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Encyclopedia > Driver's license
First German driving school in 1906, Aschaffenburg
First German driving school in 1906, Aschaffenburg
Current EU driving licence, German version - front1. Family name2. Given name(s)3. Date and place of birth4a. Issuing date4b. Expiry date (non-existent for German driving licenses)4c. Issuing authority5. Licence number7. Signature of bearer9. Categories
Current EU driving licence, German version - front
1. Family name
2. Given name(s)
3. Date and place of birth
4a. Issuing date
4b. Expiry date (non-existent for German driving licenses)
4c. Issuing authority
5. Licence number
7. Signature of bearer
9. Categories
German version reverse9. Licence categories10. Issue date of the category11. Expiry date of the category12. Restrictions (number coded)
German version reverse
9. Licence categories
10. Issue date of the category
11. Expiry date of the category
12. Restrictions (number coded)

A driver's license (U.S.), driving licence (UK, Ireland, Hong Kong, India, Pakistan, Singapore, Malta), driver's licence or driver licence (Canada, Australia, New Zealand), or operator's licence is an official document which states that a person may operate a motorized vehicle, such as a motorcycle, car, truck, or a bus. In some jurisdictions, driver's licences are issued after the recipient has passed a driving test, while in others, a person acquires a driver's licence before beginning to drive. (This is largely a matter of nomenclature - generally an official document by some name is required to undertake practical driving in either case.) Different categories of licence may exist for different types of motor vehicles. The difficulty of the driving test may vary considerably between regions, as do prerequisites such as age restrictions and the required level of tuition. Aschaffenburg (IPA: ; dialect: [ˈaʒəˌbɜːʃ]) is a large town in northwest Bavaria, Germany. ... Image File history File links DE_licence_front. ... Image File history File links DE_licence_front. ... Image File history File links DE_licence_back. ... Image File history File links DE_licence_back. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses, see Driving (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... Car redirects here. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Autobus redirects here. ... A driving test is a test designed to test a persons ability to drive a motor vehicle. ...

Contents

History

France and Germany were among the earliest countries to require mandatory driver licensing, right at the start of the 20th century. As automobile-related fatalities soared in North America, public outcry provoked legislators to begin studying the French and German statutes as models.[1] North American redirects here. ...


On August 1, 1910, North America's first driver licensing law went into effect in the U.S. state of New York, though it initially applied only to professional chauffeurs.[2] In July of 1913, the state of New Jersey became the first to require all drivers to pass a mandatory examination before receiving a licence.[3] is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A chauffeur in Japan A driver in Kerala A chauffeur is one who drives an automobile as a job. ...


Identification

Because a large number of countries, including Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States have no national identification cards and because of the widespread use of cars, driver's licenses are often used as a de facto standard form of identification. German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


These U.S. states: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin require licenses and ID cards issued to those under 21 to have a vertical orientation instead of the usual horizontal one in order to aid in determining whether one is of legal drinking age. California and Oregon have adopted a similar system for its licenses, having the picture appear on the right for drivers under 21 and on the left for drivers 21 and older. New York, on the other hand, prints "Under 21" in red bold letters on the licenses of minor and young adult drivers, but otherwise these licenses look identical to those for older adults. North Carolina recently started a color program for varying age groups: A red border indicates the driver is under 18, a yellow border for ages 18-20, and a green border for those 21 and over, as well as "Under 18" or "Under 21" written down the right side of the driver's picture if they are under 18 or 21. Many states also add information to their licenses, such as "Under 21 until 08-15-2007" to aid in enforcing the drinking age and age of majority of 18 (for tobacco and lottery in most states). This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The legal drinking age is a limit assigned by governments to restrict the access of children and youth to alcoholic beverages. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


Many European countries and Canada require drivers to produce their licence on demand when driving. In such countries, the driver must always carry their licence on them when driving. In the United Kingdom, when required to produce a driving licence, the driver may have up to 7 days to produce the licence at a Police station. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Many European countries also require adults to carry an ID card at all times. Citizens of EU countries which have no national ID cards have to carry their passports when travelling within EU and outside of their home countries, even within Schengen borders, whether driving or not. Drivers licenses issued to minors in the USA are not valid in Europe. For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... Schengen is a wine-growing village in south-eastern Luxembourg near the point where the borders of Germany, France and Luxembourg come together. ...


In the People's Republic of China, the driver's licence number is synonymous with the citizen's ID number (which is up to 18 digits long).


