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Encyclopedia > Drill
A child using a cordless handheld drill to assemble a bookcase.
A child using a cordless handheld drill to assemble a bookcase.

A drill is a tool with a rotating drill bit used for drilling holes in various materials. Drills are commonly used in woodworking and metalworking. Drill may refer to: A tool; see Drill Drill (band) Drill (album) Drill (EP) Drill (fabric) Drill (mammal) Military drill Fire drill This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Drill. ... Image File history File links Drill. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. ... An electric drill A drill is a tool with a rotary drill bit used to bore holes through material. ... Artists can use woodworking to create delicate sculptures. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ...


The drill bit is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill, and is pressed against the target material and rotated. The tip of the drill bit does the work of cutting into the target material, slicing off thin shavings (twist drills or auger bits) or grinding off small particles (oil drilling). A Chuck is a specialised type of clamp used to hold rotating tools or materials. ...

Contents

History

The earliest drills were probably bow drills. The invention of the electrical drill is credited to Mr. Arthur James Arnot[1], in 1889, at Melbourne, Australia. Wilhelm Fein[2] invented the portable electric drill in 1895, at Stuttgart, Germany. In 1917, Black & Decker patented a trigger-like switch mounted on a pistol-grip handle.[3] The bow drill has been used used by ancient Sumerians and other groups to drill holes in a piece of wood, called the fire board when creating a coal for fire. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Black & Decker (NYSE: BDK) is a corporation based in Towson, Maryland, that is best known for power tools and home appliances. ...


Types

There are many types of drills; some powered manually and others using electricity or compressed air as the motive power. Drills with a percussive action (such as hammer drills, jackhammers or pneumatic drills) are usually used in hard materials such as masonry or rock. As well, drilling rigs are used to bore holes in the earth to obtain water or oil. An oil well, water well, or holes for geothermal heating are created with large drill rigs up to a hundred feet high. Some types of hand-held drills are also used to drive screws. Hammer drill A Hammer drill, also known as a rotary hammer or roto-hammer, (see also rotary hammer drill) is a rotary drill with a hammering action. ... A portable jackhammer being used to break up roadworks. ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... “Rock” redirects here. ... Drilling Rig, Gas well in Northern Italy A drilling rig is a machine which creates holes (usually called boreholes) and/or shafts in the ground. ... An oil well is seen in Texas. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Geothermal heating is a method of heating and cooling a building. ... Screws come in a variety of shapes and sizes for different purposes. ...

Carpenter using a crank-powered brace to drill a hole.
Carpenter using a crank-powered brace to drill a hole.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 458 × 599 pixels Full resolution (6387 × 8358 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 458 × 599 pixels Full resolution (6387 × 8358 pixel, file size: 2. ... A Brace or Brace and bit is a hand tool used to drill holes. ...

Hand tools

A variety of hand-powered drills have been employed over the centuries. Here are a few, starting with approximately the oldest:

  • Bow drill
  • Brace and bit
  • Gimlet
  • Breast drill, also known as "eggbeater" drill
  • Push drill, a tool using a spiral ratchet mechanism
  • Pin chuck, a small hand-held jewellers drill

The bow drill has been used used by ancient Sumerians and other groups to drill holes in a piece of wood, called the fire board when creating a coal for fire. ... A brace A brace or brace and bit is a hand tool used to drill holes, usually in wood. ... A gimlet A gimlet is a hand tool for drilling small holes, mainly in wood, without splitting. ... A ratchet lever hoist. ... Two pin chucks. ...

Hammer Drill

The hammer drill is similar to a standard electric drill, with the exception that it is provided with a hammer action for drilling masonry. The hammer action may be engaged or disengaged as required. Hammer drill A Hammer drill, also known as a rotary hammer or roto-hammer, (see also rotary hammer drill) is a rotary drill with a hammering action. ...


The hammer action is cheap but delicate. It uses two cam plates to make the chuck accelerate towards the work. However because of the relative masses of the chuck+bit and the remainder of the drill the energy transfer is inefficient and will fail to penetrate harder materials and vibrates the operators hand. The cams wear fast.


Compare this to a rotary/pneumatic hammer drill where just the bit is accelerated to the work. They have relatively little vibration and penetrate most building materials. It feels as though the work is sucking the bit inwards.


Large cam hammer drills, especially transverse motor, are crude in their action. The energy delivered in each stroke is highly variable. The cheaper drill will smash its way through the work and vibrate the surroundings, this can cause lots of collateral damage. A good SDS drill will gently pulverise the work material just in front of the bit and glide into the hole without any "fuss". The initialism SDS can abbreviate: Safety Data Sheet Samsung SDS: SI Company of Republic of Korea Satellite Data System Scientific Data Systems, a mainframe computer vendor from the 1960s Secondary database server Speech dialog system (RNS-E) Secure DTD2000 System Serb Democratic Party Shwachman-Diamond syndrome Slovenian Democratic Party Social...


