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Encyclopedia > Dresden
Dresden
Coat of arms Location
Coat of arms of Dresden
Administration
Country Flag of Germany Germany
State Saxony
Admin. region Dresden
District Urban district
Lord Mayor Lutz Vogel (Ind.)
stand-in for Ingolf Roßberg (FDP)
Basic statistics
Area 328.8 km² (127 sq mi)
Elevation 113 m  (371 ft)
Population  508,351  (31/12/2007)[1][2][3]
 - Density 1,546 /km² (4,004 /sq mi)
 - Urban 695,680
 - Metro 1,322,090 
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate DD
Postal codes 01001–01462
Area code 0351
Website dresden.de

Coordinates: 51°2′0″N 13°44′0″E / 51.03333, 13.73333 Dresden is the name of several places in the world: Dresden, Germany In the United States of America Dresden, Kansas Dresden, Maine Dresden, Washington County, New York Dresden, Yates County, New York Dresden, Ohio Dresden, Tennessee Dresden, Canada, Canada Dresden, Staffordshire, England Dresden is sometimes used as word for European... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2036x538, 743 KB) de: Dresden (Sachsen, Deutschland), Blick von der Carolabrücke (Elbbrücke) in Richtung Südwesten. ... Image File history File links Karte_Deutschland. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... A Regierungsbezirk is an government region of Germany, a subdivision of certain federal states (Bundesländer). ... Dresden is one of the three Regierungsbezirke of Saxony, Germany, located in the south-east of the country. ... There are 439 German districts (Kreise), administrative units in Germany. ... This is a list of urban districts in Germany. ... Councillor Patrick (Pat) John Stannard, Lord Mayor of Oxford (2004). ... Not to be confused with Independence Party or Independent Party. ... The Free Democratic Party (German: Freie Demokratische Partei; FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... German car number plates (Kfz-Kennzeichen) show the place where the car carrying them is registered. ... German Postleitzahl map of the first two digits. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Upper Sorbian: Drježdźany) is the capital city[4] of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area.[5] Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbsce) is a minority language of Germany spoken in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, today part of Saxony. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... Free state is a term occasionally used in the official titles of some states. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Saxon triangle is a metropolitan area consisting of the cities of Chemnitz, Dresden, Halle (Saale), Leipzig and Zwickau. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendour. The controversial bombing of Dresden in World War II by the British Royal Air Force and the United States Air Force, plus 40 years in the Soviet bloc state of the German Democratic Republic as well as contemporary city development has changed the face of the city broadly. Considerable restoration work has settled the damage. The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... The bombing of Dresden, led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians agree... RAF redirects here. ... USAF redirects here. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


Since German reunification in 1990, Dresden has emerged as a cultural, political, and economic centre in the eastern part of Germany. This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... This article is about the year. ...

Contents

Geography

Dresden seen from a western slope of the Dresden basin Dresden is a large city in the eastern german Free State of Saxony nearby the border to the czech republik at the river Elbe. ...

Location

View over Dresden from the south-eastern slopes
View over Dresden from the south-eastern slopes

Dresden lies on both banks of the river Elbe, mostly in the Dresden Elbe Valley Basin, with the further reaches of the eastern Ore Mountains to the south, the steep slope of the Lusatian granitic crust to the north, and the Elbe Sandstone Mountains to the east at an altitude of about 113 meters. The highest point of Dresden is about 384 meters in altitude.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1276, 427 KB) Babisnauer Pappel - Blick auf Dresden Author: Stefan Kühn Date: 20. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1276, 427 KB) Babisnauer Pappel - Blick auf Dresden Author: Stefan Kühn Date: 20. ... Winter scene in the Ore Mountains. ... Lusatia (German: , Upper Sorbian: , Lower Sorbian: , Polish: , Czech: ) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern Czech Republic. ... Rocks at Elbe Sandstone Mountains The Elbe Sandstone Mountains (German Elbsandsteingebirge, Czech Labské pískovce) is a mountain range. ...


With a pleasant location and a mild climate on the Elbe, as well as Baroque-style architecture and numerous world-renowned museums and art collections, Dresden has been called "Elbflorenz" (Florence of the Elbe). The incorporation of neighboring rural communities over the past 60 years has made Dresden the fourth largest urban district by area in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, and Cologne.[7] This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than...


Surroundings

The nearest German cities are Chemnitz (80 km to the southwest), Leipzig (100 km to the northwest) and Berlin (200 km to the north). The Czech capital Prague is about 150 km to the south; the Polish city of Wrocław is about 200 km to the east. Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ...


Greater Dresden, which includes the neighboring districts of Kamenz, Meißen, Riesa-Großenhain, Sächsische Schweiz, Weißeritzkreis and part of the district of Bautzen, has a population of around 1,250,000 .[8] Kamenz (Lusatian: Kamjenc) is a Kreis (district) in the north-east of Saxony, Germany. ... Meißen is a district (Kreis) in Saxony, Germany. ... Riesa-Großenhain is a district in Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the district. ... The Weißeritzkreis is a district (Kreis) in the south of Saxony, Germany. ... Bautzen is a district in Saxony in Germany including the former district of Bischofswerda. ...


Nature

63% of Dresden is green areas.
63% of Dresden is green areas.

Dresden claims to be one of the greenest cities in Europe, with 63% of the city being green areas and forests. The Dresdner Heide to the north is a forest 50 km² in size. There are four nature reserves. The additional Special Conservation Areas cover 18 km². The protected gardens, parkways, parks and old graveyards host 110 natural monuments in the city.[9] The Dresden Elbe Valley is a world heritage site which is focused on the conservation of the cultural landscape in Dresden. One important part of that landscape is the Elbe meadows which cross the city, 20 kilometers long. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1120x840, 283 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1120x840, 283 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... View over the river meadows and Dresden The Dresden Elbe Valley is a World Heritage Site in Dresden, Germany. ...


Climate

Winter time in Dresden.
Winter time in Dresden.

Dresden has a cold-moderate to continental climate. The microclimate in the Elbe valley differs from that on the slopes and in the higher areas. Klotzsche, at 227 meters above sea level, hosts the Dresden weather station. The weather in Klotzsche is 1-3°C colder than in the inner city. In summer, temperatures in the city often remain at 20°C even at midnight. Image File history File links Dresden123. ... Image File history File links Dresden123. ...


The average temperature in January is −0.7°C and in July 18.1°C.[10] Summers are hotter in Dresden and winters are colder than the German average. The inner city temperature is 10.2°C averaged over the year. The driest months are February and March, with precipitation of 40 mm. The wettest months are July and August, with 60 mm per month.


Flood protection

Elbe Flood in March 2006: Dresden is often endangered by manageable floods while disastrous events as like in 2002 or 1845 are not likely to happen twice within hundred years
Elbe Flood in March 2006: Dresden is often endangered by manageable floods while disastrous events as like in 2002 or 1845 are not likely to happen twice within hundred years

Because of its location on the banks of the Elbe, into which some water sources from the Ore Mountains flow, flood protection is important. Large areas are kept free of buildings to provide a floodplain. Two additional trenches about 50 meters wide have been built to keep the inner city free of water from the Elbe river by dissipating the water downstream through the inner city's gorge portion. Flood regulation systems like detention basins and water reservoirs are almost all outside the city area. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2490x1818, 605 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2490x1818, 605 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Retention basin. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It supplies New York City with drinking water. ...


The Weißeritz, a normally rather small river suddenly ran directly into the main station of Dresden during the 2002 European floods. Floods in Dresden In August of 2002 a 100-year flood caused by over a week of continuous heavy rains ravaged Europe, killing dozens, dispossessing thousands, and causing damage of billions of euros in the Czech Republic, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Croatia. ...


However, many locations and areas have to be defended by walls and sheet pilings. A number of districts become waterlogged if the Elbe river is flooding some of its old bayous. Big Cypress Bayou in Jefferson, Texas off U.S. Route 59. ...


