirds of the Drosophila brain (about 200,000 neurons total) is dedicated to visual processing. Although the spatial resolution of their vision is significantly worse than that of humans, their temporal resolution is approximately ten times better. Resolving power is the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Flight

The wings of a fly are capable of beating at up to 220 times per second. Flies fly via straight sequences of movement interspersed by rapid turns called saccades. During these turns, a fly is able to rotate 90 degrees in fewer than 50 milliseconds. A saccade is a fast movement of an eye, head, or other part of an animals body or of a device. ...


It was long thought that the characteristics of Drosophila flight were dominated by the viscosity of the air, rather than the inertia of the fly body. However, research in the lab of Michael Dickinson has indicated that flies perform banked turns, where the fly accelerates, slows down while turning, and accelerates again at the end of the turn. This indicates that inertia is the dominant force, as is the case with larger flying animals.[16] For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ...


See also

  • Animal testing on invertebrates

Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used for animal experimentation. ...

References

  1. ^ Meigen JW (1830). Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. (Volume 6) (in German). Schulz-Wundermann. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ashburner M, Thompson JN (1978). The laboratory culture of Drosophila. In: The genetics and biology of Drosophila. (Ashburner M, Wright TRF (eds.)). Academic Press, volume 2A: pp. 1–81. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Ashburner M, Golic KG, Hawley RS (2005). Drosophila: A Laboratory Handbook., 2nd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, pp. 162–4. ISBN 0879697067. 
  4. ^ Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center at Indiana University: Basic Methods of Culturing Drosophila
  5. ^ a b Chiang HC, Hodson AC (1950). "An analytical study of population growth in Drosophila melanogaster.". Ecological Monographs 20: 173–206. 
  6. ^ Bakker K (1961). "An analysis of factors which determine success in competition for food among larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.". Archives Neerlandaises de Zoologie 14: 200–81. 
  7. ^ Pitnick S (1996). "Investment in testes and the cost of making long sperm in Drosophila.". American Naturalist 148: 57–80. 
  8. ^ http://8e.devbio.com/article.php?ch=9&id=87
  9. ^ a b c Adams MD, Celniker SE, Holt RA, et al (2000). "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster". Science 287 (5461): 2185–95. doi:10.1126/science.287.5461.2185. PMID 10731132. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  10. ^ Halligan DL, Keightley PD (2006). "Ubiquitous selective constraints in the Drosophila genome revealed by a genome-wide interspecies comparison". Genome Res. 16 (7): 875–84. doi:10.1101/gr.5022906. PMID 16751341. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  11. ^ FlyMove website
  12. ^ Hardie RC, Raghu P (2001). "Visual transduction in Drosophila". Nature 413 (6852): 186–93. doi:10.1038/35093002. PMID 11557987. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  13. ^ Nichols R, Pak WL (1985). "Characterization of Drosophila melanogaster rhodopsin". J. Biol. Chem. 260 (23): 12670–4. PMID 3930500. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  14. ^ Raghu P, Colley NJ, Webel R, et al (2000). "Normal phototransduction in Drosophila photoreceptors lacking an InsP(3) receptor gene". Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 15 (5): 429–45. doi:10.1006/mcne.2000.0846. PMID 10833300. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  15. ^ Wang T,Xu H,Oberwinkler J,GU Y, Hardie R, Montell C, et al (2005). "Light activation, adaptation, and cell survival Functions of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger CalX". Neuron 45 (3): 367-378. PMID 15694299. 
  16. ^ Caltech Press Release 4/17/2003

Michael Ashburner (born May 23, 1942, Sussex, England) is a professor ofgenetics in the University of Cambridge and is the former head of the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). ... Type species Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger... Michael Ashburner (born May 23, 1942, Sussex, England) is a professor ofgenetics in the University of Cambridge and is the former head of the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). ... Indiana University is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... American Naturalist is a monthly scientific journal, founded in 1867, and associated with the University of Chicago. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • K. Haug-Collet, et al. (1999). Cloning and characterization of a potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger in Drosophila. J. Cell Biol. 147 (3): 659–70. PMID 10545508. 
  • P. Raghu, et al. (2000). Normal Phototransduction in Drosophila Photoreceptors Lacking an InsP3 Receptor Gene. Molec. & Cell. Neurosci. 15 (5): 429–45. PMID 10833300. 
  • R. Ranganathan, et al. (1995). Signal transduction in Drosophila photoreceptors. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 18: 283–317. PMID 7605064. 
  • S. Fry and M. Dickinson (2003). The aerodynamics of free-flight maneuvers in Drosophila. Science 300 (5618): 495–8. PMID 12702878 doi:10.1126/science.1081944. 
  • Adams MD, et al. (2000). The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. Science 287 (5461): 2185–95. PMID 10731132 doi:10.1126/science.287.5461.2185. 

Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Popular media

  • "Inside the Fly Lab" - broadcast by WGBH and PBS, in the program series "Curious", January 2008.

WGBH is an established public television and public radio broadcast service located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Drosophila - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1032 words)
Drosophila is a genus of small flies whose members are often called small fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies.
One species in particular, Drosophila melanogaster, has been heavily used in research in genetics and is a common model organism in developmental biology.
Drosophila are extensively used as a model organism in genetics, cell-biology, biochemistry, and especially developmental biology.
Drosophila melanogaster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2447 words)
Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for fl-bellied dew-lover) is a dipteran (two-winged) insect, and is the species of fruit fly that is most commonly used in genetic experiments; it is among the most important model organisms.
Drosophila melanogaster is the most studied organism in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology.
Determination of sex in Drosophila occurs by the ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes, not because of the presence of a Y chromosome as in human sex determination.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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