Similarly, Saudi Arabia requires all drivers to carry an ID card in addition to a licence, and present them whenever requested. Using a driver's licence instead is only permitted if the request is made for on-site inspection/identification purposes, especially at check points. Expatriates may be requested to present their visas as well.


Many countries have established a driver's licence exchange arrangement after reviews of the foreign jurisdiction's licensing processes. Where standards in the other jurisdiction are comparable in areas such as medical standards, minimum driving age, and knowledge and road testing, an exchange (or honoring) of the foreign jurisdiction's license may occur. [1]


In Hong Kong the driving license has the same number as the HK ID card, yet is without a picture and is always given along with the ID card when being inspected.


Organ donations

Licensing bureaus in many countries add an organ donation option on license forms. Sometimes a small picture of a "heart" or the term Organ Donor is printed on the driver's license to indicate that the holder has agreed to donate his or her organs in the event of sudden death in a car crash or other accident.


In the United States, this is governed by the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Ireland, willingness to donate organs for transplantion is also listed on driving licenses. In Australia, the system of notating organ donation requests on licenses was replaced in July 2005 with a national registration system and the issue of special cards. The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act is one of the uniform acts that attempt to harmonize the law in force in the fifty U.S. states. ...


Driving licence by region

Africa

America, North

Canada

Main article: Driver's licence in Canada

United States

Main article: Driver's license in the United States

America, South

Asia

Europe

See also: European Driving Licence

This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ... The new European driving licences will have the credit card-style with a photograph and possibly a microchip. ...

Oceania

Australia

Main article: Driver licence in Australia

New Zealand

Main article: Driver licence in New Zealand

Special licenses

In the United States and some provinces of Canada, persons who drive commercially (especially truckers and taxi drivers) are required to have special licences. For taxicab drivers, these licences are usually called Chauffeur Permits. In most cases, commercial truckers must hold a commercial driver's license or CDL. In India, a commercial driving licence is valid for 5 years while an individual licence is valid for 20 years. In the United Kingdom, one must hold a Passenger Carrying Vehicle (PCV) licence to drive a vehicle with more than eight passenger seats for hire or reward, or a Large Goods Vehicle (LGV) licence to drive a vehicle with a Gross Vehicle Weight (Maximum Authorised Mass) in excess of 3500 kg. Special licences can also be required in order to transport hazardous materials. The cost of taking the series of tests and examinations to obtain these licences usually means that an employer would subsidize their drivers. For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... A commercial drivers license (CDL) is required in the United States to operate any type of vehicle with a gross weight of 26,001 lb (11,793 kg) or over including (but not limited to) tow trucks, tractor trailers and buses. ... A hazardous material is any solid, liquid, or gas that can cause harm to humans and other living organisms due to being flammable or explosive, irritating or damaging the skin or lungs, interfering with oxygen intake and apsorption (asphyxiants), or causing allergic reactions (allergens). ...


In India, people aged more than 50 years have to undergo strict medical tests in order to obtain a licence. The licence validity is 5 years and requires renewal every 5 years.


Physically Disabled Permits, are given out to those who are under the age of 13 years. These permits are given out from the State Government to those minors whom live with someone who has a physical disability and is unable to drive. These licenses are rare, and only 10-20 are given out each year in the United States.


International considerations

The holder of a licence from any European Union member country can drive in any other EU country. Most countries worldwide will also recognize the licences of citizens of foreign states wishing to drive as visitors. All EU member countries now issue licences in a standard format, regardless of the language of the licence.[4]


The International Driving Permit (IDP) (sometimes erroneously called the International Driver's Licence) is a booklet which is an authorized translation of a driver's home license into many languages (especially languages with different scripts such as Cyrillic, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.). In some cases, it is obtained from a motoring organization such as the Automobile Association or the equivalent in the driver's home country. In other cases, it is delivered by the same government services that deliver ordinary licences. The IDP has no validity except when used in conjunction with the driver's own licence. The existence of the IDP is necessitated by many countries refusing to recognize driver's licences written in foreign languages without accompanying translations. An International Driving Permit (IDP) allows an individual to drive their private motor vehicle in another nation only when accompanied by a valid license from their country. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Automobile Association (also referred to as The AA) is a British motoring organization. ...


The People's Republic of China at present does not recognize IDPs (although Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan do) and requires drivers to get an additional PRC license before being officially allowed on all roads.


