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Encyclopedia > Dreyfus affair
This article is part of
the Dreyfus affair
series.
Investigation and arrest
Trial and conviction
Picquart's investigations
Other investigations
Public scandal
"J'accuse...!" - Zola
Resolution
Alfred Dreyfus

The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal with anti-Semitic overtones which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. It involved the wrongful conviction for treason, in 1894, and the degradation and emprisonment on Devil's Island of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young and promising French artillery officer who was in advanced training with the Army's General Staff. Alfred Dreyfus (1859–1935) was the youngest son born to a wealthy Jewish family who owned a textile manufacture in Alsace, before that province became a part of Germany in 1871. The intense political and judicial scandal that followed lasted until Alfred Dreyfus was fully vindicated and reinstated as a Major in the French Army in 1906 . He actively served during World War I as a Lieutenant-Colonel after which he was raised to the rank of Officer of the Legion of Honor. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Dreyfus Affair began when a bordereau (detailed memorandum) disclosing French military secrets was found in the possession of the Germans. ... The trial and conviction of Alfred Dreyfus was the event that instigated the Dreyfus Affair, a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... While Alfred Dreyfus was serving his sentence on Devils Island back in France a number of people began to question his guilt. ... After Major Georges Picquarts exile to Tunisia others took up the cause of the Alfred Dreyfus. ... The scandal over falsely accused Alfred Dreyfus grew into a public scandal of unprecedented scale. ... Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French writer, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... // Trial of Esterhazy for forgery On the same day as this arrest the examining magistrate Bertulus, disregarding the threats and entreaties directed at him, on his own initiative (as an official note put it) sent Major Esterhazy and his mistress, Marguerite Pays, to prison on the charge of forgery and... Alfred Dreyfus in an army uniform. ... A political scandal is a scandal in which politicians engage in various illegal or unethical practices. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Alfred Dreyfus in an army uniform. ... Elsaß redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Medal for the officer class, decorated with a rosette Napoleon wearing the Grand Cross The President of France is the Grand Master of the Legion. ...

Contents

Background

Antisemitism
Judenstern

History · Timeline · Resources Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1518x1372, 1426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Star of David Yellow badge Talk:List of Jewish American journalists User:RolandR Metadata This file contains additional... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This is a list of resources analyzing antisemitism in the alphabetical order of authors name. ...

Forms
Anti-globalizational · Arab
Christian · Islamic · Nation of Islam
New · Racial · Religious
Secondary · Academic · Worldwide Some writers have argued there is rising acceptance of antisemitism within the anti-globalization movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Competition... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nation of Islam. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Secondary antisemitism is a distinct kind of antisemitism which is said to have appeared after the end of World War II. It is often explained as being caused by —as opposed to despite of— Auschwitz, pars pro toto for the Holocaust. ... Poster at SFSU resurrects the blood libel: Palestinian Children Meat, Made in Israel and slaughtered according to Jewish Rites under American license. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Allegations
Deicide · Blood libel · Ritual murder
Well poisoning · Host desecration
Jewish lobby · Jewish Bolshevism
Usury · Dreyfus affair
Zionist Occupation Government
Holocaust denial This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blood libels are the accusations that Jews use human blood in certain aspects of their religious rituals. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. ... For the logical fallacy, see poisoning the well. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... Jewish lobby is a term referring to allegations that Jews exercise undue influence in a number of areas, including politics, government, business, the media, academia, popular culture, public policy, international relations, and international finance. ... Conditions in Russia (1924) A Census -Bolsheviks by Ethnicity Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish, Żydokomuna, is an antisemitic conspiracy theory which blames the Jews for Bolshevism; it is an antisemitic political epithet. ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Zionist Occupation Government (abbreviated as ZOG) is an antisemitic conspiracy theory according to which Jews secretly (or overtly in the case of the United States of America) control a country, while the formal government is a puppet regime. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...

Antisemitic publications
On the Jews and Their Lies Protocols of the Elders of Zion
The International Jew
Mein Kampf
The Culture of Critique series Title page of Martin Luthers On the Jews and their Lies. ... For the 2005 documentary film by Marc Levin, see Protocols of Zion (film). ... The International Jew: The Worlds Foremost Problem is a four volume set of books originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... The Culture of Critique series comprises Kevin B. MacDonalds principal writings on Judaism and Jewish culture: MacDonald, K. B. A People That Shall Dwell Alone: Judaism As a Group Evolutionary Strategy, With Diaspora Peoples, (Praeger 1994) ISBN 0-595-22838-0 MacDonald, K. B. Separation and Its Discontents Toward...

Persecutions
Expulsions · Ghettos · Pogroms
Jewish hat · Judensau
Yellow badge · Spanish Inquisition
Segregation · The Holocaust
Nazism · Neo-Nazism This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: , chertA osEdlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to live near the border with central Europe. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...

