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Encyclopedia > Drinking water

Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. Although many sources are utilized by humans, some contain disease vectors or pathogens and cause long-term health problems if they do not meet certain water quality guidelines. Water that is not harmful for human beings is sometimes called safe water, water which is not contaminated to the extent of being unhealthy. The available supply of drinking water is an important criterion of carrying capacity, the population level that can be supported by planet Earth. Image File history File links Drinking_water. ... Image File history File links Drinking_water. ... A water tap Tap water (running water) is part of indoor plumbing, which became available in the late 19th century and common in the mid-20th century. ... Image File history File links Stilles_Mineralwasser. ... Image File history File links Stilles_Mineralwasser. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... This article is about the medical term. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Typically water supply networks deliver single or multiple qualities of water, whether it is to be used for drinking, washing or landscape irrigation; one counterexample is urban China, where drinking water can be optionally delivered by a separate tap. In the United States, public drinking water is governed by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Among other provisions, it protects the right of employees to report potential violations. [1] Within 30 days of any retaliation, a whistleblower can file a complaint with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). A water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components, including: the watershed or geographic area that collects the water, see water purification - sources of drinking water; a raw (untreated) water reservoir (above or below ground) where the water gathers, such as a lake, a river, or... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... The Safe Drinking Water Act was an act passed by Congress on December 16, 1974. ... Poster in support of whistleblower legislation A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ... OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ...

Contents

Metabolism

Main article: Fluid balance

Water is necessary for all life on Earth. Humans can survive for several weeks without food, but for only a few days without water. A constant supply is needed to replenish the fluids lost through normal physiological activities, such as respiration, sweating and urination. In terms of mineral nutrients intake, it is unclear what the drinking water contribution is. However, inorganic minerals generally enter surface water and ground water due to the Earth's crust. Treatment processes also lead to the presence of some mineral nutrients. Examples include fluoride, calcium, zinc, manganese, phosphate, and sodium compounds[2]. Water generated from the biochemical metabolism of nutrients provides a significant proportion of the daily water requirements for some arthropods and desert animals, but provides only a small fraction of a human's necessary intake. There are a variety of trace elements present in virtually all potable water, some of which play a role in metabolism; for example sodium, potassium and chloride are common chemicals found in very small amounts in most waters, and these elements play a role (not necessarily major) in body metabolism. Other elements such as fluoride, while beneficial in low concentrations, can cause dental problems and other issues when present at high levels. Water is essential for the growth and maintenance of our bodies, as it is involved in a number of biological processes. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Manneken Pis of Brussels. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ...


Requirement

Reference daily intake for water is 3.7 L/day for human males aged 19-30 years[1]. Food contributes 0.5–1 L, and the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrates produces another 0.25–0.4 L[3]. Thus, a person needs to drink approximately 2–3 L of water per day. Average urine output for adults is 1.5 L a day. Breathing, bowel movements, and sweating result in a loss of an additional liter. Twenty percent of water intake comes from food consumption, so drinking 2 L of water, along with normal diet will suffice in replenishing fluids. These assumptions are limited by the condition of the subject, including personal health and physical exercise, but are also affected by temperature and humidity.[4] Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ...


There is a persistent myth that people should try to drink 8 cups of water per day[2], but there is no evidence to support that. For example people in hot places will need more water. Instead of aiming for a fixed number a person's thirst is a good guide, and there is no specific number to aim for. A good guideline is that a normal person should urinate 4 times per day, and the urine should be a light yellow color [3], fully clear urine is overdoing it.


The kidneys will adjust to varying levels of water intake, if someone drinks a lot of water the kidneys will produce more diluted urine, even if the person did not happen to drink a lot, and it takes time for the kidneys to learn the new water intake level. This can cause someone who drinks a lot of water to become dehydrated more easily than someone who routinely drinks less. Survival classes recommend that someone who expects to be in an environment with little water (such as a desert), to not drink a lot of water, but rather to drink as little as possible for several days before the trip to accustom the kidneys to making concentrated urine. Not doing this caused the death of a man during a survival test [4].