However there is a big difference in cost. In the UK typically £12-40 for a cam hammer and £100 up for a rotary/pneumatic. For light DIY use they are fine. See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ...


Rotary hammer drill

The rotary hammer drill (also known as roto hammer drill or masonry drill) is an electric drill type dedicated to drilling holes in masonry. The rotary hammer drill is a percussion drill that uses a weight to create the impact force on the masonry bit. Generally, the drill chuck of the rotary hammer drill is designed to hold SDS drill bits. Some styles of this drill are intended for masonry drilling only and the hammer action cannot be disengaged. Other styles allow the drill to be used without the hammer action for normal drilling. The rotary hammer drill (also known as roto hammer drill or masonry drill) is an electric drill type dedicated to drilling holes in masonry or concrete. ... A Chuck is a specialised type of clamp used to hold rotating tools or materials. ...


Cordless drills

A cordless drill with clutch
A cordless drill with clutch

A cordless drill is a type of electric drill which uses rechargeable batteries. These drills are available with similar features to an AC mains-powered drill. They are available in the hammer drill configuration and most also have a clutch setting which allows them to be used for driving screws. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1126x1384, 226 KB) Picture of battery operated cordless drill taken 18 September, 2005 by Luigi Zanasi (myself) on my workbench using a Olympus digital camera. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1126x1384, 226 KB) Picture of battery operated cordless drill taken 18 September, 2005 by Luigi Zanasi (myself) on my workbench using a Olympus digital camera. ... A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ...


For continuous use, a worker will have one or more spare battery packs charging while drilling, so that he or she can quickly swap them, instead of having to wait several hours during recharges.


Early cordless drills started with interchangeable 7.2V battery packs, and over the years the battery voltage has been increased to 18V, and higher, allowing these tools to produce as much torque as many mains-powered drills. The drawback of most current models is the use of nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, which develop a memory effect or internal short circuits due to dendrite growth, severely limiting their useful life, and posing a hazardous materials disposal problem. Drill manufacturers are now introducing lithium ion batteries, most notably DEWALT. The main advantages are lack of memory effect and very short charging time. Instead of charging a tool for an hour to get 20 minutes of use, 20 minutes of charge can run the tool for an hour. Lithium-ion batteries also have a constant discharge rate. The power output remains constant until the battery is depleted, something that nickel-cadmium batteries also lack, and which makes the tool much more versatile. Lithium-ion batteries also hold a charge for a significantly longer time than nickel-cadmium batteries, about 2 years if not used, vs. around 4 months for a nickel-cadmium battery.
Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and pronounced nye-cad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys using the metals nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) as the active chemicals. ... With batteries, the memory effect, also known as lazy battery effect, is an effect observed in some rechargeable batteries that causes them to hold less charge. ... For alternate meanings see Short circuit (disambiguation) A short circuit (sometimes known as simply a short) is a fault whereby electricity moves through a circuit in an unintended path, usually due to a connection forming where none was expected. ... see dendrite for the biological usage A dendrite in metallurgy is a characteristic tree-like structure of crystals growing as molten metal freezes, the shape produced by faster growth along energetically favourable crystallographic directions. ... A hazardous material is any solid, liquid, or gas that can cause harm to humans and other living organisms due to being flammable or explosive, irritating or damaging the skin or lungs, interfering with oxygen intake and apsorption (asphyxiants), or causing allergic reactions (allergens). ... Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion or Li-On) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ...


Drill press

A drill press.
A drill press.

A drill press (also known as pedestal drill, pillar drill, or bench drill) is a fixed style of drill that may be mounted on a stand or bolted to the floor or workbench. A drill press consists of a base, column (or pillar), table, spindle (or quill), and drill head, usually driven by an induction motor. The head has a set of handles (usually 3) radiating from a central hub that, when turned, move the spindle and chuck vertically, parallel to the axis of the column. The table can be adjusted vertically and is generally moved by a rack and pinion; however, some older models rely on the operator to lift and reclamp the table in position. The table may also be offset from the spindle's axis and in some cases rotated to a position perpendicular to the column. The size of a drill press is typically measured in terms of swing. Swing is defined as twice the throat distance, which is the distance from the center of the spindle to the closest edge of the pillar. For example, a 16-inch drill press will have an 8-inch throat distance. Download high resolution version (1782x1710, 1135 KB)Drill Press (JET Milling/Drilling machine outfitted with Newall C80 digital readout and Microsyn linear encoders) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1782x1710, 1135 KB)Drill Press (JET Milling/Drilling machine outfitted with Newall C80 digital readout and Microsyn linear encoders) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga and AmigaOne personal computers. ... A D-handle fixed-base router A router is a woodworking tool used to rout out (hollow out) an area in the face of a piece of wood. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Rack and pinion animation A rack and pinion is a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. ...