Opposition
Anti-Defamation League
Community Security Trust
EUMC · Stephen Roth Institute
Wiener Library · SPLC · SWC
UCSJ · SCAA · Yad Vashem The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... A 2005 CST report into anti-Semitism in the UK The Community Security Trust (CST) is an organization established to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in Britain (UK). ... The European Fundamental Rights Agency (formally, the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) is a proposed agency of the European Union which will be set up in Vienna. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The Wiener Library is the worlds oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... UCSJ, or the Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union, is a collection of Jewish human rights organisations working in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism (Swedish: , SKMA) is a Sweden-based non-profit organization, founded in 1983, that works to counteract and spread knowledge about antisemitism. ... New Yad Vashem museum building designed by Safdie Yad Vashem (Hebrew: ‎; Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Authority) is Israels official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust established in 1953 through the Memorial Law passed by the Knesset, Israels parliament. ...

Categories
Antisemitism · Jewish history

v  d  e
Main article: History of the Jews in France

See also: Religion in France and Roman Catholicism in France The current Jewish community in France numbers around 606,561, according to the World Jewish Congress and 500,000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France (France Jewish community main organism), and is found mainly in the metropolitan areas of Paris, Marseille and Strasbourg. ... France is a secular country where freedom of thought and of religion are preserved, in virtue of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. ... The Church of France is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ...


Antisemitism in France, during the latter part of the 19th century was openly displayed in print and in public speeches by politicians and journalists belonging to the far right of the political spectrum. After the formal inception of the French Third Republic in 1871, in the 1880s nationalist politicians such as Georges Boulanger, Edouard Drumont (founder of the Antisemitic League of France) and Paul Déroulède (founder of Ligue des Patriotes) sought to capitalize on the new fervor for a unified Catholic France. Since 1892, the anti-Semitic publication " La Libre Parole " had published highly defamatory contributions called " Les Juifs dans l'Armée" or "Jews in the Army". Consequently and in response, Jewish officers in the French Army such as Cremieu-Foa and Mayer had reacted by challenging to a duel the authors of these defamations . Captain Mayer had even lost his life in a duel against Marquis de Mores in June 1892, thus creating a major scandal anticipating that of the Dreyfus Affair . War Minister Freycinet had intervened in the French "Chambre des Deputes" (the French Congress) in those terms: " Gentlemen, in the Army, we do not recognize Jews,Protestants or Catholics, we only recognize French officers". However French Jews ,in general, were later described by author George L. Mosse as being often perceived as a "nation within a nation".[1] Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger (April 29, 1837 - September 30, 1891) was a French general and reactionary politician. ... Édouard Drumont (1844-1917) was a French journalist and writer, known for his anti-semitic ideas. ... The Antisemitic League of France (French: Ligue antisémitique de France) was founded in 1889 by the journalist Edouard Drumont. ... Paul Déroulède (September 2, 1846 - January 30, 1914) was a French author and politician. ... The Ligue des Patriotes was founded by the French nationalist poet Paul Déroulède in 1882. ...


Nonetheless the situation of the Jewish community in France, in the 1890s, was better than that of Jews in certain other countries of continental Europe, such as Germany and worst of all in Czarist Russia[citation needed]. All French Jews had been fully integrated into the nation by law since the French Revolution of 1789 and Napoleon's First Empire. As a result they generally held higher positions in the government and the military than in most other European countries . Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a graduate of both École polytechnique and École Supérieure de Guerre, was a promising young artillery officer. His high exit rankings in these elite institutions had led to a training position on the French Army's General Staff in January 1893. Alfred Dreyfus' family background was solidly upper middle class and rested on a successful family-owned textile manufacture in Mulhouse, a city in Alsace that is close to the German and Swiss borders. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871 and the annexation of Alsace by Germany, part of the Dreyfus family had chosen to retain its French nationality and moved permanently to Paris. Its younger members, including 12-year-old Alfred Dreyfus jr. and his brother Mathieu Dreyfus, grew up there. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other Écoles Polytechniques, see École Polytechnique de Montréal and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Mulhouse (French: , pronounced ; Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse, pronounced ; German: ; i. ... Elsaß redirects here. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Elsaß redirects here. ...


