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Encyclopedia > Drip irrigation
Drip Irrigation - A dripper in action
Drip Irrigation - A dripper in action
Main article: Irrigation

Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or microirrigation is an irrigation method that applies water slowly to the roots of plants, by depositing the water either on the soil surface or directly to the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters, with the goal of minimizing water and fertilizer usage. Modern drip irrigation has arguably become the most important innovation in agriculture since the invention of the impact sprinkler in the 1930s, which replaced wasteful flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may also use devices called micro-spray heads, which spray water in a small area, instead of dripping emitters. These are generally used on tree and vine crops with wider root zones. Subsurface drip irrigation or SDI uses permanently or temporarily buried dripperline or drip tapelocated at or below the plant roots. It is becoming more widely used for row crop irrigation especially in areas where water supplies are limited or recylced water is used for irrigation. Careful study of all the relevant factors like land topography, soil, water, crop and agro-climatic conditions, are needed to determine the most suitable drip irrigation system and components to be used in a specific installation. Image File history File links Dripperwithdrop. ... Image File history File links Dripperwithdrop. ... High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara ( ) Irrigation is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops or plants. ... High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara ( ) Irrigation is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops or plants. ... Impact of a drop of water creating circular capillary waves. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... For the American hard rock band, see Soil (band). ... Rhizosphere, the zone that surrounds the roots of plants. ... These water valves are regulated by handles. ... Pipe is a tube or hollow cylinder for the conveyance of fluid. ... Tubing refers to a flexible hose or pipe used in plumbing, irrigation, and other industries. ... An emitter is any device used to emit any signal, beacon, light, odor, liquid, fragrance, or the like. ... Rain Bird logo. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... A dripperline refers to a type of drip irrigation tubing with emitters pre-installed at the factory. ... Drip tape is a type of thin walled dripperline used in drip irrigation. ... Impact of a drop of water creating circular capillary waves. ...

Contents

History

Drip irrigation has been used since ancient times when buried clay pots were filled with water and the water gradually seeped into the soil. Modern drip irrigation began its development in Germany in 1860 when researchers began experimenting with subirrigation using clay pipe to create combination irrigation and drainage systems. In 1913, E.B. House at Colorado State University succeeded in applying water to the root zone of plants without raising the water table. Perforated pipe was introduced in Germany in the 1920s and in 1934, O.E. Robey experimented with irrigating through porous canvas hose at Michigan State University. 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... In agriculture, subirrigation is a method of irrigation used in commercial greenhouse operations. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... Colorado State University is a public land grant institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a public university in East Lansing, Michigan. ...

Drip irrigation in New Mexico vineyard, 2002
Drip irrigation in New Mexico vineyard, 2002

With the advent of modern plastics during and after World War II, major improvements in drip irrigation became possible. Plastic microtubing and various types of emitters began to be used in the greenhouses of Europe and the United States. A new technology of drip irrigation was then introduced in Israel by Simcha Blass and his son Yeshayahu. Instead of releasing water through tiny holes, blocked easily by tiny particles, water was released through larger and longer passageways by using friction to slow water inside a plastic emitter. The first experimental system of this type was established in 1959 when Blass partnered with Kibbutz Hatzerim to create an irrigation company called Netafim. Together they developed and patented the first practical surface drip irrigation emitter. This method was very successful and subsequently spread to Australia, North America, and South America by the late 1960s. Netafim and many others continue to produce drip irrigation systems today. In the United States, in the early 1960s, the first drip tape, called Dew Hose, was developed by Richard Chapin of Chapin Watermatics (first system established during 1964). [1] Beginning in 1989, Jain irrigation helped pioneer effective water-management through Drip Irrigation in India. Jain irrigation also introduced some drip irrigation marketing approaches to Indian agriculture such as `Integrated System Approach’, One-Stop-Shop for Farmers, `Infrastructure Status to Drip Irrigation & Farm as Industry.’ The latest developments in the field involve even further reduction in drip rates being delivered and less tendency to clog. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x2100, 346 KB) Drip irrigation used on vineyards in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x2100, 346 KB) Drip irrigation used on vineyards in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Microtubing or spaghetti tubing is a very fine plastic tubing used in drip irrigation, typically in greenhouses, with a small inside diameter which may be 0. ... A greenhouse in Saint Paul, Minnesota. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Simcha Blass (or Symcha Blass; November 27, 1897 – July 18, 1982; Hebrew:שמחה בלאס) was an Israeli water engineer, a main figure of water developmenet in Israel, initiator, introducer and developer of new drip irrigation systems, inventor of new dripper (with his son Yeshayahu). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd. ... Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd. ...