City structuring

Dresden is a spacious city. Its districts differ in their structure and appearance. Many parts still contain an old village core, while some quarters are almost completely preserved as rural settings. Other characteristic kinds of urban areas are the historic outskirts of the city, and the former suburbs with scattered housing. During the German Democratic Republic, many apartment blocks were built. The original parts of the city are almost all in the districts of Altstadt (Old town) and Neustadt (New town). Growing outside the city walls, the historic outskirts were built in the 18th century. They were planned and constructed on the orders of the Saxon monarchs, which is why the outskirts are often named after sovereigns. From the 19th century the city grew by incorporating other districts. Dresden has been divided into ten districts called "Ortsamtsbereich" and nine former boroughs ("Ortschaften") which have been incorporated.


Demography

Dresden is a city with more than 100 000 inhabitants since 1852, being the third German city[7] that reached the mark. The number of population peaked at 649 252 in 1933 but marked an all-time low of 450 000 after World War II when large resident areas of the city were destroyed. After large incorporations and city restoration the population grew up to 522 532 again between 1950 and 1983.[11]


Since German reunification demographic development is very unsteady. The city had to struggle with migration and suburbanization. The number of population was raised to 480 000 by several incorporations during the 1990s after it fell to 452 827 in 1998. Between 2002 and 2007 the population grew quickly by more than 28 000 inhabitants due to a stabilized economy and reurbanization. Alongside Leipzig, Dresden is one of the ten fastest growing cities in Germany[7] while the population of surrounding New Länder is still shrinking.[11][12] This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Suburbanisation is a term used by many to describe the current social urban dynamic operating within many parts of the developed world and is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... The New Länder (German: Neue Länder) are collectively the states (Länder) of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) that joined the Federal Republic of Germany upon German reunification in 1990. ...


In Dresden, about 51.3% of the population is female. Foreigners account for about 4%[13]. The mean age of the population is 43 years, which is the lowest among the urban districts in Saxony.[14]


History

Although Dresden is a younger city of Slavic origin,[15] the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 7500 BC.[16] Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples,[15] mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, and the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Dresden later evolved into the capital of Saxony. Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... // Linear pottery. ... Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ... Winter scene in the Ore Mountains. ... Capital Meissen Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Partitioned from     marca Geronis   965  - Investiture Controversy¹ 1067  - War of Thuringian     Succession   1247–64  - Acquired most of the     Landgraviate of Thuringia   1298  - Battle of Lucka 1307  - Frederick IV assigned     Saxony-Wittenberg   1423  - Acquired Burggraviate 1426 1: As a result of the Investiture... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...


Early history

The Fürstenzug — the Saxon sovereigns
The Fürstenzug — the Saxon sovereigns

Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany[17] ("alluvial forest dwellers"[citation needed]) had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unclear. It was known as Antiqua Dresdin verifiable since 1350 and later as Altendresden.[17][18] Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". Fürstenzug in Dresden, Germany, from German Wikipedia [1] Photo taken by Reinhard Kraasch, July 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fürstenzug in Dresden, Germany, from German Wikipedia [1] Photo taken by Reinhard Kraasch, July 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... Dietrich, known as The Oppressed (born 1162, died 1221-01-18) was the Margrave of Meißen from 1198 to 1221. ...


After 1270 Dresden became the capital of the margravate. It was restored to the Wettin dynasty in about 1319. From 1485 it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, and from 1547 the electors as well. The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... Wettin is a German royal dynasty a city in Saxony-Anhalt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Events Magnus VII ascends the throne of Norway and unites the country with Sweden. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... This article is about the nobility title. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ...


Dresden in modern Europe

The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (1670-1733) was King August the Strong of Poland in personal union. He gathered many of the best musicians [19], architects and painters from all over Europe to Dresden. His reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). Friedrich Schiller wrote his Ode to Joy (the literary base of the European anthem) for the Dresden Masonic Lodge in 1785. List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony comprised lands in the north-westen part of present-day Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and to Westphalia. ... Year 1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... In most areas of the world Masons gather together in Masonic Lodges to work the three degrees of Freemasonry: 1° = Entered Apprentice 2° = Fellow Craft 3° = Master Mason Blue Lodge is used to specify the basic Masonic Lodge granting the first three degrees and to differentiate it from other Masonic...

Revolutionary barricades during the May Uprising in Dresden (1848)
Revolutionary barricades during the May Uprising in Dresden (1848)

Between 1806 and 1918 the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony (which was a part of the German Empire from 1871). During the Napoleonic Wars the French emperor made it a base of operations, winning there a famous battle on August 27, 1813. Dresden was a center of the German Revolutions in 1849 with the May Uprising, which cost human lives and damaged the historic town of Dresden. Download high resolution version (1239x733, 162 KB)Fighting on the barricades in 1848, Germany This image is not licensed under the GFDL. It is under a non-commercial-use only licence. ... Download high resolution version (1239x733, 162 KB)Fighting on the barricades in 1848, Germany This image is not licensed under the GFDL. It is under a non-commercial-use only licence. ... Combatants Dresden revolutionaries Kingdom of Saxony Commanders Samuel Tzschirner Karl Gotthelf Todt Otto Heubner Alexander Heinze Strength 3,000 5,000 Casualties 200 killed ~1,200 captured 31 killed The May Uprising took place in Dresden, Germany in 1849; it was one of the last of the series of events... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Dresden was fought on August 26-27, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against Austrians, Russians and Prussians under General Schwartzenberg. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Dresden revolutionaries Kingdom of Saxony Commanders Samuel Tzschirner Karl Gotthelf Todt Otto Heubner Alexander Heinze Strength 3,000 5,000 Casualties 200 killed ~1,200 captured 31 killed The May Uprising took place in Dresden, Germany in 1849; it was one of the last of the series of events...


During the 19th century the city became a major centre of economy, including motor car production, food processing, banking and the manufacture of medical equipment. The city's population quadrupled from 95,000 in 1849 to 396,000 in 1900 as a result of industrialization. Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


In the early 20th century Dresden was particularly well-known for its camera works and its cigarette factories. Between 1918 and 1934 Dresden was capital of the first Free State of Saxony. Dresden was a center of European modern art until 1933.

Image of Dresden before its World War II destruction.
Image of Dresden before its World War II destruction.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (1617 × 1106 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (1617 × 1106 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Second World War

Being the capital of a state, it also had garrisons and military industry for centuries and during the Second World War. None of all these garrisons military sites had ever been targeted on 13th February 1945 by the Allies. Dresden was attacked seven times between 1944 and 1945. It was completely captured by the Red Army after German capitulation. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


The bombing of Dresden by the Royal Air Force and by the United States Air Force between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of the Western European theater of war. The inner city of Dresden was completely destroyed during what later proved to be the final weeks of war in Europe. While the inhabited city center was literally wiped out, larger residential, industrial and military sites on the outskirts were relatively unscathed. Some of the Allies described the operation as the justified bombing of a military and industrial target [20] while others called it "Terror." Prime Minister Winston Churchill tried to distance himself from the attack (which he had ordered himself). Several researchers have argued that the February attacks were disproportional[21]. According to Freeman Dyson, the Allies may not have expected a firestorm.[22] The bombing of Dresden, led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians agree... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Churchill redirects here. ... Within law, the principle of proportionality is used to describe the idea that the punishment of a certain crime should be in proportion to the severity of the crime itself. ... Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, nuclear weapons design and policy, and for his serious theorizing in futurism and science fiction concepts, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ...


Post-war period

After the Second World War, Dresden became a major industrial center in the German Democratic Republic with a great deal of research infrastructure. Many important historic buildings were rebuilt including the Semper Opera House, the Zwinger Palace and a great many other historic buildings, although the city leaders chose to reconstruct large areas of the city in a "socialist modern" style, partly for economic reasons but also in order to break away from the city's past as the royal capital of Saxony and a stronghold of the German bourgeoisie. However, some of the bombed-out ruins of churches, royal buildings and palaces, such as the Gothic Sophienkirche, the Alberttheater and the Wackerbarth-Palais were razed by the Soviet and East German authorities in the 1950s and 1960s instead of being repaired. Compared to West Germany, the majority of historic buildings were saved. “East Germany” redirects here. ... Semper Oper in Dresden Semper Oper (or Semperoper or Dresden Royal Opera House or Dresden State Opera House) is an opera house in Dresden, Germany, and is one of the most famous in Europe. ... Aerial view of the Zwinger Palace The Zwinger Palace in Dresden, is a major German landmark. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ...