Arrest and accusations

Abruptly in October 1894, shortly after he had begun his training assignment in the "3eme Bureau" of the General Staff, Captain Dreyfus was arrested and charged with passing military secrets to the German embassy in Paris. He was convicted of treason by a military tribunal in December 1894 and promptly incarcerated in solitary confinement on Devil's Island, a small isolated prison island off the coast of French Guiana. Captain Dreyfus's conviction was based on a handwritten list (the bordereau) offering access to secret French military information. This list had been retrieved from the waste paper basket of the German military attaché in Paris, Maximilian Von Schwartzkoppen, by a French cleaning woman and spy in the employ of French military counter-intelligence (the so-called "Section de Statistique" led by a Lt Col Sandherr). Her name is widely recognized and quoted since the early 1900's as Marie Bastian (nee Caudron). The list, or "bordereau", appeared to implicate an artillery officer since it proposed access to technical information concerning a recent French artillery weapon, the Modèle 1890 120mm Baquet howitzer. Dreyfus was suspected because of his artillery training, his Alsatian origins, his yearly trips to his now-German home town of Mülhausen to visit his ailing father, and because he was a Jew, a negative connotation for the anti-Semitic Sandherr and also for some high-level officers at the "4eme Bureau" of the General Staff. Above all, the handwriting on the bordereau resembled that of Dreyfus. However, by the time the High Command realized it could not find substantial evidence against Dreyfus ( aside from the "bordereau" over which forensic experts could not agree that it was Dreyfus' handwriting ) it became impossible to withdraw the prosecution without a scandal that would have brought down the highest levels of the French Army.[2] The obstinacy of the Army's High Command to prosecute Dreyfus without evidence led to criminal activities by military counter-intelligence ( the "Section de Statistique" ) including the fabrication of false documents to incriminate Dreyfus. The protracted cover-up of these activities over several years is at the very heart of the Dreyfus Affair. While there were undoubtedly anti-Semitic overtones to these actions, aggravating the situation was the fact that Dreyfus, although generally praised by his superiors, was not popular with some of his colleagues because of his aloof personality and comparatively wealthy background. His father had died in 1893 and had left him a small fortune. Captain Dreyfus' personal income, in addition to that of his wife, exceeded that of a general officer in the French Army (Doise, 1994). A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Devils Island. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... Elsaß redirects here. ... Mulhouse (Mülhausen in German, Milhüsa in Alsatian) is a town and commune in eastern France. ...


Judicial errors and obstructions of justice

The subsequent court-martial was notable for its numerous errors of procedure. For example, the defense was not made aware of a secret dossier that the prosecution had provided to the military judges (Bredin, 1986). Withholding this dossier from the defense was illegal under French law. The French military historian Jean Doise, a retired officer in the French Army's General Staff, has published evidence (Doise, 1994) that led him to propose the conclusion that Dreyfus may have been used, at least initially, as a decoy by French military counter-intelligence (the "Section de Statistique" led by Lt Colonel Sandherr). According to Doise[3], the intense prosecution of Alfred Dreyfus may have been initially designed to mislead German espionage into believing that it had stumbled onto highly sensitive artillery information. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... -Noun- A collection or file of documents on the same subject, esp. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ...


It has long been demonstrated, in fact since 1896 by Lt Col Picquart, that the torn up bordereau used to incriminate Alfred Dreyfus had in reality been hand written and delivered to the German Embassy by someone else: a French-born infantry officer of Hungarian descent, Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy. At the top of the list on the borderau was a promise to deliver to the German Military Attaché technical information concerning the oleo-pneumatic recoil mechanism of a new French howitzer (the 120 mm Baquet) . Esterhazy had either hoped to extract money from the German Attaché or had, as proposed by Jean Doise (1984), deliberately planted a deception into German hands to throw them off the Canon de 75 modèle 1897 field gun project. As if by coincidence, the new French 75 prototype and its highly advanced oleo-pneumatic recoil nechanism were in secret progress at that very same time . Conversely, the 120mm Baquet had already been earmarked for early termination because of "systemic irregularities in the functioning of its oleo-pneumatic recoil system" which was primitive compared to that of the French 75 (Alvin and Andre, 1923). Jean Doise's explanation fits with the fact that Esterhazy, although identified by Lt Col Picquart as the author of the "bordereau", was surprisingly acquitted by French military Justice in January 1898 and let go to retire in England with a pension. Moreover, and as recently confirmed one more time by the French archival records, Walsin-Esterhazy had once worked full-time as a lieutenant on the staff of military counter-intelligence (the "Section de statistique") and knew Lt Col Sandherr quite well. This episode took place during the early part of Esterhazy's career, before the Dreyfus Affair (in "L'Armée de Dreyfus", 2004, Tallandier (Paris) editor, by General Andre Bach, past Director of: “Service Historique de l'Armée de Terre”, the French Army's central historical archives.) Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy (December 16, 1847–May 21, 1923 ) was French traitor, who served as a spy for Germany. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Canon de 75 modèle 1897 Rifling of a 75 modèle 1897 The French 75mm field gun is a quick-firing field artillery piece developed before World War I and serving into World War II. It was commonly known as the French 75... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