Indicators of Safe Drinking Water

Access to safe drinking water is indicated by the number of people using proper sanitary sources. These improved drinking water sources include household connection, public standpipe, borehole condition, protected dug well, protected spring, and rain water collection. Sources that don't encourage improved drinking water to the same extent as previously mentioned include: unprotected well, unprotected spring, rivers or ponds, vender-provided water, bottled water (consequential of limitations in quantity, not quality of water), and tanker truck water. Access to sanitary water comes hand in hand with access to improved sanitation facilities for excreta. These facilities include connection to public sewer, connection to septic system, pour-flush latrine, and ventilated improved pit latrine. Unimproved sanitation facilities are: public or shared latrine, open pit latrine, or bucket latrine[5]. A freestanding fire standpipe at Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA A standpipe is a type of rigid water piping which is put in multi-storey buildings or placed in the street to be used in the event of a fire. ... Water borehole in northern Uganda A borehole is a deep and narrow shaft in the ground used for abstraction of fluid or gas reserves below the earths surface. ...


Access to drinking water

Drinking water vending machines in Thailand. One liter of purified water is sold (into the customer's own bottle) for 1 baht
Drinking water vending machines in Thailand. One liter of purified water is sold (into the customer's own bottle) for 1 baht

Earth's surface consists of 70% water. Water is available almost everywhere if proper methods are used to get it. As a country’s economy becomes stronger (as its GNP per capita or PPP rise) a larger percentage of its people tend to have access to drinking water and sanitation. Access to drinking water is measured by the number of people who have a reasonable means of getting an adequate amount of water that is safe for drinking, washing, and essential household activities. Soda pop and snack machines A vending machine is a machine that dispenses merchandise when a customer deposits money sufficient to purchase the desired item (as opposed to a shop, where personnel is required for every purchase). ... Thai banknotes and coins. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ...


As of the year 2006 (and pre-existing for at least three decades), there is a substantial shortfall in availability of potable water in less developed countries, primarily arising from industrial contamination and pollution. As of the year 2000, 27 percent of the populations of lesser developed countries did not have access to safe drinking water[6]. Implications for disease propagation are significant. Many nations have water quality regulations for water sold as drinking water, although these are often not strictly enforced outside of the developed world. The World Health Organization sets international standards for drinking water. A broad classification of drinking water safety worldwide can be found in Safe Water for International Travelers. A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... WHO redirects here. ...


It reflects the health of a country’s people and the country’s capacity to collect, clean, and distribute water to consumers. According to the United Nations' World Health Organization (WHO) more than one billion people in low and middle-income countries lack access to safe water for drinking, personal hygiene and domestic use. These numbers represent more than 20 percent of the world’s people. In addition, close to 3 billion people did not have access to adequate sanitation facilities. (For details see data on the website of the Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) on water and sanitation of WHO and UNICEF.) UN redirects here. ... WHO redirects here. ... Billion may mean: 1,000,000,000 (one thousand million; ), used by most English-speaking countries (American and usual modern British meaning) 1,000,000,000,000 (one million million; ), used by most other countries outside Asia (older British meaning). ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


While the occurrence of waterborne diseases in developed countries is generally low due to a generally good system of water treatment, distribution and monitoring, waterborne diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries, frequently called developing countries. A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


The access to safe drinking water to the populations in several countries is listed below.[7]

Table 2: Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water
Country %   Country %   Country %   Country %
Albania 97   Algeria 89   Azerbaijan 78   Brazil 87
Chile 93   Cuba 91   Egypt 97   Iraq 85
Iran 92   Mexico 88   Morocco 80   Peru 80
Syria 80   Sudan 67   South Africa 86   Turkey 82
Sweden 100   Venezuela 83   Zimbabwe 83      

The main reason for poor access to safe water is the inability to finance and to adequately maintain the necessary infrastructure. Overpopulation and scarcity of water resources are contributing factors.