From 1985 to 1990 the KGB stationed Vladimir Putin, the future present President of Russia, in Dresden. On 3 October 1989 (the so-called "battle of Dresden"), a convoy of trains carrying East German refugees from Prague passed through Dresden on its way to the Federal Republic of Germany. Local activists and residents joined in the growing civil disobedience movement spreading across the German Democratic Republic by staging demonstrations and demanding the removal of the non-democratic government. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ...


Post-reunification

The Dresden Frauenkirche, a few days prior to its re-consecration.
The Dresden Frauenkirche, a few days prior to its re-consecration.

Dresden has experienced dramatic changes since the reunification of Germany in the early 1990s. The city still bears many wounds from the bombing raids of 1945, but it has undergone significant reconstruction in recent decades. Restoration of the Dresden Frauenkirche was completed in 2005, a year before Dresden's 800th anniversary. The urban renewal process, which includes the reconstruction of the area around the Neumarkt square on which the Frauenkirche is situated, will continue for many decades, but public and government interest remains high, and there are numerous large projects underway — both historic reconstructions and modern plans — that will continue the city's recent architectural renaissance. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1015 KB) Beschreibung A picture from the Dresden Frauenkirche (engl. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1015 KB) Beschreibung A picture from the Dresden Frauenkirche (engl. ... The Dresden Frauenkirche in October 2005, only two weeks prior to its reconsecration and opening to the public. ... The Dresden Frauenkirche in October 2005, only two weeks prior to its reconsecration and opening to the public. ... The Neumarkt in Dresden is a central and culturally significant section of the Dresden inner city. ...


Dresden remains a major cultural center of historical memory, owing to the city's destruction in World War II. Each year on 13 February, the anniversary of the British and American fire-bombing raid that destroyed most of the city, tens of thousands of demonstrators gather to commemorate the event. Since reunification, the ceremony has taken on a more neutral and pacifist tone (after being used more politically in Cold War times). In recent years, however, white power skinheads have tried to use the event for their own political ends. In 2005, Dresden was host to the largest Neo-Nazi demonstration in the post-war history of Germany. Between five and eight thousand Neo-Nazis took part, mourning what they call the "Allied bomb-holocaust". Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The bombing of Dresden, led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians agree... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


In 2002 torrential rains caused the Elbe to flood 9 m above its normal height, i.e. even higher than the old record height from 1845, damaging many landmarks (See 2002 European flood). The destruction from this "millennium flood" is no longer visible, due to the speed of reconstruction. Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... In August of 2002 a 100-year flood caused by over a week of continuous heavy rains ravaged Europe, killing dozens, dispossessing thousands, and causing damages of billions of dollars in the Czech Republic, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Croatia. ...


The United Nations cultural organization UNESCO declared the Dresden Elbe Valley to be a World Heritage Site in 2004.[23] After being placed on the list of endangered World Heritage Sites in 2006, the city is most likely going to lose the title in July 2007 due to the construction of the Waldschlößchenbrücke. UNESCO stated in 2006 that the bridge will destroy the cultural landscape. The city council's legal moves to prevent the bridge being built failed.[24] UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... View over the river meadows and Dresden The Dresden Elbe Valley is a World Heritage Site in Dresden, Germany. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The bridges position The bridge as compared to other Dresden bridges The Waldschlößchenbrücke is a planned bridge across the river Elbe in Dresden. ...


Military history

The Schützenkaserne (pictured during a royal military parade in 1910) is the only building of the Albertstadt that was destroyed during the Second World War
The Schützenkaserne (pictured during a royal military parade in 1910) is the only building of the Albertstadt that was destroyed during the Second World War

As the capital of a German principality and kingdom, Dresden has been a military center for centuries. In connection with the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, a large military facility called Albertstadt was built. It had a capacity of up to 20,000 military personnel at the beginning of the First World War. The garrison saw only limited use between 1918 and 1934 but was then reactivated in preparation for the Second World War. It was never attacked in the bombings of Dresden.


Its usefulness was limited by attacks at 17th April 1945[25] on the railway network (especially towards Bohemia).[26] Soldiers had been deployed as late as March 1945 in the Albertstadt garrison.


The Albertstadt garrison became the headquarters of the Soviet 1st Guards Tank Army in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany after the war. Apart from the German army officers' school (Offizierschule des Heeres) there have been no more military units in Dresden since the army merger during German reunification and the withdrawal of Soviet forces in 1992. The Soviet First Guards Tank Army was a Soviet armoured formation that fought as part of the Red Army on the Eastern Front during World War II. The army was commanded throughout most of the war by Mikhail Katukov. ... The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1949–1988) (ГСВГ, Группа советских войск в Германии), also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945–1949) and the Western Group of Forces (1988–1994) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany. ...


The Bundeswehr operates the Military History Museum of the Federal Republic of Germany in the former Albertstadt garrison.


Government and politics

Main article: Government of Dresden

Dresden is one of Germany's 16 political centers and the capital of Saxony. It has institutions of democratic local self-administration that are independent from the capital functions[27]. Some local affairs of Dresden are observed nationwide. The Dresden town hall (in foreground) Dresden is a kreisfreie Stadt (which is usually translated as district-free city) in the district structure of Saxony. ...


Dresden hosted some international summits such as the Petersburg Dialogue between Russia and Germany, the European Union's Minister of the Interior conference and the G8 labor ministers conference in recent years. Group of Eight redirects here. ...


Municipality and city council

City council

The city council defines the basic principles of the municipality by decrees and statutes. The council gives orders to the "Bürgermeister" (burgomaster) by voting for resolutions and thus has some executive power.[28]


Currently there is no stable governing majority on Dresden city council.


Burgomasters and municipality

The Supreme Burgomaster is directly elected by the citizens for a term of seven years. Executive functions are normally elected indirectly in Germany. However, the Supreme Burgomaster shares numerous executive rights with the city council. He/She is the executive head of the municipality, and also the ceremonial representative of the city. The main departments of the municipality are managed by seven burgomasters.[29] Burgomaster (alternatively spelled Burgomeister, literally translated meaning master of the citizens) is the English form, rendering (often the Anglo-Saxon equivalent Mayor is substituted) various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate and/or chairman of the executive council of a sub-national level of administration...


Local affairs

Architecture (like the "deconstructivist" fire escape on the baroque Landhaus) is a persistent subject of controversy in Dresden
Architecture (like the "deconstructivist" fire escape on the baroque Landhaus) is a persistent subject of controversy in Dresden

Local affairs in Dresden often center around the urban development of the city and its spaces. Architecture and the design of public places is a controversial subject. Discussions about the Waldschlößchenbrücke, a planned bridge across Elbe, received international attention because of its position across the Dresden Elbe Valley World Heritage Site. Opponents of the bridge are concerned that its construction would cause the loss of World Heritage site status.[30] The city held a public referendum in 2005 on whether to build the bridge, prior to UNESCO expressing doubts about the compatibility between bridge and heritage. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 783 KB) Landhaus Dresden, Treppe, 2006 town museum Dresden (Germany), stair selbst fotografiert Autor: Bernd Hutschenreuther GNU-FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 783 KB) Landhaus Dresden, Treppe, 2006 town museum Dresden (Germany), stair selbst fotografiert Autor: Bernd Hutschenreuther GNU-FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden Metadata... The bridges position The bridge as compared to other Dresden bridges The Waldschlößchenbrücke is a planned bridge across the river Elbe in Dresden. ... View over the river meadows and Dresden The Dresden Elbe Valley is a World Heritage Site in Dresden, Germany. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


In 2006 Dresden sold its publicly subsidized housing organization, WOBA Dresden GmbH, to the US-based private investment company Fortress Investment Group. The city received 987.1 million euros and paid off its remaining loans, making it the first large city in Germany to become debt-free. Opponents of the sale were concerned about Dresden's loss of control over the subsidized housing market.[31] Fortress Investment Group (NYSE: FIG) is a New York, NY-based asset management firm which manages private equity, hedge funds and real estate-related investments. ... Section 8 is an American sponsored public housing program divided into two programs, tenant-based and project-based. ...