However, the theory that Esterhazy was not exactly what he appears to be - a man who sold military secrets to the Germans to cover his many debts and as revenge against France for denying him the promotion and appointments he wanted - has several problems. If Esterhazy was actually a double-agent working for Sandherr at the time that the bordereau was written, Sandherr's reaction to the discovery of the bordereau makes no sense. This, indeed, would be true if the bordereau handed over by Esterhazy to the German attaché had not been a decoy designed to divert his attention onto a howitzer that had already been eliminated from large scale production: the Model 1890 120mm Baquet. As a matter of public record, only 84 of the 120mm Baquet howitzers had been manufactured (Doise, 1994) after which their production had been halted in 1893 because of basic flaws in their oleo-pneumatic recoil systems (Alvin and Andre, 1923). Another telling fact is that, in 1914-18, the few 120mm Baquet howitzers that were still in existence had been dropped out of the active French artillery inventory amd handed over to the Serbian Army. An important point to be examined as well is that, beginning with the Section de Statistique, up through the Ministry of War and to the French President himself, nobody suggested at any time prior to the Dreyfus trial that the bordereau might be the work of a double agent. However, how could the Army's High Command destroy Esterhazy's credibility with the German attaché since the disinformation planted in the bordereau had been designed to divert German attention away from the French 75. The completed French 75mm field gun was eventually adopted three years later in 1897 and mass produced prior to WW-1 (4,500 guns). Nevertheless a more conventional explanation is reasonable if one prefers to exclude Doise's thesis involving the French 75: Esterhazy's acquittal may then be understood not as the vindication of a patriot, but as a result of the collusion of the Section de Statistique to vindicate him in order to justify and conceal their fabrication of evidence against Dreyfus.


These recent exposures by professional French Army historians entirely confirm what had already been known and/or suspected since the early 1900's: the criminal character of the machinations devised by Lt Col Sandherr and his small group (particularly Major Hubert Joseph Henry and Captain Lauth) at the "Section de Statistique". Because these counter-intelligence officers operated within a loosely supervised bureaucracy distinct from the regular military intelligence section (the 2è bureau ) at the French War Ministry, they drifted into forging evidence against Dreyfus (the "faux Henry") and perverting the course of justice (Bredin, 1986 and General Andre Bach, 2004). This happened because Lt Col Sandherr had been encouraged over the years to report directly and secretly to the office of the politically appointed War Minister himself (General Auguste Mercier who occupied this key position until 1896). It is now further documented (Bach, 2004) that General Auguste Mercier, was the responsible party in initiating this chain of events, and later in pressing for the cover-up of the Dreyfus miscarriage of justice. That he had been inspired at the very beginning by General Deloye, who directed French Artillery and supervised the French 75's secret development, is a plausible but unprovable speculation (Doise, 1984). In British law, perversion of the course of justice is a criminal offence in which someone acts in a manner that in some way prevents justice being served on themselves or other parties. ...

Dreyfus cashiered in a public ceremony.
Dreyfus cashiered in a public ceremony.

Alfred Dreyfus was tried in 1894 on charges of espionage; he was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison on Devil's Island. He was publicly cashiered: his rank marks and buttons were ripped off his uniform and his sabre was broken. In June 1899 the case was reopened, following the uncovering of exonerating evidence and of the fact that Dreyfus had been denied due process during the initial court-martial. France's Court of Cassation quashed his conviction and ordered a new court-martial. Despite the new evidence presented at his second military trial, Dreyfus was re-convicted in September and sentenced to 10 years in prison. He was subsequently pardoned by President Émile Loubet and freed, but would not be formally exonerated until July 12, 1906, when the Court of Cassation annulled his second conviction. Image File history File links Dégradation dAlfred Dreyfus Licence : Source : http://cti. ... Image File history File links Dégradation dAlfred Dreyfus Licence : Source : http://cti. ... Alfred Dreyfus in an army uniform. ... For other uses, see Devils Island. ... Exculpatory evidence is the evidence favorable to the defendant in a criminal trial, which clears or tends to clear the defendant of guilt. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life, liberty... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... Painting of French statesman Émile Loubet by Fernand-Anne Piestre Émile François Loubet (December 30, 1838 - December 20, 1929) was a French politician, 7th president of the French republic. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


He was thereafter formally reinstated as a major in the army in July 1906 and made a Knight of the Légion d’Honneur. However, he decided, of his own accord, to retire in July 1907. Seven years passed until Dreyfus was recalled to active duty in August 1914, at the age of 55. He served mostly behind the lines of the Western Front as a Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery, but also performed front line duties in 1917. Finally, Alfred Dreyfus was raised to the rank of Officer of the Légion d'Honneur in July 1919. This elevation constituted official recognition that he had served his nation in time of war with distinction and well beyond the normal retirement age. Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ...


Scandal and aftermath

L'Aurore's front page on January 13, 1898 features Émile Zola's open letter to the French President Félix Faure denouncing the miscarriage of justice
L'Aurore's front page on January 13, 1898 features Émile Zola's open letter to the French President Félix Faure denouncing the miscarriage of justice
This cartoon of a French family dinner by caricaturist Caran d'Ache illustrates the divisions in French society during the Dreyfus affair. In the top panel, the host says, “Above all, let us not speak of the Dreyfus affair!” The bottom panel shows the dinner party in disorder: “They have spoken of it.”
This cartoon of a French family dinner by caricaturist Caran d'Ache illustrates the divisions in French society during the Dreyfus affair. In the top panel, the host says, “Above all, let us not speak of the Dreyfus affair!” The bottom panel shows the dinner party in disorder: “They have spoken of it.”

