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Encyclopedia > Drone (music)

In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout much or all of a piece, sustained or repeated, and most often establishing a tonality upon which the rest of the piece is built. The systematic (not occasional) use of drones originated in Ancient Southwest Asia and was spread north and west to Europe, east to India, and south to Africa (van der Merwe 1989, p.11). Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity and chords, actual or implied, in music. ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... In music accompaniment is the art of playing along with a soloist or ensemble, often known as the lead, in a supporting manner as well as the music thus played. ... In music and music theory, a chord (from the middle English cord, short for accord) is three or more different notes or pitches sounding simultaneously, or nearly simultaneously, over a period of time. ... In mathematics, a continuous function is one in which arbitrarily small changes in the input produce arbitrarily small changes in the output. ... Sustain is a parameter of musical sound in time. ... Repetition is the occurrence of an event which has occurred before. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a center or tonic. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from...


Similarly, a drone is the name of a part of a musical instrument intended to produce such a sustained pitch, generally without the ongoing attention of the player. A sitar features three or four resonating drone strings and Indian sargam is practiced to a drone. Bagpipes (particularly the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe) feature a number of drone pipes, giving the instrument its characteristic "skirl". The fifth string on a five-string bluegrass banjo is a drone string with a separate tuning peg that places the end of the string five frets down the neck of the instrument; this string is usually tuned to the same note as that which the first string produces when played at the fifth fret, and the drone string is seldom fretted when playing bluegrass. The bass strings of authentic Slovenian instrument drone zither also freely resonate as a drone. A musical instrument is a device that has been constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... In music, pitch is the perception of the frequency of a note. ... Premla Shahane playing a sitar, 1927 A sitar The sitar is a Hindustani classical instrument. ... Sargam is the Hindustani or North Indian equivalent to the western solfege. ... Pipe Major There are many kinds of bagpipes, but the best-known is the piob mhor or Great Highland Bagpipes, which were developed in Scotland. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... Bluegrass music is considered a form of American roots music with its own roots in the English, Irish and Scottish traditional music of immigrants from the British Isles (particularly the Scots-Irish immigrants of Appalachia), as well as the music of rural African-Americans, jazz, and blues. ... The banjo is a stringed instrument, derived from the banjar, a stringed instrument of American origins, sometimes called the gourd banjo. The banjar, in turn was based on the African akonting. Some etymologists derive it from a dialectal pronunciation of bandore, though recent research suggests that it may come from... Drone zither, Slovenia. ...


Composers of classical music occasionally used a drone (especially one on open fifths) to evoke a rustic or archaic atmosphere, perhaps Scottish or other early or folk music. Examples include: Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Early music is a term used to describe pre-Classical Western music, from the earliest written music to 1500 at the earliest (Judd, 1998, p. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ...

However, drones are less often used in common practice classical music because the longer and more central a drone the less functional it is and because equal temperament causes slight mistunings which become more apparent over a drone, especially when also sustained. On the other hand, drones may be purposely dissonant, as often in the music of Phill Niblock. The best known drone piece in the concert repertory is the Prelude to Wagner's Rheingold (1854) wherein the bass instruments sustain an Eb throughout the entire movement (Erickson 1975, p.94). Later drone pieces include Loren Rush's Hard Music (1970), Folke Rabe's Was?? (1968), and Robert Erickson's Down at Piraeus. Franz Joseph Haydn, (March 31 or April 1, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. Although he has come to be popularly known as Franz Joseph Haydn (with many published scores and recordings... Joseph Haydns Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770; died March 26, 1827) was a German composer of classical music, who predominantly lived in Vienna, Austria. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Grande Messe des morts (Requiem) of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ... Harold in Italy (Op. ... B la Bart k (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a composer, pianist and collector of East European folk music. ... In music the common practice period is a long period in western musical history spanning from before the classical era proper to today, dated, on the outside, as 1600-1900. ... See also: function and functional. ... Equal temperament is a scheme of musical tuning in which the octave is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... This page is about musical systems of tuning, for the musical process of tuning see tuning. ... In poetry, dissonance is the deliberate avoidance of patterns of repeated vowel sounds (see assonance). ... Phill Niblock (born Oct 2, 1933, in Anderson, Indiana) is a minimalist composer, videographer, and director of Experimental Intermedia, a foundation for avant-garde music based in New York. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 in Leipzig – February 13, 1883 in Venice) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his groundbreaking symphonic-operas (or music dramas). His compositions are notable for their continuous contrapuntal texture, rich harmonies and orchestration, and elaborate... Das Rheingold (The Rhine Gold) is the first of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Loren Rush (born August 23, 1935) is a composer. ... Folke Rabe (born Oct 28, 1935) was a composer. ... Robert Erickson (March 7, 1917 in Marquette, Michigan–April 24, 1997 in San Diego, California) was a composer. ...