The construction of a new football (soccer) stadium has been in planning for several years. The start date for upgrading the Rudolf-Harbig-Stadion into a single use football (soccer) stadium with a capacity of 32,770 was November 2007.[32] Soccer redirects here. ... Rudolf-Harbig-Stadion is a combined athletics, American football and football stadium in Dresden, Saxony, Germany. ... Soccer redirects here. ...


Sister cities

Along with its twin city Coventry, Dresden was one of the first cities to twin with a foreign city. The two cities became twins after World War II in an act of reconciliation, as both had been nearly destroyed by bombing. Dresden has twelve twin cities.[33] For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... , Country Region Little District Parts 16  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice Center Masarykovo námÄ›stí  - elevation 260 m... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... This article is about the city named Brazzaville. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ...

Coat of arms

Blazon: Party per pale on a golden shield showing a black lion to dexter and two black pales to sinister. The lion is looking to dexter and has a red tongue. The city's colours are derivatively black and yellow (Or). This is an article about Heraldry. ... Divisions of the field is a heraldic term referring to the pattern on a shield. ... This article is about the defensive device. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Dexter is the name of a number of places in the United States of America: Dexter, Alabama Dexter, Arkansas Dexter, Georgia Dexter, Illinois Dexter, Indiana Dexter, Iowa Dexter, Kansas Dexter, Kentucky Dexter, Maine Dexter, Michigan Dexter, Minnesota Dexter, Mississippi Dexter, Missouri Dexter, New Mexico Dexter, New York Dexter, North Carolina... The shield above depicts a black pale placed on a gold shield, and its blazon is A pale is a term used in heraldic blazon to describe a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running vertically down the center of the shield. ... Look up Sinister in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... Tinctures are the colours used to blazon coats of arms in heraldry. ...


Meaning: The lion represents the Margraviate of Meissen and the pales called the Landsberger Pfähle represent the March of Landsberg, both ruling the city of Dresden. Since 1309 both coats of arms in combination have been used. The pales were originally blue but converted to black to differentiate from the two other important Saxon cities of Leipzig and Chemnitz, which have very similar coats of arms. Capital Meissen Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Partitioned from     marca Geronis   965  - Investiture Controversy¹ 1067  - War of Thuringian     Succession   1247–64  - Acquired most of the     Landgraviate of Thuringia   1298  - Battle of Lucka 1307  - Frederick IV assigned     Saxony-Wittenberg   1423  - Acquired Burggraviate 1426 1: As a result of the Investiture... Landsberg may refer to: Landsberg (district), Bavaria, Germany Landsberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria, Germany Landsberg an der Warthe, German name of Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland The Kent H. Landsberg Company, a packaging and janitorial supply company Landsberg Prison, a prison in Landsberg am Lech Ernst Landsberg Grigory... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Leipzig. ... Image File history File links Wappen_chemnitz. ...


Culture and architecture

Main article: Culture in Dresden

Dresden is seeking to regain the kind of cultural importance it held from the 19th century up until the 1920s when it was a centre of art, architecture and music. Richard Wagner had a number of his works performed for the first time in Dresden. During that period, other famous artists such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Otto Dix, Oskar Kokoschka, Richard Strauss, Gottfried Semper and Gret Palucca were active in the city. Dresden is also home to several important art collections, world-famous musical ensembles, and significant buildings from various architectural periods, many of which were rebuilt after the destruction of the Second World War. A great many visitors from around the world come to Dresden purely to visit its opera house, galleries, cultural landscape and museums. The Dresden Elbe Valley cultural landscape Dresden is a cultural centre in Germany having influenced the development of European culture. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (May 6, 1880 – June 15, 1938) was a German expressionist painter and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or The Bridge. ... Otto Dix (December 2, 1891 - July 25, 1969) was a German painter and printmaker. ... Oskar Kokoschka (March 1, 1886-February 22, 1980) was an Austrian artist and poet of Czech origin, best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Gottfried Semper Gottfried Semper (1803-1879) was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Oper in Dresden between 1838 and 1841. ... Gret Palucca (8 January 1902 in München; † 22. ... The Dresden Elbe Valley World Heritage Site is according to the UNESCO an outstanding example of land use, representing an exceptional development of a major Central-European city having almost half a million inhabitants. ...


Entertainment

The stage of the Saxon State Opera, completely rebuilt during the German Democratic Republic and reopened in 1985
The stage of the Saxon State Opera, completely rebuilt during the German Democratic Republic and reopened in 1985

The Saxon State Opera descends from the opera company of the former electors and Kings of Saxony in the Semperoper. After being completely destroyed during the bombing of Dresden during the second world war, it was rebuilt by the German Democratic Republic. Its musical ensemble is the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden, founded in 1548.[34] The Dresden State Theatre runs a number of smaller theaters. The Dresden State Operetta is the only independent operetta in Germany.[35] The Herkuleskeule (Hercules club) is an important site in German-speaking political cabaret. Image File history File linksMetadata Dresden_Semperopera. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dresden_Semperopera. ... Semperoper in Dresden Semperoper front facade The Semperoper or Saxon State Opera Dresden (Ger: Sächsische Staatsoper Dresden) is an opera house in Dresden, Germany, and is one of the most famous in the world. ... The Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden (Engl: Saxon State Orchestra Dresden) is an orchestra based in Dresden, Germany. ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ... Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue — a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. ...


There are several choirs in Dresden, the best-known of which is the Kreuzchor (Choir of The Cross). It is a boy's choir drawn from pupils of the Kreuzschule and was founded in the 13th century.[36] The Dresdner Kapellknaben are not related to the Staatskapelle but to the former Hofkapelle, the Catholic cathedral, since 1980. The Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra is the orchestra of the city of Dresden. The Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra (German: Dresdner Philharmonie) is an orchestra in Dresden, Germany. ...


In summer 2006, as part of Dresden's 800th anniversary celebrations, the Pet Shop Boys performed together with the Dresdner Sinfoniker (symphony orchestra) on the pedestrian mall at Prager Straße. The backdrop for the performance was a GDR-era concrete apartment block upon which a light show was displayed. Pet Shop Boys are an English dance music duo, consisting of Neil Tennant who provides main vocals, keyboards and occasionally guitar, and Chris Lowe on keyboards and occasionally on vocals. ...


A big event each year in June is the Bunte Republik Neustadt.


Museums, presentations and collections

"Moor with emerald plate" in the Grünes Gewölbe (Green Vault) which is the former royal Schatzkammer or treasury
"Moor with emerald plate" in the Grünes Gewölbe (Green Vault) which is the former royal Schatzkammer or treasury

Dresden hosts the Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden (Dresden State Art Collections) which are, according to own statements, among the most important museums presently in existence. The art collections consist of eleven museums, of which the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister and the Grünes Gewölbe are the best known.[37] Image File history File links Mohr_mit_Smaragdstufe_Grünes_Gewölbe_Dresden. ... Image File history File links Mohr_mit_Smaragdstufe_Grünes_Gewölbe_Dresden. ... Schatzkammer in German translates as Treasury (Chamber/Vault). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Aerial view of the the Museum at Zwinger Palace The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Masters Picture Gallery) is an art gallery locate in the Zwinger Palace and Semper Building in Dresden, Germany. ... Pretiosensaal in 1904 The Grünes Gewölbe (Green Vault) in Dresden, Germany is a museum that contains the largest collection of treasures in Europe. ...


Other museums and collections owned by the Free State of Saxony in Dresden are:

  • The Deutsche Hygiene-Museum, founded for mass education in hygiene, health, human biology and medicine[38]
  • The Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte (State Museum of Prehistory)[39]
  • The Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden (State Collection of Natural History)
  • The Museum für Völkerkunde Dresden (Museum of Ethnology)
  • The "Universitätssammlung Kunst + Technik" (Collection of Art and Technology of the Dresden University of Technology)
  • Verkehrsmuseum Dresden (Transport Museum)

The Dresden City Museum is run by the city of Dresden and focused on the city's history. The Militärhistorisches Museum der Bundeswehr is in the former garrison in the Albertstadt.


Architecture

Although Dresden is often said to be a Baroque city, its architecture is influenced by more than one style. Other eras of importance are the Renaissance and Historism as well as the contemporary styles of Modernism and Postmodernism. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Historicism is a term which applies to a number of theories of culture or historical development which place the greatest weight on two factors: that there is an organic succession of developments, that local conditions and peculiarities influence the results in a decisive way It can be contrasted with reductionist... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ...