The Dreyfus affair became one of the gravest crises to rock the French Third Republic. "The Affair" deeply divided the country into Dreyfusards (supporters of Dreyfus) and anti-Dreyfusards. Generally speaking, royalists, conservatives and the Catholic Church (the "right wing") were anti-Dreyfusards, while Dreyfusards were socialists, republicans and anticlericalists, though there were exceptions[citation needed]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1655x2197, 813 KB) Summary Front page cover of the newspaper LAurore of Thursday 13 January 1898, with the letter Jaccuse, written by Emile Zola about the Dreyfus affair. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1655x2197, 813 KB) Summary Front page cover of the newspaper LAurore of Thursday 13 January 1898, with the letter Jaccuse, written by Emile Zola about the Dreyfus affair. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Félix Faure (30 January 1841–16 February 1899) was President of France from 1895 until his death. ... Drawing a family supper from Caran dAche in le Figaro on February 14, 1898. ... Drawing a family supper from Caran dAche in le Figaro on February 14, 1898. ... Caran dAche was the pseudonym of the 19th century French satirist and political cartoonist Emmanuel Poiré. Caran dAche comes from the Russian word karandash (карандаш), meaning pencil (of Turkic origin; kara dash meaning black stone). ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ...


On the other hand and contrary to common belief, the French Army at the end of the 19th Century was not an anti-Semitic institution. Dreyfus's Jewish background was well-known, yet he had been admitted to the most selective military schools in the country and had been assigned to a sensitive position in the General Staff. During that same period, there were over 250 career officers professing the Jewish faith (Birnbaum, 1998) in the French Army, including many colonels and at least one general officer, General Samuel Naquet-Laroque (1843–1921), who occupied a high position in the state armament industries. That same period also saw the rise of Lt Colonel Mardochee-Georges Valabregue (1854–1934), an artilleryman from the École Polytechnique and an observant Jew. He became Commander in Chief of the École Supérieure de Guerre in 1905 and a full general during World War I. Another high ranking French officer of Jewish descent was General Jules Mordacq (1868-1943). He was a captain at the time of the Dreyfus Affair but his own career continued to progress normally. He became a highly decorated general and divisional commander in the field during WW-1 . General Mordacq was then chosen by Prime Minister Clemenceau, in early 1918, to become his principal military liaison with the High Command. The general remained in this important cabinet position with Clemenceau until the end of the war, in November 1918. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The writer Émile Zola can be credited to have exposed the affair to the general public in a famously incendiary open letter to President Félix Faure to which the French journalist and politician Georges Clemenceau had affixed the headline "J'accuse!" (I accuse!); it was published January 13, 1898 in the maiden issue of the newspaper L'Aurore (The Dawn). It had the effect of a bomb—in the words of historian Barbara Tuchman, "it was one of the great commotions of history" . Emile Zola's intent was to force his own prosecution for libel so that the emerging facts of the Dreyfus case could be thoroughly aired. In this he succeeded. He was convicted, appealed, was retried, and, before hearing the result, fled to England on the advice of his counsel and friends, returning to Paris in June 1899 when he heard that Dreyfus's trial was to be reviewed. Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French writer, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally. ... Félix Faure (30 January 1841–16 February 1899) was President of France from 1895 until his death. ... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... LAurores front page on 13 January 1898 features Emile Zolas open letter to to the French President Félix Faure regarding the Dreyfus Affair. ... Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (January 30, 1912 – February 6, 1989) was an American historian and author. ...


Zola's worldwide fame and respected reputation brought international attention to what he considered Dreyfus's unjust treatment. However, most of the work of exposing the errors in Dreyfus's conviction was done by four people: Dreyfus's brother Mathieu, who fought a lonely campaign for several years ; Jewish journalist Bernard Lazare ; then Lt.Colonel Marie-Georges Picquart, a senior infantry officer who had replaced Lt. Colonel Sandherr, now deceased, at the helm of French Military Counter-intelligence ; and the vice-president of the Senate, Auguste Scheurer-Kestner . They all worked resolutely to make the case for a revision of Dreyfus's conviction by the French military justice system. Picquart himself, who had demonstrated that the real author of the "bordereau" was Major Esterhazy, was reassigned to a post in the south of Tunisia in December 1896. This was not necessarily an inappropriate assignment, since Picquart had originally been transferred from a North African Tirailleur regiment to lead military counter intelligence in Paris. The intention now, however, was to get Picquart away from Paris in order to silence him. It was, in fact, a deliberate obstruction of justice by highly placed members of the French military leadership. Bernard Lazare Bernard Lazare (15 June 1865 - 1 September 1903) was a literary critic, political journalist, anarchist and polemist. ... Marie Georges Picquart (Strasbourg September 6, 1854 – Amiens January 18, 1914), French general and Minister of War. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ...