Issues when moving permanently from one country to another

Most licence-issuing authorities require holders of "foreign" licences taking up residence in their jurisdiction to obtain a local driving licence within a limited time (typically 6 months or 1 year). In most cases, the driver must follow the full local procedure for obtaining a licence, but some jurisdictions have mutual recognition agreements and will exchange the foreign licence for a local one without the need to undertake an additional driving test.


An exception is the EU, where licenses do not need to be exchanged since the introduction of the common EU-driving-license scheme.


Canada

Ontario has a reciprocal licence exchange scheme [5] for :

  • Canadian provinces and territories;
  • Canadian Forces Europe;
  • United States (applicants from Illinois, New Jersey and Vermont must provide a driving abstract dated within 6 months)

British Columbia has a reciprocal licence exchange scheme for : This article is about the Korean civilization. ...

Great Britain

The Driver and Vehicle Licencing Agency (DVLA), which licences drivers in England, Scotland, and Wales, but not Northern Ireland, exchanges full licences issued by:[6]

Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ... South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ...

Hong Kong

As stated on the application form for direct issue of full Hong Kong driving licence[7](Rev. 7/2006), one can be eligible to direct issue of a Hong Kong driving licence provided that he or she must satisfy the Commissioner with documentary evidence that:

  • the driving entitlement(s) for which one is applying must be equivalent to the class(es) which are authorized to drive by the issuing country or place; and
  • one's driving licence was obtained by passing the relevant driving test(s) in the issuing country or place; and
  • satisfies one of the three requirements below:
  • the licence was originally issued on any date during a period of residence of not less than 6 months in the country or place of issue (one may prove the

six-month residence with the entry and departure stamps on your passport, school transcript or employer's testimonial with employment period specified.); or People on the stairs to the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago In general, the English word people refers to a specific group of humans, or to persons in a general sense. ... South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... The Republic of South Africa is a large republic located at the southern tip of the continent. ... Capital St Anne Status Part of Guernsey, Crown dependency of the UK Official language(s) English Head of Government Sir Norman Browse Population 2,400 Currency Pound sterling (GBP). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

  • the licence has been issued for not less than 5 years immediately prior to the application; or
  • hold a passport or an equivalent travel document of the country or place in which your licence was issued.

Consecutive Licenses Exchange

Theoretically as seen from the above exchange arrangement list, this kind of reciprocal license exchange scheme might become a backdoor for a person with a driver license issued by a country with less stringent driving test system (or even through purchase or bribery) to exchange for a license issued by a more reputable country without the need of any driving test.


For example, subject to fulfilling the other license exchange requirements, a Pakistan or PRC driving license holder can exchange for a Hong Kong driver license[8] first. Then exchange for a United Kingdom full license and in turn convert for an Ontario province license in Canada.


See also

A commercial drivers license (CDL) is required in the United States to operate any type of vehicle with a gross weight of 26,001 lb (11,793 kg) or over including (but not limited to) tow trucks, tractor trailers and buses. ... Ohio Drivers Manual, 1950 Drivers Education or Drivers Ed is a class or program offered by independent agencies and most high schools in the United States, where students learn how to drive and practice road safety. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Drivers license. ... There is no such thing as an International Drivers Licence. ... An International Driving Permit (IDP) allows an individual to drive their private motor vehicle in another nation only when accompanied by a valid license from their country. ... Road-traffic safety aims to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) resulting from crashes of road vehicles traveling on public roads. ...

References

  1. ^ Anonymous, "Better Auto Laws Are Now Needed," New York Times, 18 August 1907, S3.
  2. ^ Frederick H. Elliott, "Working Out New Auto Law In New York," New York Times 16 October 1910, 3.
  3. ^ Anonymous, "New York's Auto Exports Increase—Big Jump in Cars Shipped Last Year—New Jersey Examines All Drivers," New York Times, 14 July 1913, 11.
  4. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/transport/home/drivinglicence/legislation/index_en.htm
  5. ^ DriveTest - Exchanging a Reciprocal Licence
  6. ^ Directgov *'exchange driving licence' interactive tool
  7. ^ Application For Direct Issue Of Full Hong Kong Driving Licence
  8. ^ Trasport Department of the Government of the Hong Kong SAR - Driving in Hong Kong for Overseas Driving Licence Holders

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

External links

  • Information from the European Union in driving licences throughout the Community
  • New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority

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