Dresden has some 13 000 cultural monuments enlisted and eight districts under general preservation orders defined.[40]


Royal household

Bridge at the Kronentor (crowned gate) of the Zwinger Palace.
Bridge at the Kronentor (crowned gate) of the Zwinger Palace.

The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Dresden. The Dresden Castle was once the home of the princely and royal household since 1485. The wings of the building have been renewed, built upon and restored many times. Due to this integration of styles, the castle is made up of elements of the Renaissance, Baroque and Classicist styles.[41] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1812, 838 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1812, 838 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden ... Dresden Castle in 1900 The Dresden castle is one of the oldest constructions in Dresden and has been the residence castle of the saxony electors (1547-1806) and kings (1806-1918). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ...


The Zwinger Palace is across the road from the castle. It was built on the old stronghold of the city and was converted to a center for the royal art collections and a place to hold festivals. Its gate (surmounted by a golden crown) by the moat is famous.[42] Aerial view of the Zwinger Palace The Zwinger Palace in Dresden, is a major German landmark. ...


Other royal buildings and ensembles:

The Terrace on the right as looking around 1900. ... Heinrich, count von Brühl (August 13, 1700 – October 28, 1763), German statesman at the court of Saxony, was the son of Johann Moritz von Brühl, a noble who held the office of Oberhofmarschall at the small court of Sachsen-Weissenfels. ... View over the river meadows and Dresden The Dresden Elbe Valley is a World Heritage Site in Dresden, Germany. ... Pillnitz Pillnitz is a city quarter of Dresden, Germany. ...

Sacred buildings

The Hofkirche
The Hofkirche

The Hofkirche was the church of the royal household. Augustus the Strong, who desired to be King of Poland, converted to Catholicism, as the Polish kings had to be Catholic. At that time Dresden was strictly Protestant. Augustus the Strong ordered the building of the Hofkirche, the Roman Catholic Cathedral, to establish a sign of Roman Catholic religious importance in Dresden. The church is the cathedral "Sanctissimae Trinitatis" since 1980. The crypt of the Wettin Dynasty is located within the church.[43] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1962x1599, 347 KB) Description: Dresden. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1962x1599, 347 KB) Description: Dresden. ... Katholische Hofkirche is a Roman Catholic Church, located in the Altstadt in the heart of Dresden, in east Germany. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... The Wettin dynasty of German counts, dukes, Prince Electors (Kurfürsten) and kings ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding for a time the kingship of Poland. ...


In contrast to the Hofkirche, the Lutheran Frauenkirche was built almost contemporaneously by the citizens of Dresden. It is said to be the greatest cupola building in Central and Northern Europe. The city's historic Kreuzkirche was reconsecrated in 1388.[44] The Dresden Frauenkirche in October 2005, only two weeks prior to its reconsecration and opening to the public. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ...


There are also other churches in Dresden, for example a Russian Orthodox Church in the Südvorstadt district. The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


Contemporary architecture

The locally controversial UFA-Palast
The locally controversial UFA-Palast

Dresden has been an important site for the development of contemporary architecture for centuries, and this trend has continued into the 20th and 21st centuries.


Historicist buildings made their presence felt on the cityscape until the 1920s sampled by public buildings such as the Staatskanzlei or the City Hall. One of the youngest buildings of that era is the Hygiene Museum, which is designed in an impressively monumental style but employs plain facades and simple structures. It is often attributed, wrongly, to the Bauhaus school. In art, Historicism refers to styles that draw their inspiration from copying historic styles or artisans. ... For information about British rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ...


Most of the present cityscape of Dresden was built up after 1945, a mix of reconstructed or repaired old buildings and new buildings in the modern and postmodern styles. Important buildings erected between 1945 and 1990 are the Centrum-Warenhaus (a large department store) representing the international style, the Kulturpalast, and a lot of smaller and two bigger complexes of Plattenbau housing, while there is also housing dating from the era of Stalinist architecture. The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930) The International style was a major architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s. ... Modernized Plattenbau in Rostock Original East German Plattenbau like it was built in 1980 Plattenbau is the German word for a building whose structure is constructed of large, prefabricated concrete slabs. ... Unrealised design for the Palace of Soviets, Moscow, by Boris Iofan, 1933 Stalinist architecture (also referred to as Stalins Empire style or Socialist Classicism) is a term given to constructions that were built in the Soviet Union between 1933, when Boris Iofans draft for Palace of Soviets was...

The New Synagogue
The New Synagogue

After 1990 and German reunification, new styles emerged. Important contemporary buildings include the New Synagogue, a postmodern building with few windows, the Transparent Factory, the Saxon State Parliament and the New Terrace, the UFA-Kristallpalast cinema by Coop Himmelb(l)au (one of the biggest buildings of Deconstructivism in Germany), and the Saxon State Library. Daniel Libeskind and Norman Foster both modified existing buildings. Foster roofed the main railway station with translucent Teflon-coated synthetics. Libeskind changed the whole structure of the Military History Museum by placing a wedge through the historicist arsenal building. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x672, 995 KB) Description: Dresden, Synagoge 03 Source: eigene Fotografie, 18. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x672, 995 KB) Description: Dresden, Synagoge 03 Source: eigene Fotografie, 18. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... Transparent Factory Transparent Factory is the English name of an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen and opened in 2002. ... UFA-Palast in Dresden Groninger Museum, in the Netherlands Arteplage in Biel/Bienne from Expo. ... Libeskinds Imperial War Museum North in Manchester comprises three apparently intersecting curved volumes. ... The Saxon State Library ( Sächsische Landesbibliothek), Dresden is one of the main archival centers of Germany. ... Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... The restored Reichstag in Berlin, housing the German parliament. ...


Other buildings

The golden equestrian sculpture of King/Elector August the Strong.
The golden equestrian sculpture of King/Elector August the Strong.

Other buildings include important bridges crossing the Elbe river, the Blaues Wunder bridge and the Augustusbrücke, which is on the site of the oldest bridge in Dresden. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1152x1536, 327 KB) Picture taken by Christian Koehn (fragwürdig) Date: August 29, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1152x1536, 327 KB) Picture taken by Christian Koehn (fragwürdig) Date: August 29, 2005. ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice de... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... ...


There are about 300 fountains and springs, many of them in parks or squares. The wells serve only a decorative function, since there is a fresh water system in Dresden. Springs and fountains are also elements in contemporary cityspaces.


The most famous sculpture in Dresden is the golden equestrian sculpture of August the Strong called the "Goldener Reiter" (Golden Cavalier) on the Neustädter Markt square. It shows August at the beginning of the Hauptstraße (Main street) on his way to Warsaw, where he was King of Poland in personal union. Another sculpture is the memorial of Martin Luther in front of the Frauenkirche. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


Dresden-Hellerau - Germany's first garden city

The Garden City of Hellerau, at that time a suburb of Dresden, was founded in 1909. In 1911 Heinrich Tessenow built the Hellerau Festspielhaus (festival theatre) and Hellerau became a centre of modernism with international standing until the outbreak of World War I. Ebenezer Howards 3 magnets diagram which addressed the question Where will the people go?, the choices being Town, Country or Town-Country The garden city movement is an approach to urban planning that was founded in 1898 by Ebenezer Howard in England. ... Hellerau is a district in the City of Dresden, Germany. ... he licks jacks balls then massages his mums feet ...


In 1950 Hellerau was incorporated into the city of Dresden. Today the Hellerau reform architecture is recognised as exemplary. In the 1990s the garden city of Hellerau became a conservation area. A conservation area is a tract of land that has been awarded protected status in order to ensure that natural features or biota are safeguarded. ...


Cinemas and cinematics

There are several small cinemas presenting cult films and low-budget or low-profile films chosen for their cultural worth. Dresden also has a couple of multiplex cinemas, of which the Rundkino is the oldest.


Dresden has been a centre for the production of animated films and optical cinematic techniques. The Dresden Filmfest hosts a competition for short films which is among the best-endowed competitions in Europe.