The affair saw the emergence of the "intellectuals"—academics and others with high intellectual achievements who took positions on grounds of higher principle—such as Zola, the novelists Octave Mirbeau and Anatole France, the mathematicians Henri Poincaré and Jacques Hadamard, and the librarian of the École Normale Supérieure, Lucien Herr. Constantin Mille, a Romanian Socialist writer and émigré in Paris, identified the anti-Dreyfusard camp with a "militarist dictatorship".[4] An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Octave Mirbeau Octave Mirbeau (February 16, 1848 in Trévières - February 16, 1917) was a French journalist, art critic, pamphleteer, novelist, and playwright, who achieved celebrity in Europe and great success among the public, while still appealing to the literary and artistic avant-garde. ... Anatole France (April 16, 1844 – October 12, 1924) was the pen name of French author Jacques Anatole François Thibault. ... Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or Ulm) is a prestigious French grande école, possibly the most prestigious. ... Lucien Herr (1864 – 1926) was a French intellectual, librarian at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and mentor to a number of well-known socialist politicians and writers, including Jean Jaurès and Charles Péguy. ... Constantin Mille (December 21, 1861 – February 20, 1927) was a Romanian journalist, novelist, poet, lawyer, and socialist militant, as well as a prominent human rights activist. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ...


In 1906 the Chamber of Deputies overwhelmingly approved measures to rehabilitate and promote Dreyfus and Picquart in the Army (Picquart became a general and even held the position of Minister of War). Anti-Dreyfusards then denounced the use of the Dreyfus affair for political ends.


The factions in the Dreyfus affair remained in place for decades afterwards. The far right remained a potent force, as did the moderate liberals. The liberal victory played an important role in pushing the far right to the fringes of French politics. It also prompted legislation such as a 1905 law separating church and state. The coalition of partisan anti-Dreyfusards remained together, but turned to other causes. Groups such as Maurras' Action Française, formed during the affair, endured for decades. The right-wing Vichy Regime was composed to some extent of old anti-Dreyfusards and their descendants. The Vichy Regime would later close its eyes to the arrest of Dreyfus's granddaughter, Madeleine, by the Gestapo and to her deportation and death at Nazi extermination camp Auschwitz, in January 1944.[5] [6] The first page of the bill, as brought before the Chambre des Députés in 1905 On 9 December 1905, a law was passed in France separating the church and the state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ...


Lucie Dreyfus, the loyal wife of Alfred, wrote many letters of comfort to him during his exile. She had also written the Vatican for mercy, but her letter was never answered. It was she who appealed to Emile Zola for help. Lucie survived the Holocaust by changing her identity and hiding in Southern France at a Catholic convent under the name of Mme Duteil. She died in Paris at age 76, on December 14, 1945. [7]


In 1985, President François Mitterrand commissioned a statue of Dreyfus by sculptor Louis Mitelberg to be installed at the École Militaire, but the minister of defense refused to display it although Alfred Dreyfus had been rehabilitated into the Army and fully exonerated in 1906   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Building of the École Militaire The École Militaire (French for military school) is a vast complex of buildings housing various military teaching facilities located in Paris, France southeast of the Champ-de-Mars. ...


The Dreyfus Affair, Anti-Semitism and the birth of Zionism

The Austrian-Jewish journalist Theodor Herzl had been assigned to report on the trial and its aftermath. Soon afterward, Herzl wrote The Jewish State (1896) and founded the World Zionist Organization, which called for the creation of a Jewish State in Palestine. The anti-Semitism and injustice revealed in France by the conviction of Alfred Dreyfus had a radicalizing effect on Herzl, demonstrating to him that Jews could never hope for fair treatment in European society. Historically, it is true that the Dreyfus injustice was not the initial motivation for Herzl's actions . However it did go a long way to keep motivating him further into promoting Zionism. His persistent activism during his lifetime eventually led to the creation of a Jewish state long after his death. Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... For the concept of a national Jewish homeland, see Jewish state. ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


In the Middle East, the Muslim Arab press was sympathetic to the falsely accused Captain Dreyfus, and criticized the persecution of Jews in France.[8]
Not all Jews saw the Dreyfus Affair as evidence of antisemitism in France, however. It was also viewed as the opposite. The Jewish philosopher Emmanuel Lévinas often cited the words of his father: "A country that tears itself apart to defend the honor of a small Jewish captain is somewhere worth going."[9] Emmanuel Lévinas (IPA: , January 12, 1906 Kaunas, Lithuania - December 25, 1995 Paris) was a French philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ...


Centennial commemoration

On 12 July 2006, President Jacques Chirac held an official state ceremony marking the centenary of Dreyfus's official rehabilitation. This was held in the presence of the living descendants of both Emile Zola and Alfred Dreyfus. The event took place in the same cobblestone courtyard of Paris' École Militaire, where Capitaine Dreyfus had been officially stripped of his officer's rank. Chirac stated that "the combat against the dark forces of intolerance and hate is never definitively won," and called Dreyfus "an exemplary officer" and a "patriot who passionately loved France." The French National Assembly also held a memorial ceremony of the centennial marking the end of the Affair. This was held in remembrance of the 1906 laws that had reintegrated and promoted both Dreyfus and Picquart at the end of the Dreyfus Affair. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Building of the École Militaire The École Militaire (French for military school) is a vast complex of buildings housing various military teaching facilities located in Paris, France southeast of the Champ-de-Mars. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...