Only forty-six percent of people in Africa have safe drinking water.
Only forty-six percent of people in Africa have safe drinking water.

Many other countries also lack in the amount of safe drinking water that they need to survive. Some of the countries have less than twenty percent of the population that has access to safe drinking water. For example in Africa, with more than seven hundred million people, only forty-six percent of people have safe drinking water. The more populous Asia Pacific region with over three billion people, eighty percent of whom with access to drinking water, still leaves some six hundred and twenty seven million people without access to safe drinking water.[5]


The lack of water and the lack of hygiene is one of the biggest problems that many poor countries have encountered in progressing their way of living. The problem has reached such endemic proportions that 2.2 million deaths per annum occur from unsanitary water - ninety percent of these are children under the age of five. [6] One program developed to help people gain access to safe drinking water is the Water Aid program. Working in 17 countries to help provide water, Water Aid is useful in helping the sanitation and hygiene education to some of the world's poorest people.[7] Current logo, introduced in 2006 Old logo WaterAid is an international non-profit organisation dedicated to helping people escape the poverty and disease caused by living without safe water and sanitation. ...


Diarrhea as a major health effect among children

Diarrhoeal diseases cause ninety percent of all deaths of children under five years old in developing countries. Malnutrition, especially protein-energy malnutrition, can decrease the children's resistance to infections, including water-related diarrhoeal diseases. In 2000-2003, 769,000 children under five years old in sub-Saharan Africa died each year from diarrhoeal diseases. As a result of only thirty-six percent of the population in the sub-Saharan region having access to proper means of sanitation, more than 2000 children's lives are lost every day. In south Asia, 683,000 children under five years old died each year from diarrhoeal disease from 2000-2003. During the same time period, in developed countries, 700 children under five years old died from diarrhoeal disease. Improved water supply reduces diarrhea morbidity by twenty-five percent and improvements in drinking water through proper storage in the home and chlorination reduces diarrhea episodes by thirty-nine percent[8]. Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Nigerian child with kwashiorkor Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), also known as protein-calorie malnutrition, is a malnutrition and deficiency syndrome in organisms, especially humans caused by the inadequate intake of macronutrients through food in their diet. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ...


Plans to improve availability of drinking water

One of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set by the UN includes environmental sustainability. In 2004, only forty-two percent of people in rural areas had access to clean water. Sixty-three percent of the population in sub-Saharan Africa lacked access to basic sanitation facilities (hardly down from the sixty-eight percent in 1990). The effects of climate change add more distress to sub-Saharan Africa. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that 75-250 million people will have to cope with additional limitations to water access. The results could be terrible for the livelihoods of the disadvantaged and rural economies. Currently the UN is not on schedule with their plans but estimates that their intended goal will not be reached by 2015[9]. The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on...


Bottled water regulation

In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency sets standards for tap and public water, while the Food and Drug Administration regulates bottled water as a food product[10], while it must meet EPA tap water standards. However, it should be noted that bottled water is not necessarily more pure, or more tested than public, tap water[11] Standards regarding safe public water systems are based on the Safe Drinking Water Act[12] EPA redirects here. ... FDA redirects here. ... The Safe Drinking Water Act was an act passed by Congress on December 16, 1974. ...


For more information regarding United States regulation of bottled water production, see Code of Federal Regulations CFR129[13]


United States' Bottled water classifications

Bottled water manufacturers in the United States must ensure that their products meet the FDA established standard of identity for bottled water products.[14]. A bottled water product identified under a specific category, such as mineral water, spring water, artesian water, etc., must meet requirements established by the government or be considered misbranded. In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... A spring is a point where groundwater flows out of the ground, and is thus where the aquifer surface meets the ground surface. ... Geological strata giving rise to an Artesian well. ...