Sport

Dresden is home to Dynamo Dresden which has a tradition in UEFA club competitions up to the early 1990s. Dynamo Dresden won eight titles in the DDR-Oberliga. Currently the club is playing in the 3rd Liga after some seasons in the Fußball-Bundesliga and 2. Fußball-Bundesliga. Dynamo Dresden are a German football club, based in Dresden, Saxony. ... The history of the European Cup and Champions League is long and remarkable, with fifty years of competition finding winners and losers from all parts of the continent. ... DDR-Oberliga (DDR Upper League) was, prior to the reunification with West Germany, the elite competition in East Germany in various different sports, including football and handball. ... The Bundesliga is the highest level of Germanys football league system. ... The 2nd Bundesliga is the Second Division of professional football in Germany. ...


In the early 20th century, the city was represented by Dresdner SC, who were one of Germany's most successful clubs in football. Their best days coming during World War II, when they were twice German Champions, and twice Cup winners. Dresdner SC is a multisport club. While its football club is classified in the Landesliga Sachsen (fifth class), it's volleyball club has a team in the women's Bundesliga. Dresdner SC is a German football club playing in Dresden, Saxony and was founded on April 30, 1898. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Championship trophies now and then - the Viktoria (1903-1944) and the Championship Plate (since 1949) The coronation of the first Champions in imperial Germany in 1903 established the tradition of a great footballing nation. ... The German Cup (official German title: DFB-Pokal) is an annually held elimination Football tournament for German Football clubs and is the second most important national title in German football after the Bundesliga title. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ...


ESC Dresdner Eislöwen is a Ice hockey club which is playing in the 2nd Bundesliga again. Dresden Monarchs are an American football team in the German Football League. Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The 2nd Eishockey-Bundesliga is the second tier of Ice hockey in Germany. ... The German football League (GFL) is the elite bundesliga for American football in Germany. ...


Major sport facilities in Dresden are the Rudolf-Harbig-Stadion, the Heinz-Steyer-Stadion and the Freiberger Arena (Ice hockey). Rudolf-Harbig-Stadion is a combined athletics, American football and football stadium in Dresden, Saxony, Germany. ... The Stadium. ...


Infrastructure

Transport

The longest trams in Dresden set a record in length
The longest trams in Dresden set a record in length

The Bundesautobahn 4 (European route E40) crosses Dresden in the northwest from west to east. The Bundesautobahn 17 leaves the A4 in a south-eastern direction. In Dresden it begins to cross the Ore Mountains towards Prague. The Bundesautobahn 13 leaves from the three-point interchange "Dresden-Nord" and goes to Berlin. The A13 and the A17 are on the European route E55. Several Bundesstraße roads crossing or running through Dresden. Dresden Hauptbahnhof Dresden is major german city and capital of Saxony. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 472 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 472 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden ... Map of the A 4 in Germany Bundesautobahn 4 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 4, short form Autobahn 4, abbreviated as BAB 4 or A 4) is an Autobahn that crosses Germany in a west-east direction. ... European route E 40 passes through the following cities: Calais - Dunkerque - Veurne - Oostende - Brugge - Gent - Brussels - Leuven - Liège - Aachen - Köln - Gummersbach - Olpe - Siegen - Wetzlar - Gießen - Bad Hersfeld - Eisenach - Gotha - Erfurt - Weimar - Jena - Gera - Chemnitz - Dresden - Bautzen - Görlitz - BolesÅ‚awiec - Legnica - WrocÅ‚aw - Opole - Metropolian Katowice - Krak... Bundesautobahn 17 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 17, short form Autobahn 17, abbreviated as BAB 17 or A 17) is an autobahn in eastern Germany. ... Bundesautobahn 13 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 13, short form Autobahn 13, abbreviated as BAB 13 or A 13) is an autobahn in eastern Germany, connecting Berlin with Dresden. ... The European route E55 passes through the following cities: Helsingborg - Elsinore - Rostock - Berlin - Dresden - Teplice - Prague - Vienna - Ancona - Ioannina - Arta (bypasses) - Amphilochia - Agrinion - Messolonghi - Rhion * Antirrhion - Patras - Kourtesi - Marathia - Pyrgos - Epitalion - Zacharo - Kalo Nero - near Dorio - near Oichalia - Allagi - Thouria - Kalamáta From Helsingborg, the route continues northward through Sweden... Bundesstraßen are German and Austrian federal highways. ...


There are two main inter-city transit hubs in the railway network in Dresden: Dresden Hauptbahnhof and Dresden-Neustadt railway station. The most important railway lines run to Berlin, Prague, Leipzig and Chemnitz. A commuter train system (Dresden S-Bahn) operates on three lines alongside the long-distance routes. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aerial view of the station The Dresden-Neustadt railway station (german: Bahnhof Dresden-Neustadt) is the second largest train station in Dresden and one of the largest train station in Saxony. ... Network map The Dresden S-Bahn is providing commuter train services in Dresden and in the Dresden agglomeration. ...


Dresden Airport is the international airport of Dresden, located at the north-western outskirts of the town. Its infrastructure has been improved with new terminals and a motorway access route. Interior view of the terminal building Dresden-Klotzsche Airport or Dresden Airport (IATA: DRS, ICAO: EDDC), known as Flughafen Dresden in German, is the international airport of Dresden, Germany. ...

CarGoTram
CarGoTram

Dresden has a large tramway network operated by the Dresden Transport Authority. Because the geological bedrock does not allow the building of underground railways, the tramway is an important form of public transport. The Transport Authority operates twelve lines on a 200 km network.[45] Many of the new low-floor vehicles are up to 45 metres long and produced by Bombardier Transportation in Bautzen. While many of the system's lines are on reserved track (often sown with grass to avoid noise), many tracks still run on the streets, especially in the inner city. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1064x838, 117 KB) The Volkswagen Cargo-Tram delivers parts to the Transparent Factory in Dresden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1064x838, 117 KB) The Volkswagen Cargo-Tram delivers parts to the Transparent Factory in Dresden. ... Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Bombardier group. ... Bautzen (pronounced , listen, until 1868: Budissin; Upper Sorbian: Budyšin; Lower Sorbian: Budyšyn; , listen; Polish: Budziszyn; Czech: Budyšín) is a city in eastern Saxony, Germany, and capital of the eponymous district. ...


The CarGoTram is a tram that supplies Volkswagen's Transparent Factory, crossing the city. The transparent factory is located not far from the city centre next to the city's largest park.[46] The CarGoTram. ... Transparent Factory Transparent Factory is the English name of an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen and opened in 2002. ...


Public utilities

The Sächsische Staatskanzlei (Saxon State Office) is the institution assisting the Minister-President in a similar way to the German Chancellery
The Sächsische Staatskanzlei (Saxon State Office) is the institution assisting the Minister-President in a similar way to the German Chancellery

Dresden is the capital of a German Land (federal state). It is home to the Landtag of Saxony[47] and the ministries of the Saxon Government. The controlling Constitutional Court of Saxony is in Leipzig. The highest Saxon court in civil and criminal law, the Higher Regional Court of Saxony, has its home in Dresden.[48] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 3033 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden User:DrTorstenHenning/photogallery ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 3033 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dresden User:DrTorstenHenning/photogallery ... Kanzleramt, view from the Reichstag Kanzleramt Kanzleramt Former Federal Chancellery, Bonn, 1976-99 The Chancellors Office (Chancellery) (in German, Bundeskanzleramt, or more commonly Kanzleramt) is the office of the Chancellor, the head of the German federal government (Bundesregierung). ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... The Landtag of Saxony is Saxonys legislature. ...


Most of the Saxon state authorities are located in Dresden. Dresden is home to the Regional Commission of the Dresden Regierungsbezirk, which is a controlling authority for the Saxon Government. It has jurisdiction over eight rural districts, two urban districts and the city of Dresden. Dresden is one of the three Regierungsbezirke of Saxony, Germany, located in the south-east of the country. ... Germany is divided into 439 administrative districts; these consist of 323 rural districts (Landkreise), listed fully here, and 116 urban districts (Kreisfreie Städte / Stadtkreise) - cities which constitute a district in their own right (see List of German urban districts). ... This is a list of urban districts in Germany. ...