Films and theatre

Films:

  • L'Affaire Dreyfus, Georges Méliès, Stumm, France, 1899
  • Trial of Captain Dreyfus, Stumm, USA, 1899
  • Dreyfus, Richard Oswald, Germany, 1930
  • The Dreyfus Case, F.W. Kraemer, Milton Rosmer, USA, 1931
  • The Life of Emile Zola, USA, 1937
  • I Accuse!, José Ferrer, England, 1958
  • Au revoir, les enfants, Louis Malle, France/West Germany, 1987
  • L'Affaire Dreyfus (released in Germany as Die Affäre Dreyfus), Yves Boisset, 1995

A British-made television film of 1991, Prisoner of Honor, directed by Ken Russell, focuses on the efforts of Colonel Picquart to have the sentence of Alfred Dreyfus overturned. (Colonel Picquart was played by American actor Richard Dreyfuss, who says he is a descendant of Alfred Dreyfus). The Life of Emile Zola is a 1937 movie giving a biography of the famous French author Émile Zola. ... Au revoir les enfants (English: goodbye children) is a 1987 film written, produced and directed by Louis Malle. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ...


Theatre:

  • Seymour Hicks wrote a drama called One of the Best, based on the Dreyfus trial, starring William Terriss. It played at the Adelphi Theatre in London in 1895. The idea was suggested to Hicks by W.S. Gilbert.

Seymour Hicks Seymour Hicks (30 January 1871 - 6 April 1949) was a British actor and music hall performer. ... William Terriss (20 February 1847 - 16 December 1897) was an English actor. ... The Adam brothers Adelphi Buildings in an 18th-century print; the terrace stood upon riverfront warehousing. ... Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (November 18, 1836 - May 29, 1911) was a British dramatist and librettist best known for his operatic collaborations with the composer Arthur Sullivan. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Alfred Dreyfus

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy (December 16, 1847–May 21, 1923 ) was French traitor, who served as a spy for Germany. ...

Notes

  1. ^ George L. Mosse, Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, (New York: Harper and Row, 1978), 150.
  2. ^ Doise, 1984
  3. ^ Doise, 1984
  4. ^ (Romanian) Constantin Antip, "Émile Zola: «Adevărul este în marş»" ("Émile Zola: «Truth Is Marching On»"), in Magazin Istoric
  5. ^ http://www.floridaholocaustmuseum.org/Newsletter/FHM_winter_2005.pdf
  6. ^ Carroll, James. (2001) Constantine's Sword. p.470 [1]
  7. ^ Carroll, James. (2001) Constantine's Sword. p.471 [2]
  8. ^ Lewis, Bernard (1986). Semites and anti-Semites. Pg. 133
  9. ^ Secularism, the French & Alfred Dreyfus - July 7, 2006 - The New York Sun

References

  • Adam Kirsch (July 11, 2006), The Most Shameful of Stains, The New York Sun
  • Ronald Schechter (July 7, 2006), The Ghosts of Alfred Dreyfus, The Forward
  • Stanley Meisler (July 9, 2006), Not just a Jew in a French jail, The Los Angeles Times
  • Kim Willsher (June 27, 2006), Calls for Dreyfus to be buried in Panthéon, The Guardian
  • Anya Rous The Rising Celebrity and Modern Politics—The Dreyfus Affair
  • Jean Doise, 1984, "Un secret bien gardé. Histoire militaire de l'Affaire Dreyfus." Editions du Seuil, Paris, ISBN 2-02-021100-9
  • General Andre Bach, 2004, "L'Armée de Dreyfus. Une histoire politique de l'armée française de Charles X a l'"Affaire". Tallandier,Paris, ISBN 2-84734-039-4
  • Pierre Birnbaum,1998,"L'Armée Française était elle antisemite ?", pp 70-82 in Michel Winock: "L'Affaire Dreyfus", Editions du Seuil, Paris, ISBN 2-02-032848-8. *Colonel Alvin and Commandant Andre, 1923," Les Canons de la Victoire.Manuel d'Artillerie Lourde".Charles-Lavauzelle,Paris.This highly technical manual documents (Pages 334-339) the unsatisfactory character of the 120mm Baquet howitzer ( the artillery piece prominently listed in the Esterhazy "bordereau".
 ==External links== 

