FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Drosophila" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Drosophila
Drosophila
Drosophila melanogaster
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Drosophilidae
Subfamily: Drosophilinae
Genus: Drosophila
Fallén, 1823
Type species
Drosophila funebris
(Fabricius, 1787)

Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "fruit flies," or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit. A second, related fly family, the Tephritidae, are also called fruit flies; these feed primarily on unripe or ripe fruit, with many species being regarded as destructive agricultural pests, especially the Mediterranean fruit fly. One species of Drosophila in particular, D. melanogaster, has been heavily used in research in genetics and is a common model organism in developmental biology. Indeed, the terms "fruit fly" and "Drosophila" are often used synonymously with D. melanogaster in modern biological literature. The entire genus, however, contains about 1,500 species and is very diverse in appearance, behavior, and breeding habitat. Scientists who do research on Drosophila are often called Drosophilists. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Drosophila melanogaster ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (may be paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Caloneurodea - extinct Titanoptera - extinct Protorthoptera - extinct Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Subfamily Drosophilinae Steganinae Wikispecies has information related to: Drosophilidae Drosophilidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, including the genus Drosophila, which includes fruit flies, vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies. ... Genera Chymomyza Drosophila Hirtodrosophila Mycodrosophila Scaptodrosophila Scaptomyza Zaprionus Many more genera Largest subfamily in the Drosophilidae, other subfamily is the Steganinae. ... Carl Frederick Fallén (September 22, 1764 - August 26, 1830) was a Swedish botanist and entomologist. ... In scientific classification, a type is a specimen or description that corresponds to a taxon (a group of organisms), and helps to identify which organisms may be referred to with that name. ... Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) was originally placed in the genus Musca. ... Johann Christian Fabricius. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Wikispecies has information related to: Diptera True flies are insects of the Order Diptera (Greek: di = two, and pteron = wing), possessing a single pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Subfamily Drosophilinae Steganinae Wikispecies has information related to: Drosophilidae Drosophilidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, including the genus Drosophila, which includes fruit flies, vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Pomace is a substance prepared by pressing or grinding various fruits, for example in the manufacture of olive oil (from olives), wine (from grapes), or cider (from apples). ... It has been suggested that Veraison be merged into this article or section. ... Genera 500 genera & about 5,000 species Tephritidae is a family of insects that includes fruit flies. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Genera 500 genera & about 5,000 species Tephritidae is a family of insects that includes fruit flies. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ...

Contents

Name

The term "Drosophila", meaning "dew-loving", is a modern scientific Latin adaptation from Greek words δρόσος, drósos, "dew", and φίλος, phílos, "loving" with the Latin feminine suffix -a. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Dew on a spider web Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. ...


Morphology

Side view of head showing characteristic bristles above the eye.
Side view of head showing characteristic bristles above the eye.
D. setosimentum, a Hawaiian picture-wing species.
D. setosimentum, a Hawaiian picture-wing species.

Drosophila are small flies, typically pale yellow to reddish brown to black, with red eyes. Many species, including the noted Hawaiian picture-wings, have distinct black patterns on the wings. The plumose (feathery) arista, bristling of the head and thorax, and wing venation are characters used to diagnose the family. Most are small, about 2–4 millimetres long, but some, especially many of the Hawaiian species, are larger than a house fly. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (622x732, 25 KB) Head of Drosophila residua. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (622x732, 25 KB) Head of Drosophila residua. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Drosophila_setosimentum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Drosophila_setosimentum. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Binomial name Musca domestica The housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus) is the most common fly occurring in homes and indeed one of the most widely distributed animals and the most familiar of all flies; it is a pest that can facilitate serious diseases. ...


Life cycle and ecology

Habitat

Drosophila are found all around the world, with more species in the tropical regions. They can be found in deserts, tropical rainforest, cities, swamps, and alpine zones. Some northern species hibernate. Most species breed in various kinds of decaying plant and fungal material, including fruit, bark, slime fluxes, flowers, and mushrooms. A few species have switched to being parasites or predators. Many species can be attracted to baits of fermented bananas or mushrooms, but others are not attracted to any kind of baits. Males may congregate at patches of suitable breeding substrate to compete for the females, or form leks, conducting courtship in an area separate from breeding sites. A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... Slime flux is a bacterial disease of certain trees, primarily elm, cottonwood, poplar, boxelder, ash, aspen and fruitless mulberry and oak. ... Look up flower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mushroom(s) are the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting bodies of fungi typically produced above ground on soil or on their food sources. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... A lek is a gathering of males of certain species of animal for the purposes of competitive mating display, held before and during the breeding season, day after day. ...


Several Drosophila species, including D. melanogaster, D. immigrans, and D. simulans, are closely associated with humans, and are often referred to as domestic species. These and other species (D. subobscura, Zaprionus indianus) have been accidentally introduced around the world by human activities such as fruit transports. Drosophila simulans is a sister species of Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly used commonly in genetic research. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ...