Like many cities in Germany, Dresden is also home to a local court, has a trade corporation and a Chamber of Industry and Trade and many subsidiaries of federal agencies (such as the Federal Labour Office or the Federal Agency for Technical Relief). It also hosts some subdepartments of the German Customs and the eastern Federal Waterways Directorate. THW-Logo The Bundesanstalt Technisches Hilfswerk (Federal Agency for Technical Relief, THW) is a disaster relief organisation controlled by the German federal government. ...


Dresden is also home to a military subdistrict command but no longer has large military units as it did in the past. Dresden is the traditional location for army officer schooling in Germany, today carried out in the Offizierschule des Heeres.


Economy

Main article: Economy of Dresden
Factories of AMD
Factories of AMD

In 1990 Dresden — an important industrial centre of the German Democratic Republic — had to struggle with the economic collapse of the Soviet Union and the other export markets in Eastern Europe. The German Democratic Republic had been the richest eastern bloc country but was faced with competition from the Federal Republic of Germany after reunification. After 1990 a completely new law and currency system was introduced in the wake of the collapse of the German Democratic Republic and eastern Germany's infrastructure was largely rebuilt with funds from the Federal Republic of Germany. Dresden as a major urban centre has developed much faster and more consistently than most other regions in the former German Democratic Republic, but the city still faces many social and economic problems stemming from the collapse of the former system, including high unemployment levels. Factories of AMD The economy of Dresden and the Dresden agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1120x840, 267 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): AMD Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1120x840, 267 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): AMD Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... This article is about the year. ... A legal system is the mechanism for creating, interpreting and enforcing the laws in a given jurisdiction. ...


Until famous enterprises like Dresdner Bank left Dresden in the communist era to avoid nationalisation, Dresden was one of the most important German cities. The period of the GDR until 1990 was characterised by low economic growth in comparison to western German cities. The enterprises and production sites broke down almost completely as they entered the social market economy. Since then the economy of Dresden has been recovering. The 1978 Silver Tower houses part of the head office of the Dresdner bank. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ...


Facts and figures

The unemployment rate fluctuates between 13% and 15% and is still relatively high. Nevertheless, Dresden has developed faster than the average for Eastern Germany and has raised its GDP per capita to 31,100 euros, equal to the GDP per capita of some poor West German communities (the average of the 50 biggest cities is around 35,000 euros).[49]


The economy of Dresden involves extensive public funding. Thanks to extensive public funding of technology, the proportion of highly-qualified workers is around 20%.[50] Dresden is ranked among the best ten cities in Germany to live in.[50]


Enterprises

Three major sectors can be seen as dominating the Dresden economy:

The semiconductor industry was built up in 1969. Major enterprises today are AMD, Infineon Technologies (now partly owned by Qimonda), ZMD and Toppan Photomasks. Their factories attract many suppliers of material and cleanroom technology enterprises to Dresden. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1067 KB) Description: Glass manufacture an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen in Dresden (July 2005) source: created on 27. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1067 KB) Description: Glass manufacture an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen in Dresden (July 2005) source: created on 27. ... Transparent Factory Transparent Factory is the English name of an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen and opened in 2002. ... Volkswagen (VW) is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ... AMD redirects here. ... For the raceway, see Infineon Raceway. ... Qimonda AG (NYSE: QI), (pronounced key-MON-duh) is the new memory company split out of Infineon Technologies AG on May 1, 2006, to form the third largest DRAM company worldwide, according to the industry research firm Gartner Dataquest. ... The ZMD Design Center in Dresden Zentrum Mikroelektronik Dresden AG (ZMD AG) is a semiconductor manufacturer based in Dresden. ...


The pharmaceutical sector came up at the end of the 19th century. The Sächsisches Serumwerk Dresden (Saxon Serum Plant, Dresden), owned by GlaxoSmithKline, is a world leader in vaccine production. Another traditional pharmaceuticals producer is Arzneimittelwerke Dresden (Pharmaceutical Works, Dresden). GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a United Kingdom based pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


A third (traditional) branch is that of mechanical and electrical engineering. Major employers are the Volkswagen Transparent Factory, EADS Elbe Flugzeugwerke (Elbe Aircraft Works), Siemens and Linde-KCA-Dresden. VW redirects here. ... Transparent Factory Transparent Factory is the English name of an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen and opened in 2002. ... The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... Siemens redirects here. ... Linde Logo The Linde Group is the international industrial gases and engineering company founded in 1879. ...


Tourism is another sector of the economy enjoying high revenue and many employees. There are 87 hotels in Dresden, a noted site for heritage tourism. The Hawai Mahal in Jaipur, Rajasthan. ...


Media

The media in Dresden include two major newspaper: the Sächsische Zeitung (Saxonian Newspaper, circulation around 300,000) and the Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten (Dresden's Latest News, circulation around 50,000). Dresden has a broadcasting centre belonging to the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. The Dresdner Druck- und Verlagshaus (Dresden printing plant and publishing house) produces part of Spiegel's print run, among other newspapers and magazines. Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Education and science

Universities

Dresden is home to a number of renowned universities, but among German cities it is a more recent location for academic education.

  • The Technische Universität Dresden with almost 35,000 students (2004)[51] was founded in 1828 and is among the oldest and largest Universities of Technology in Germany. It is currently the university of technology in Germany with the largest number of students but also has many courses in social studies, economics and other non-technical sciences. It offers 126 courses.
  • The Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft was founded in 1992 and had about 5,300 students in 2005.[52]
Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden
Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden

Other universities include the "Hochschule für Kirchenmusik", a school specialising in church music, the "Evangelische Hochschule für Sozialarbeit", an education institution for social work. The "Dresden International University" is a private postgraduate university, founded a few years ago in cooperation with the Dresden University of Technology. With 34,993 students (2006), Dresden University of Technology (DUT; German:Technische Universität Dresden, TU Dresden or simply TUD) is the largest institute of higher education in the city of Dresden, the largest university in Saxony and one of the 10 largest universities in Germany. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A University of Technology is an university with a focus on technology. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden The Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden (usually translated from German as Dresden University of Visual Arts and abbreviated HfBK Dresden or simply HfBK) is a vocational university of visual arts located in Dresden, Germany. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... George Grosz (July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity group, known especially for his savagely caricatural drawings of Berlin life in the 1920s. ... Otto Dix (December 2, 1891 - July 25, 1969) was a German painter and printmaker. ... Oskar Kokoschka (March 1, 1886-February 22, 1980) was an Austrian artist and poet of Czech origin, best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. ... Bellottos urban scenes have the same carefully drawn realism as his uncles Venetian views but are marked by heavy shadows and are darker and colder in tone and colour. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... Gerhard Richter (born February 9, 1932) is a prominent German artist. ... Gret Palucca (8 January 1902 in München; † 22. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Free dance is a 20th century dance form that preceded Modern dance. ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 429 KB) Description: Dresden. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 429 KB) Description: Dresden. ...


Research institutes

Dresden also hosts many research institutes, some of which have gained an international standing. The domains of most importance are micro- and nanoelectronics, transport and infrastructure systems, material and photonic technology, and bio-engineering. The institutes are well connected among one other as well as with the academic education institutions.

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics
Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics

The Max Planck Society focuses on fundamental research. In Dresden there are three Max Planck Institutes (MPI); the "MPI of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics", the "MPI for Chemical Physics of Solids" and the "MPI for the Physics of Complex Systems" Image File history File links Institute_finished. ... Image File history File links Institute_finished. ... The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. ... photograph of the institute by Kostas Margitudis The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) is a biology research institute located in Dresden, east Germany. ...


The Fraunhofer Society hosts institutes of applied research that also offer mission-oriented research to enterprises. With eleven institutions or parts of institutes, Dresden is the largest location of the Fraunhofer Society worldwide.[53] The Fraunhofer Society has become an important factor in locatino decisions and is seen as a useful part of the "knowledge infrastructure". The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ...


The Leibniz-Gemeinschaft operates a research centre in Rossendorf, which is the largest complex of research facilities in Dresden, a short distance outside the urban areas. It still focuses on nuclear medicine. The "Leibniz Institute for Polymer Research" and the "Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research" are in the material and high-technology domain, while the "Leibniz Institute for Ecological and Regional Development" is focused on more fundamental research into urban planning. The Leibniz-Gemeinschaft (complete title: Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz . ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ...