Contemporary classical musicians who make prominent use of drones, often with just or other non-equal tempered tunings, include La Monte Young and many of his students, David First, the band Coil, Pauline Oliveros and Stuart Dempster, Alvin Lucier (Music On A Long Thin Wire), Ellen Fullman, and Arnold Dreyblatt. Shorter drones or the general concept of a continuous element are often used by many other composers. La Monte Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American composer whose eccentric and often hard-to-find works have been included among the most important post World War II avant-garde or experimental music. ... David First (born Aug 20, 1953) is an American composer. ... Image:Coil. ... Pauline Oliveros (born 1932 in Houston, Texas) is an accordionist and composer who currently resides in Kingston, New York. ... Stuart Dempster (born 1936 in Berkeley, California) is a trombonist, didjeridu player, composer, author of The Modern Trombone: A Definition of Its Idioms (1979), and on the faculty of the University of Washington. ... Alvin Lucier Alvin Lucier (born May 14, 1931) is an American composer of music and sound installations exploring acoustic phenomena, especially resonance, as well as a former member of the Sonic Arts Union along with Robert Ashley, David Behrman, and Gordon Mumma. ... Music On A Long Thin Wire is a piece by Alvin Lucier conceived in 1977. ... Ellen Fullman (born 1957) is a composer. ... Arnold Dreyblatt (b. ...


A drone differs from a pedal tone or point in degree or quality. A pedal point may be a form of nonchord tone and thus required to resolve unlike a drone, or a pedal point may simply be considered a shorter drone, a drone being a longer pedal point. Pedal point (also pedal tone, organ point, or just pedal) is a musical term describing any sustained or repeated note, usually in the bass, with changing harmonies in the other voices. ... A nonchord tone or non-harmony note is a tone in a piece of homophonic music which is not in the chord that is formed by the other tones playing and in most cases quickly resolves to a chord tone. ... Resolution in western tonal music theory is the need for a sounded note and/or chord to move from a dissonance or unstable sound to a more final or stable sounding one, a consonance. ...


See also

  • Dronology or "drone music" or "drone": a post-classical popular music genre with heavy emphasis on the drone harmonic effect
  • Drone doom is a form of heavy metal music with simplistic song structures focusing almost entirely on droning, heavily downtuned electric guitar and bass guitar, often lacking vocals or drums. Songs often reach or greatly exceed ten minutes in length.

The dronology, drone music, or simply drone, is a music genre with a special emphasis on the use of sustained sounds, notes, or tones – called drones. ... A music genre is a category (or genre) of pieces of music that share a certain style or basic musical language (van der Merwe 1989, p. ... Doom metal is a form of heavy metal that emerged as a recognised subgenre in the mid-1980s. ... Heavy metal is a form of music characterised by aggressive, driving rhythms and highly amplified distorted guitars, generally with grandiose lyrics and virtuosic instrumentation. ... An electric guitar is a type of guitar with a solid or semi-solid body that utilizes electromagnetic pickups to convert the vibration of the steel-cored strings into electrical current. ... Image:Fender vintage precision bass. ...

Source

  • Erickson, Robert (1975). Sound Structure in Music. University of California Press. ISBN 0520023765.
  • van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0193161214.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Drone (music) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (557 words)
drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout much or all of a piece, sustained or repeated, and most often establishing a tonality upon which the rest of the piece is built.
drone is the name of a part of a musical instrument intended to produce such a sustained pitch, generally without the ongoing attention of the player.
Drone doom is a form of heavy metal music with simplistic song structures focusing almost entirely on droning, heavily downtuned electric guitar and bass guitar, often lacking vocals or drums.
Drone music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (843 words)
Drone music, also known as drone-based music, drone ambient or ambient drone, dronescape or dronology, and sometimes simply as drone, is a musical style that emphasizes the use of sustained sounds, notes, or tones-clusters – called drones.
The modern genre of drone music (differentiated by some as "dronology") is most often applied to artists who have allied themselves closely with underground music and the post-rock or experimental music genres.
Drone music also fit into the genres of new age, found sound, minimal music, dark ambient, drone doom/drone metal, and noise music.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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