Reproduction

Drosophila melanogaster egg
Drosophila melanogaster egg
Drosophila eggs inserted deep in bark, showing the long respiratory filaments.
Drosophila eggs inserted deep in bark, showing the long respiratory filaments.
Drosophila larva
Drosophila larva
Drosophila pupae – the white ones are young pupae while the brown ones are older.
Drosophila pupae – the white ones are young pupae while the brown ones are older.

Males of this genus are known to have the longest sperm cells of any organism on Earth, including one species, Drosophila bifurca, that have sperm that are 5.8 centimetres long.[1] The cells are mostly tail, and are delivered to the females in tangled coils. The other members of the genus Drosophila also make relatively few giant sperm cells, with D. bifurca's being the longest.[2] D. melanogaster sperm cells are a more modest 1.8 millimetres long, although this is still about 300 times as long as a human sperm. Drosophila melanogaster egg. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Fruit_fly_larva_01. ... Image File history File links Fruit_fly_larva_01. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... Binomial name Drosophila bifurca is a species of fruit fly. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


Drosophila vary widely in their reproductive capacity. Those such as D. melanogaster that breed in large, relatively rare resources have ovaries that mature 10–20 eggs at a time, so that they can be laid together on one site. Others that breed in more-abundant but less nutritious substrates, such as leaves, may only lay one egg per day. The eggs have one or more respiratory filaments near the anterior end; the tips of these extend above the surface and allow oxygen to reach the embryo. Larvae feed not on the vegetable matter itself but on the yeasts and microorganisms present on the decaying breeding substrate. Development time varies widely between species (between 7 and more than 60 days) and depends on the environmental factors such as temperature, breeding substrate, and crowding. Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are a part of a female organism that produces eggs. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Laboratory–cultured animals

Drosophila melanogaster types. Eye colors (clockwise): brown, cinnabar, sepia, vermilion, white, wild. Also, the wild-eyed fly has a yellow body, the sepia-eyed fly has an ebony body, and the brown-eyed fly has a black body.
Drosophila melanogaster types. Eye colors (clockwise): brown, cinnabar, sepia, vermilion, white, wild. Also, the wild-eyed fly has a yellow body, the sepia-eyed fly has an ebony body, and the brown-eyed fly has a black body.

Drosophila melanogaster is a popular experimental animal because it is easily cultured in mass out of the wild, has a short generation time, and mutant animals are readily obtainable. In 1906 Thomas Hunt Morgan began his work on D. melanogaster and reported his first finding of a white (eyed) mutant in 1910 to the academic community. He was in search of a model organism to study genetic heredity and required a species that could randomly acquire genetic mutation that would visibly manifest as morphological changes in the adult animal. His work on Drosophila earned him the 1933 Nobel Prize in Medicine for identifying chromosomes as the vector of inheritance for genes. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (799x999, 237 KB) Eye colors (clockwise): brown, cinnabar, sepia, vermilion, white, wild. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (799x999, 237 KB) Eye colors (clockwise): brown, cinnabar, sepia, vermilion, white, wild. ... Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American geneticist and embryologist. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ...


However, some species of Drosophila are difficult to culture in the laboratory, often because they breed on a single specific host in the wild. For some it can be done with particular recipes for rearing media, or by introducing chemicals such as sterols that are found in the natural host; for others it is (so far) impossible. In some cases, the larvae can develop on normal Drosophila lab medium but the female will not lay eggs; for these it is often simply a matter of putting in a small piece of the natural host to receive the eggs. The Drosophila Stock Center in Tucson maintains cultures of hundreds of species for researchers. Sterols are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the A-ring. ... Nickname: The Old Pueblo Location in Pima County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Pima Mayor Bob Walkup (R) Area    - City 505. ...


Predators

Drosophila are prey for many generalist predators such as robber flies. In Hawaii, the introduction of yellowjackets from the mainland United States has led to the decline of many of the large species. The larvae are preyed on by other fly larvae, staphylinid beetles, and ants. Asilidae are a family of Diptera Asiloidea . ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Yellowjackets are black-and-yellow wasps of the genus Vespula or Dolichovespula. ... Genera (thousands, see text) The rove beetles are a large family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra that leave more than half of their abdomens exposed. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Systematics

Currently, the genus Drosophila is highly paraphyletic (see below) and contains 1450 described species,[3][4] while the estimated total number of species is at least 2000.[citation needed] The majority of the species are members of two subgenera: Drosophila (~1,100 species) and Sophophora (including D. (S.) melanogaster; ~330 species). The Hawaiian species of Drosophila (estimated to be more than 500, with ~380 species described) are sometimes recognized as a separate genus or subgenus, Idiomyia (e.g.[3]), but this is not widely accepted. About 250 species are part of the genus Scaptomyza, which arose from the Hawaiian Drosophila and later re-colonized continental areas. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... The subgenus Sophophora of the genus Drosophila was first described by Alfred Sturtevant in 1939. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ...