Components and Operation

Drip Irrigation System Layout and its parts
Drip Irrigation System Layout and its parts

Components (listed in order from water source) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x493, 232 KB) Photograph by Jisl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x493, 232 KB) Photograph by Jisl. ...

  • Pump or pressurized water source
  • Water Filter(s) - Filtration Systems: Sand Separator, Cyclone, Screen Filter, Media Filters
  • Fertigation Systems (Venturi injector) and Chemigation Equipment (optional)
  • Backwash Controller
  • Main Line (larger diameter Pipe and Pipe Fittings)
  • Hand-operated, electronic, or hydraulic Control Valves and Safety Valves
  • Smaller diameter polytube (often referred to as "laterals")
  • Poly fittings and Accessories (to make connections)
  • Emitting Devices at plants (ex. Emitter or Drippers, micro spray heads, inline drippers)
  • Note that in Drip irrigation systems Pump and valves may be manually or automatically operated by a controller.

Most large drip irrigation systems employ some type of filter to prevent clogging of the small emitter flow path by small waterborn particals. New technologies are now being offered that minimize clogging. Some residential systems are installed without additional filters since potable water is already filtered at the water treatment plant. Virtually all drip irrigation equipment manufacturers recommend that filters be employed and generally will not honor warranties unless this is done. A Venturi injector is a component used to inject fertilizer and chemical through drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation systems. ... An emitter is any device used to emit any signal, beacon, light, odor, liquid, fragrance, or the like. ... These water valves are regulated by handles. ... An irrigation controller is a device to operate automatic irrigation systems such as lawn sprinkler systems and drip irrigation systems. ... An industrial water filter with geared motor A water filter is a device which removes impurities from water by means of a fine physical barrier, chemical processes and/or biological process. ...


Drip and subsurface drip irrigation is used almost exclusively when using recycled municipal waste water. Regulations typically do not permit spraying water through the air that has not been fully treated to potable water standards.


Because of the way the water is applied in a drip system, traditional surface applications of timed-release fertilizer are sometimes ineffective, so drip systems often mix liquid fertilizer with the irrigation water. This is called fertigation; fertigation and chemigation (application of pesticides and other chemicals to periodically clean out the system, such as chlorine or sulfuric acid) use chemical injector such as diaphragm pumps, piston pumps, or venturi pumps. The chemicals may be added constantly whenever the system is irrigating or at intervals. Fertilizer savings of up to 95% are being reported from recent university field tests using drip fertigation and slow water delivery as compared to timed-release and irrigation by micro spray heads. Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (British English fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Fertigation is the application of fertilizers, soil amendments, or other water soluble products through an irrigation system. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... A diaphragm pump is a positive displacement pump that uses a combination of the reciprocating action of a rubber or teflon diaphragm and suitable non-return check valves to pump a fluid. ... piston pump ... A copper aspirator. ...


If properly designed, installed, and managed, drip irrigation may help achieve water conservation by reducing evaporation and deep drainage when compared to other types of irrigation such as flood or overhead sprinklers since water can be more precisely applied to the plant roots. In addition, drip can eliminate many diseases that are spread through water contact with the foliage. Finally, in regions where water supplies are severely limited, there may be no actual water savings, but rather simply an increase in production while using the same amount of water as before. In very arid regions or on sandy soils, the trick is to apply the irrigation water as slowly as possible. Water conservation refers to reducing use of fresh water, through technological or social methods. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Deep drainage is defined as the volume of water flux passing below the depth at which plant roots extract water. ... A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... In USA soil taxonomy, a Psamment is defined as an Entisol which consists basically of unconsolidated sand deposits, often found in shifting sand dunes but also in areas of very coarse-textured parent material subject to millions of years of weathering. ...


Pulsed irrigation is sometimes used to decrease the amount of water delivered to the plant at any one time, thus reducing runoff or deep percolation. Pulsed systems are typically expensive and require extensive maintenance. Therefore, the latest efforts by emitter manufacturers are focused toward developing new technologies that deliver irrigation water at ultra-low flow rates, i.e. less than 1.0 liter per hour. Slow and even delivery further improves water use efficiency without incurring the expense and complexity of pulsed delivery equipment.