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Further reading

  • Jean-Denis Bredin, The Affair: The Case of Alfred Dreyfus (1986), ISBN 0807611751
  • Eric Cahm, The Dreyfus Affair in French Society and Politics (1996), ISBN 0-582-27679-9)
  • Guy Chapman, The Dreyfus Trials (1972)
  • Nicholas Halasz, Captain Dreyfus: The Story of a Mass Hysteria (1955), ASIN B000JC5HXO
  • Michael Burns, France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History (1999), ISBN 0312218133
  • David Levering Lewis, Prisoners of Honor, the Dreyfus Affair(1994), Henry Holt and Co, ISBN 0-8050-3766-7
  • The Hon Justice Michael Kirby AC CMG, The Dreyfus Case a Century On—Ten Lessons for Ireland & Australia http://www.lawsociety.ie/documents/committees/hr/lectures/dreyfusaffair2006.pdf
  • Betty Schechter, The Dreyfus Affair: A National Scandal (1965), ISBN 0395070929

Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Main article: Antisemitism An antisemitic canard is a deliberately false story inciting antisemitism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ... Some writers have argued there is rising acceptance of antisemitism within the anti-globalization movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Competition... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nation of Islam. ... Philo-Semitism, Philosemitism, or Semitism is an interest in, respect for the Jewish people, as well as the love of everything Jewish, and the historical significance of Jewish culture and positive impact of Judaism in the history of the world. ... Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine[1][2] Anti-Zionism takes many forms, ranging from political or religious opposition to the idea of a Jewish state, to rejecting Israels right to exist and the legitimacy... Self-hating Jew (or self-loathing Jew) is an epithet used about Jews, which suggests a hatred of ones Jewish identity or ancestry. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi Germany was noted for its psychologically powerful propaganda, much of which was centered around Jews, who were consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Conditions in Russia (1924) A Census -Bolsheviks by Ethnicity Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish, Å»ydokomuna, is an antisemitic conspiracy theory which blames the Jews for Bolshevism; it is an antisemitic political epithet. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... The blood curse is a New Testament passage (Matthew 27:24-25) that has provoked considerable controversy. ... Blood libels are the accusations that Jews use human blood in certain aspects of their religious rituals. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... Contemporary etching depicting Hep-Hep riot in Frankfurt Hep-Hep riots were pogroms against Jews in Germany and other Central European countries including Austria Poland and Czechoslovakia. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Banners from March 1968. ... For other persons named Leo Frank, see Leo Frank (disambiguation). ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal with anti-Semitic overtones which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ... Farhud (translation from Arabic: pogrom, violent dispossession) was a violent pogrom against the Jews of Baghdad, Iraq on June 1-2, 1941. ... General Order No. ... Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Jew Watch is an antisemitic[1] website that describes itself as “The Internets Largest Scholarly Collection of Articles on Jewish History. ... Radio Islam, was a Swedish radio channel, now a website, which is dedicated to the liberation struggle of the Palestinian people against Israel. The EUs racism monitoring organization has called it one of the most radical anti-Semitic homepages on the net, and Radio Islam also espouses Holocaust denial... Logo/Banner of the Institute for Historical Review (Acronym IHR) The Institute for Historical Review (IHR), founded in 1978, is an American Holocaust denial[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] organization which describes itself as a public-interest educational, research and publishing center dedicated to promoting greater public awareness... Bible Believers is the website of the Bible Believers Church of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... For other uses, see Stormfront The Stormfront White Nationalist Community is a white pride Internet forum with the motto White Pride World Wide. Critics and the media describe it as a Neo-Nazi organization, and accuse it of promoting racism and hate speech, and of serving as a forum for... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The mission of the Bay Area Holocaust Oral History Project (BAHOHP) is to gather oral life histories of Holocaust survivors, liberators, rescuers, and eyewitnesses. ... Scholars for Peace in the Middle East (SPME) is a non-profit, advocacy organization. ... The Middle East Media Research Institute, or MEMRI for short, is a Middle Eastern press monitoring organization located in Washington, D.C., with branch offices in Jerusalem, Berlin, London, and Tokyo. ... JDL logo. ... New Yad Vashem museum building designed by Safdie Yad Vashem (Hebrew: ‎; Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Authority) is Israels official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust established in 1953 through the Memorial Law passed by the Knesset, Israels parliament. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alfred Dreyfus and “The Affair” (680 words)
The fact that it followed other scandals — the Boulanger affair, the Wilson case, and the bribery of government officials and journalists that was associated with the financing of the Suez Canal — suggested that the young French Republic was in danger of collapse.
Dreyfus came under suspicion, probably because he was a Jew and also because he had access to the type of information that had been supplied to the German agent.
In September 1899, the president of France pardoned Dreyfus, thereby making it possible for him to return to Paris, but he had to wait until 1906 —; twelve years after the case had begun — to be exonerated of the charges, after which he was restored to his former military rank.
Dreyfus Affair - MSN Encarta (759 words)
Dreyfus Affair, the controversy involving the French army officer Alfred Dreyfus, who was convicted on a charge of treason in 1894.
In 1894 Dreyfus was found guilty by a court-martial, reduced in rank, and transported to Devil’s Island, where he was to be imprisoned for the rest of his life.
Seven years later, in 1906, Dreyfus was fully rehabilitated by a judgment of the Cour de cassation, restored to the army with the rank of major, and decorated with the Legion of Honor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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