Code of Federal Regulations, Section 21, subsection 165.110 defines identity information for categories of bottled water:[15]

  • drinking water - The lowest common denominator of potable water categories, meeting the basic EPA/FDA standards
  • ground water - The name of water from a subsurface saturated zone that is under a pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure.
  • artesian water, also known as artesian well water - The name of water from a well tapping a confined aquifer in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer. (Water that will rise above the water table if tapped) Artesian water may be collected with the assistance of external force to enhance the natural underground pressure.
    • How often is "artesian water" tested to meet these standards? The law says there is no mandatory testing, instead: "On request, plants shall demonstrate to appropriate regulatory officials that the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer."[16]
  • mineral water - The name of water containing not less than 250 parts per million (ppm) total dissolved solids (TDS), coming from a source tapped at one or more bore holes or springs, originating from a geologically and physically protected underground water source. Mineral water shall be distinguished from other types of water by its constant level and relative proportions of minerals and trace elements at the point of emergence from the source, due account being taken of the cycles of natural fluctuations. No minerals may be added to this water.
  • purified water - The name of water that has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable processes and that meets the definition of "purified water" in the United States Pharmacopeia, 23d Revision, January 1, 1995. Also may be called.
    • Alternatively, the water may be called "deionized water" if the water has been processed by deionization, "distilled water" if it is produced by distillation, or "reverse osmosis water" if the water has been processed by reverse osmosis.
  • sparkling water - The name of water that, after treatment and possible replacement of carbon dioxide, contains the same amount of carbon dioxide from the source that it had at emergence from the source.
  • spring water - The name of water derived from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the surface of the earth.
    • Spring water shall be collected only at the spring or through a bore hole tapping the underground formation feeding the spring. There shall be a natural force causing the water to flow to the surface through a natural orifice. The location of the spring shall be identified.

Groundwater is any water found below the land surface. ... Geological strata giving rise to an Artesian well. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... Purified water can come from any source, including spring water, well water, seawater, or municipal water. ... Bubbles in carbonated water float to the surface. ... A spring is a point where groundwater flows out of the ground, and is thus where the aquifer surface meets the ground surface. ...

Water Contaminants

Parameters for drinking water quality typically fall under two categories: chemical/physical and microbiological. Chemical/physical parameters include heavy metals, trace organics, total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity. Microbiological parameters include Coliform bacteria, E. coli, and specific pathogenic species of bacteria (such as cholera-causing Vibrio cholerae), viruses, and protozoan parasites. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Total suspended solids is a water quality measurement usually abbreviated TSS. This parameter was at one time called non-filterable residue (NFR), a term that refers to the identical measurement: the dry-weight of particles trapped by a filter, typically of a specified pore size. ... Coliform bacteria are used often as an indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Binomial name Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854 Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative bacterium with a curved-rod shape that causes cholera in humans. ... Stop editing pages god ... Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ...


Chemical parameters tend to pose more of a chronic health risk through buildup of heavy metals although some components like nitrates/nitrites and arsenic may have a more immediate impact. Physical parameters affect the aesthetics and taste of the drinking water and may complicate the removal of microbial pathogens.


Originally, fecal contamination was determined with the presence of coliform bacteria, a convenient marker for a class of harmful fecal pathogens. The presence of fecal coliforms (like E. Coli) serves as an indication of contamination by sewage. Additional contaminants include protozoan oocysts such as Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia lambia, Legionella, and viruses (enteric)[17]. Microbial pathogenic parameters are typically of greatest concern because of their immediate health risk. Coliform bacteria are used often as an indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... It has been suggested that Coliform Index be merged into this article or section. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... An oocyst is the spore phase of certain protists, such as Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma. ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ... Binomial name Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (formerly also Lamblia intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans. ... Species Legionella adelaidensis Legionella anisa Legionella beliardensis Legionella birminghamensis Legionella bozemanii Legionella brunensis Legionella busanensis Legionella cherrii Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionella donaldsonii Legionella drancourtii Legionella drozanskii Legionella erythra Legionella fairfieldensis Legionella fallonii Legionella feeleii Legionella geestiana Legionella gratiana Legionella gresilensis Legionella hackeliae Legionella israelensis Legionella jamestowniensis Legionella jordanis Legionella lansingensis Legionella... Stop editing pages god ...