Evidence from phylogenetic studies suggests that the following genera arose from within the genus Drosophila: A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ...

  • Hirtodrosophila Duda, 1923
  • Mycodrosophila Oldenburg, 1914
  • Zaprionus Coquillett, 1901
  • Samoaia Malloch, 1934
  • Liodrosophila Duda, 1922
  • Dichaetophora Duda, 1940
  • Scaptomyza Hardy, 1849

Drosophila species genome project

Drosophila are extensively used as a model organism in genetics (including population genetics), cell-biology, biochemistry, and especially developmental biology. Therefore, extensive efforts are made to sequence drosphilid genomes. The genomes of the following species have been fully or partially sequenced so far:

The data will be used for many purposes, including evolutionary genome comparisons. D. simulans and D. sechellia are sister species, and provide viable offspring when crossed, while D. melanogaster and D. simulans produce infertile hybrid offspring. The Drosophila genome is often compared with the genomes of more distantly related species such as the honeybee Apis mellifera or the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... Drosophila simulans is a sister species of Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly used commonly in genetic research. ... The Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup contains 9 species, including the best known species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. ... The Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup contains 9 species, including the best known species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. ... The Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup contains 9 species, including the best known species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. ... The Drosophila melanogaster species group belongs to the subgenus Sophophora and contains 12 subgroups. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... Binomial name Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 The Western honeybee or European honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honeybee comprised of several subspecies or races. ... Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ... Binomial name Anopheles gambiae Giles Anopheles gambiae, refers to a complex of morphologically indistinguishable mosquitoes in the Anopheles genus, which contain the most important vectors of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the most efficient malaria vectors in the world. ...


Curated data are available at FlyBase. FlyBase is an online bioinformatics database of the biology and genome of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and related Drosophilid dipterans. ...


Trivia

Several of the subgeneric and generic names are based on anagrams of Drosophila. These include:

  • Dorsilopha
  • Lordiphosa
  • Siphlodora
  • Phloridosa
  • Psilodorha

External links

References

  1. ^ Pitnick, S., G.S. Spicer, T.A. Markow (1995). How long is a giant sperm? Nature 375:109. PMID 7753164
  2. ^ Joly, D., N. Luck, B. Dejonghe (2007). Adaptation to Long Sperm in Drosophila: Correlated Development of the Sperm Roller and Sperm Packaging. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular and Developmental Evolution) 308B:DOI: 10.1002/jez.b.21167. PMID 17377954
  3. ^ a b Bächli, G. 1999-2006. TaxoDros: The database on Taxonomy of Drosophilidae.
  4. ^ Markow, T. A. and P. M. O'Grady (2006). Drosophila: A guide to species identification and use. London, UK, Elsevier Inc.
Major Model Organisms in Genetic Studies
v  d  e
Lambda phage | E. coli | Chlamydomonas | Tetrahymena | Budding yeast | Fission yeast | Neurospora | Maize | Arabidopsis | C. elegans | Drosophila | Zebrafish | Rat | Mouse

Subfamily Drosophilinae Steganinae Wikispecies has information related to: Drosophilidae Drosophilidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, including the genus Drosophila, which includes fruit flies, vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage) is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Binomial name Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dang. ... Species T hegewischi Tetrahymena are non-pathogenic free-living ciliate protozoa. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Binomial name Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called fission yeast, is a species of yeast. ... Binomial name Neurospora crassa Shear & B.O. Dodge Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... Binomial name Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... Binomial name Danio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) The Zebra Danio or Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio or Danio rerio) is a tropical fish, commonly kept in aquaria and used for scientific research, belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). ... Binomial name (Berkenhout, 1769) Brown Rat range The brown rat, common rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat or wharf rat (Rattus norvegicus) is one of the best-known and common rats, and also one of the largest. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The common House Mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most numerous species of the genus Mus equivalent to the common term mouse. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Drosophila Information Service (164 words)
Drosophila is one of the premier organisms for studies of genetics, development, population biology, and evolution.
Drosophila Information Service is a journal devoted to disseminating information useful to researchers, teachers, and students.
This policy has proved to be a great stimulus for the use of Drosophila material in genetic research and is directly responsible for many important contributions." During the many decades since that first issue, DIS has continued to promote open communication.
Drosophila - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1072 words)
Drosophila is a genus of small flies whose members are often called small fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies.
Drosophila melanogaster is a popular experimental animal because it is easily cultured in mass out of the wild, it has a short generation time and because mutant animals are readily obtainable.
Drosophila are extensively used as a model organism in genetics, cell-biology, biochemistry, and especially developmental biology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m