A drill press has a number of advantages over a hand-held drill:

  • less effort is required to apply the drill to the workpiece. The movement of the chuck and spindle is by a lever working on a rack and pinion, which gives the operator considerable mechanical advantage.
  • the table allows a vise or clamp to position and lock the work in place making the operation secure.
  • the angle of the spindle is fixed in relation to the table, allowing holes to be drilled accurately and repetitively.

Speed change is achieved by manually moving a belt across a stepped pulley arrangement. Some drill presses add a third stepped pulley to increase the speed range. Modern drill presses can, however, use a variable-speed motor in conjunction with the stepped-pulley system; a few older drill presses, on the other hand, have a sort of traction-based continuously variable transmission for wide ranges of chuck speeds instead, which can be changed while the machine is running. In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force put into it. ... Bench vise A vise (American and Canadian English) or vice (British English) is a mechanical screw apparatus used for holding or clamping a work piece to allow work to be performed on it using other tools, such as saws, planes, drills, mills, screwdrivers, sandpaper, In general, vises have a fixed... A clamp is a fastening device to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the application of inward pressure. ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ... The continuously variable transmission (CVT) is a transmission in which the ratio of the rotational speeds of two shafts, as the input shaft and output shaft of a vehicle or other machine, can be varied continuously within a given range, providing an infinite number of possible ratios. ...


Geared head drill

The geared head drill is identical to the drill press in most respects, however they are generally of sturdier construction and often have power feed installed on the quill mechanism, and safety interlocks to disengage the feed on overtravel. The most important difference is the drive mechanism between motor and quill is through a gear train (there are no vee belts to tension) this makes these drills suitable for the larger sizes of drill


Radial arm drill

A radial arm drill is a geared head drill that can be moved away from its column along an arm that is radiates from the column. These drills are used for larger work where a geared head drill would be limited by its reach, the arm can swivel around the column so that any point on the surface of the table can be reached without moving the work piece. The size of work that these drills can handle is considerable as the arm can swivel out of the tables area allowing an overhead crane to place the workpiece on the fixed table. Vices may be used with these machines but the work is generally bolted to the table or a fixture Look up radial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Mill drill

Mill drills are a lighter alternative to a milling machine. They combine a drill press (belt driven) with the X/Y coordinate abilities of the milling machine's table and a locking collet that ensures that the cutting tool will not fall from the spindle when lateral forces are experienced against the bit. Although they are light in construction, they have the advantages of being space-saving and versatile as well as being suitable for light machining that may otherwise not be affordable. Endmills for a milling machine. ...


Related tools

Endmills for a milling machine. ... Center lathe with DRO and chuck guard. ... A D-handle fixed-base router A router is a woodworking tool used to rout out (hollow out) an area in the face of a piece of wood. ...

See also

Study of a man using an auger, for The Seven Sorrows of the Virgin, Albrecht Dürer, ca 1496 An auger is a device for moving material or liquid by means of a rotating helical flighting. ... Boring, in this sense, is the process of drilling a hole into the solid Earth. ... The bow drill has been used used by ancient Sumerians and other groups to drill holes in a piece of wood, called the fire board when creating a coal for fire. ... Truck mounted core drill A core drill is a drill specifically designed to remove a cylinder of material. ... Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. ... “Seeder” redirects here. ... Drilling rig head Well drilling is the process of drilling a hole in the ground for the extraction of a natural resource such as ground water, natural gas, or petroleum. ... An oil well is seen in Texas. ...

References

  1. ^ Arnot, Arthur James (1865 - 1946). Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
  2. ^ C.& E. Fein GmbH company history. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  3. ^ US1,245,860 (PDF version) (1917-11-06) S. D. Black & A. G. Decker Electrically driven tool 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Drill

  Results from FactBites:
 
Drill Bit Sharpener from Drill Doctor! (248 words)
The Drill Doctor XP Series are the ideal sharpeners for the home workshop and
serious do-it-yourselfers with the sharpening power needed to restore dull or broken drill bits, including split points creating a self-centering bit for less drill bit wandering.
The DD500X shop model is designed for durability and has the flexibility required to sharpen the largest range and most popular sizes of dull or broken bits-including split points and masonry bits.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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