See also

Water Portal

Image File history File links Drinking_water. ... A backflow prevention device is used to protect water supplies from contamination or pollution. ... Bacterial water analysis is a routine check to make sure the concentration of potentially pathogenic bacteria is sufficiently low to say it is safe to drink by humans with a reasonable level of confidence. ... A boil water advisory is a public health advisory given by government or health authorities to communities when a communitys drinking water is, or could be, contaminated by pathogens. ... A 1. ... Brigadier General Carl Rogers Darnall, MD (25 December 1867, Weston, Texas, USA -18 January 1941, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, DC, USA) was a U.S. Army chemist and surgeon credited with originating the technique of liquid chlorination of drinking water. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... In the United States, public drinking water is governed by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). ... Dual piping is a system of plumbing installations used to supply both potable and reclaimed water to a home or business. ... Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. ... Binomial name (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (synonymous with Lamblia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that colonises and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... A water tap Tap water (running water) is part of indoor plumbing, which became available in the late 19th century and common in the mid-20th century. ... Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... Water fluoridation is the practice of adding fluoride compounds to water with the intended purpose of reducing tooth decay in the general population. ... Water purification is the process of removing contaminants from a raw water source. ... Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ... This article has been tagged — please see the bottom of the page for more information. ...

References

  1. ^ 42 U.S.C. 300j-9(i)
  2. ^ www.who.int/water_sanitation/health/dwq/nutintakes.pdf
  3. ^ Swedish DFA
  4. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 
  5. ^ Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: A Mid-Term Assessment of Progress [www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp04.pdf]
  6. ^ I.A. Shiklomanov, Appraisal and Assessment of World Water Resources, Water International 25(1): 11-32 (2000)
  7. ^ Safe Drinking Water (UNICEF website article)
  8. ^ WHO/UNICEF, Water for life: making it happen
  9. ^ Africa and the Millennium Development Goals [www.un.org/millenniumgoals/docs/MDGafrica07.pdf]
  10. ^ http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sdwa/30th/factsheets/standard.html, Federal Food, Drug,and Cosmetic Act ("FFDCA" or the "Act"), 21 U.S.C. § 301et seq.
  11. ^ EPA Frequently asked questions about water, http://www.epa.gov/safewater/faq/faq.html
  12. ^ Safe Water Drinking Act, http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sdwa/index.html
  13. ^ Code of Federal Regulations: 21 CFR 129 PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER
  14. ^ 21 C.F.R. § 165.110(a)
  15. ^ 21 C.F.R. § 165.110, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/FCF165.html
  16. ^ 21 C.F.R. § 165.110(i)
  17. ^ www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/index.html#listmcl

UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Water as aliment
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Drinking water
Look up potable in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • International Action - A Non-profit committed to providing access to clean water to the people of Haiti, using inexpensive technology
  • Tap vs. Bottle - Santa Clara Valley Water District
  • California Dept. of Public Health - The drinking water regulator for the State of California.
  • Drinking Water Inspectorate - The drinking water regulator in England and Wales.
  • KnowH2O - A water education initiative from PlayPumps International about drinking water and global water issues.
  • Louisiana Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness - Locating Safe Drinking Water
  • OpenWater Project - Instructional content about safe drinking water.
  • Safe Drinking Water Is Essential - An online exhibit of the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences that examines the state of the world's water supply and what can be done to improve it.
  • Safe Water for International Travelers - A broad classification of drinking water safety worldwide.
  • Safe Water International - Non-Profit committed to creating solutions to unsafe drinking water problems
  • UKWIR Forefront - UK Water Industry Research Reports concerning Drinking Water Quality & Health
  • US Environmental Protection Agency - Drinking water program
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

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