Drip irrigation is used by farms, commercial greenhouses, and residential gardeners. Drip irrigation is adopted extensively in areas of acute water scarcity and especially for crops such as coconuts, containerized landscape trees, grapes, bananas, ber, brinjal, citrus, strawberries, sugarcane, cotton, maize, and tomatoes. The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) is an informal collaboration of academics devoted to Mormon apologetics. ... A greenhouse in Saint Paul, Minnesota. ... For the chosen plaintext attack used by the British during World War II, see gardening (cryptanalysis). ... Binomial name Cocos nucifera L.. The Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.), is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family). ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Banana can be The Banana fruit The town Banana, Queensland The town Banana, Democratic Republic of the Congo The Rev. ... BER is a three letter abbreviation that can refer to the following: Basic Encoding Rules are a set of rules for encoding data that is described using the ASN.1 standard, for the purpose of transmission to a different computer system. ... Binomial name Solanum esculentum Drege ex Dun. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Strawberries Promo Strawberries is an album by The Damned released October 1982 on Bronze Records (catalogue #BRON 542). ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... Cotton ready for harvest. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Binomial name Solanumlycopersicum Linnaeus ref. ...


Garden drip irrigation kits are increasingly popular for the homeowner and consist of a timer, hose and emitter. A simple digital timer. ... Plastic hoses. ... An emitter is any device used to emit any signal, beacon, light, odor, liquid, fragrance, or the like. ...


Advantage / Disadvantages of Drip Irrigation

The advantages of drip irrigation are: Image File history File links Information_icon. ...

  • Minimized fertilizer/nutrient loss due to localized application and reduced leaching.
  • High water distribution efficiency.
  • Leveling of the field not necessary.
  • Allows safe use of recycled water.
  • Moisture within the root zone can be maintained at field capacity.
  • Soil type plays less important role in frequency of irrigation.
  • Minimized soil erosion.
  • Highly uniform distribution of water i.e., controlled by output of each nozzle.
  • Lower labour cost.
  • Variation in supply can be regulated by regulating the valves and drippers.
  • Fertigation can easily be included with minimal waste of fertilizers.
  • Early maturity and a bountiful harvest (season after season, year after year)

The disadvantages of drip irrigation are: Fertigation is the application of fertilizers, soil amendments, or other water soluble products through an irrigation system. ...

  • Expense. Initial cost can be more than overhead systems.
  • Waste. The plastic tubing and "tapes" generally last 1-3 seasons before being replaced.
  • Clogging, if the water is not properly filtered and the equipment not properly maintained.
  • Drip irrigation might be unsatisfactory if herbicides or top dressed fertilizers need sprinkler irrigation for activation.
  • Drip tape causes extra cleanup costs after harvest. You'll need to plan for drip tape winding, disposal, recycling or reuse.
  • Waste of water, time & harvest, if not installed properly. These systems requires careful study of all the relevant factors like land topography, soil, water, crop and agro-climatic conditions, and suitability of drip irrigation system and its components.

Drip manufacturers

Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd. ... Rain Bird logo. ...

See also

  • irrigation
  • Center for Irrigation Technology Fresno California

High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara ( ) Irrigation is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops or plants. ...

References

  • Irrigation, 5th Edition, Claude H. Pair, editor, published by the Irrigation Association, 1983
  • Trickle Irrigation for Crop Production, F.S. Nakayama and D.A. Bucks, editors, published by Elsevier, 1986, ISBN 0-444-42615-9
  • S. Blass, Water in Strife and Action (Hebrew), published by Massada limited, Israel, 1973
  • Maintenance Manual, published by Jain Irrigation, 1989

  Results from FactBites:
 
An Introduction to Drip Irrigation (2653 words)
Drip irrigation is the slow, even application of low pressure water to soil and plants using plastic tubing placed directly at the plants root zone.
Drip systems are adaptable to oddly shaped fields or those with uneven topography or soil texture; these specific factors must be considered in designing the drip system.
Typically, when irrigation is monitored closely, less nitrogen fertilizer is needed with drip irrigation systems than with furrow irrigation systems because the fertilizer is spoon-fed to the root system and little is lost due to leaching.
Drip Irrigation System Buying Guide from LOWE'S (1218 words)
In fact, drip, trickle and bubble are all quite appropriate words to use when describing a drip irrigation system.
What is commonly known as drip irrigation is actually a combination of several types of low-pressure, low-volume water delivery systems.
Drip irrigation systems conserve water, but still may be under restrictions in some areas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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