Famous residents

Sandra Kiriasis of Germany is a bobsledder who competed in the bobsleigh events at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy. ... Bobsleigh is a winter sport in which teams make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked purpose-built iced tracks in a gravity-powered, steerable sled. ...

References

  1. ^ State Office for statistics of the Free State of Saxony. Population of Saxon cities and communities (tentative). Retrieved on 2008-05-15.
  2. ^ cityppopulation.de quoting Federal Statistics Office. Principal Agglomerations (of Germany). Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  3. ^ Region Dresden. Statistical data of the Dresden Region. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  4. ^ Designated by article 2 of the Saxon Constitution
  5. ^ Region Sachsendreieck: Map of the Sachsendreieck (Saxon triangle)
  6. ^ Dresden.de: Location, area, geographical data
  7. ^ a b c List of cities in Germany with more than 100,000 inhabitants
  8. ^ Regionales Entwicklungskonzept Dresden: Map of Greater Dresden
  9. ^ Dresden: Dresden—a Green city
  10. ^ Deutscher Wetterdienst: Average of the period from 1961 to 1990
  11. ^ a b Dresden: Einwohnerzahl
  12. ^ Statistical office of the Free State of Saxony: Population and area of Saxony from 1815 on
  13. ^ Dresden: Population
  14. ^ Statistical office of the Free State of Saxony: Sachsen sind im Durchschnitt 45 Jahre alt - Dresdner am jüngsten, Hoyerswerdaer am ältesten (german)
  15. ^ a b Dresden.de. "Prehistoric times". Accessed April 24, 2007.
  16. ^ Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam: Man-animal relationships in the Early Neolithic of Dresden (Saxony, Germany)
  17. ^ a b Fritz Löffler, Das alte Dresden, Leipzig 1982, p.20
  18. ^ Geschichtlicher Hintergrund des Jubiläums “600 Jahre Stadtrecht Altendresden” (German)
  19. ^ Dresden in the Time of Zelenka and Hasse
  20. ^ name="USAFHSO_Analysis">Air Force Historical Studies Office: HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 14-15 FEBRUARY 1945 BOMBINGS OF DRESDEN including a list of all bombings
  21. ^ Addison, Paul & Crang, Jeremy A. (eds.). Firestorm: The Bombing of Dresden. Pimlico, 2006. ISBN 1-8441-3928-X. Chapter 9 p.194
  22. ^ ibid, p.20
  23. ^ world heritage entry, accessed May 15th, 2007
  24. ^ magazine report (German), accessed May 15th, 2007
  25. ^ Air Force Historical Studies Office: HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 14-15 FEBRUARY 1945 BOMBINGS OF DRESDEN including a list of all bombings
  26. ^ Bergander, Götz. Dresden im Luftkrieg: Vorgeschichte-Zerstörung-Folgen, p. 251 ff. Verlag Böhlau 1994, ISBN 3412101931
  27. ^ Gemeindeordnung für den Freistaat Sachsen (SächsGemO), §2
  28. ^ Dresden.de: City Council
  29. ^ Dresden.de: [1]
  30. ^ UNESCO: World Heritage Committee threatens to remove Dresden Elbe Valley (Germany) from World Heritage List
  31. ^ Dresden: Selling of the WOBA Dresden GmbH (German)
  32. ^ Sport1: [2]
  33. ^ Dresden.de: Twin cities
  34. ^ Semperoper: History of the Sächsische Staatskapelle
  35. ^ Staatsoperette Dresden
  36. ^ Kreuzchor
  37. ^ Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden: Museums
  38. ^ Deutsches Hygiene-Museum: Deutsches Hygiene-Museum – The Museum of Man
  39. ^ State Museum of Prehistory
  40. ^ Dresden: Monument preservation
  41. ^ Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden: The History of the Royal Palace
  42. ^ Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden: History of the Zwinger and Semperbau
  43. ^ Roman Catholic Diocese of Dresden-Meissen: Kathedrale Ss. Trinitatis in Dresden
  44. ^ Evangelisch-Lutherische Kreuzkirchgemeinde Dresden: History of the Church of the Holy Cross
  45. ^ Dresden Transport Authority: Profile
  46. ^ Dresden Transport Authority: CarGoTram
  47. ^ Sächsischer Landtag
  48. ^ Oberlandesgericht Dresden
  49. ^ State Office for Statistics of the Free State of Saxony: Regional GDPs of 2004
  50. ^ a b Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (organisation of an employer association): [3]
  51. ^ Technische Universität Dresden: Profile of the TU Dresden
  52. ^ University of Applied Sciences Dresden: press notice to the 2006 matriculation
  53. ^ Fraunhofer Society: Institutes

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Position of cities in Germany This is a list of cities in Germany with more than 100,000 inhabitants. ... The German Weather Service (German: Deutscher Wetterdienst) is a scientific agency that monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... USAF redirects here. ... USAF redirects here. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... With 34,993 students (2006), Dresden University of Technology (DUT; German:Technische Universität Dresden, TU Dresden or simply TUD) is the largest institute of higher education in the city of Dresden, the largest university in Saxony and one of the 10 largest universities in Germany. ... The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Dresden

History

  • Article: "Dresden in the time of Zelenka and Hasse" by Brian Robins
  • City views of Dresden in the Baroque Era by Bernardo Bellotto

Important institutions Brian Robins was born in Cheltenham, England, but spent most of his early life in Bournemouth. ... Bellottos urban scenes have the same carefully drawn realism as his uncles Venetian views but are marked by heavy shadows and are darker and colder in tone and colour. ...

  • Official homepage of the city
  • Dresden International Airport
  • Technische Universität Dresden
  • Dresdner Verkehrsbetrieb (Public Transport - in German)

Important cultural institutions

  • Dresden State Art Collections
  • Semper opera house
  • Dixieland Jazz Festival
  • German Hygiene Museum

Tourism and business

  • Dresden travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Sächsische Dampfschifffahrt
  • Congress Dresden
  • Official incoming service

Media, webcams and information Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

  • City Map of Dresden
  • Dresden: the making of a baroque city
  • Old town Neumarkt square Webcam

Further reading

  • Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945 by Frederick Taylor, 2005; ISBN 0-7475-7084-1
  • Dresden and the Heavy Bombers: An RAF Navigator's Perspective by Frank Musgrove, 2005; ISBN 1-84415-194-8
  • Return to Dresden by Maria Ritter, 2004; ISBN 1-57806-596-8
  • Dresden: Heute/Today by Dieter Zumpe, 2003; ISBN 3-7913-2860-3
  • Destruction of Dresden by David Irving, 1972; ISBN 0-345-23032-9
  • Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, 1970; ISBN 0-586-03328-9
  • "Disguised Visibilities: Dresden/"Dresden" by Mark Jarzombek in Memory and Architecture, Ed. By Eleni Bastea, (University of Mexico Press, 2004).
  • Preserve and Rebuild: Dresden during the Transformations of 1989-1990. Architecture, Citizens Initiatives and Local Identities by Victoria Knebel, 2007; ISBN 978-3-631-55954-3
  • La tutela del patrimonio culturale in caso di conflitto Fabio Maniscalco (editor), 2002; ISBN 88-87835-18-7

is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Childrens Crusade: A Duty Dance With Death is a 1969 novel by best-selling author Kurt Vonnegut. ... Mark Jarzombek is a US-born author and architectural historian, and (since 1995) Director of the History Theory Criticism Section of the Department of Architecture at MIT, Cambridge MA, USA. Jarzombek received his architectural training at the ETH Zurich, where he graduated in 1980. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The WWII Dresden Holocaust - 'A Single Column Of Flame' (2035 words)
One squadron of planes had been stationed in Dresden for awhile, but the Luftwaffe decided to move the aircraft to another area where they would be of use.
Dresden was a hospital city for wounded soldiers.
A flock of vultures escaped from the zoo and fattened on the carnage.
BBC ON THIS DAY | 14 | 1945: Thousands of bombs destroy Dresden (484 words)
As soon as one part of the city was alight, the bombers went for another until the whole of Dresden was ablaze.
Dresden is regarded by the Allies as the centre of its rail network linking eastern and southern Germany with Berlin, Prague and Vienna.
With the city's population swollen from refugees fleeing the Soviet advance from the east, the death toll from fire and suffocation is unknown, but probably lies between 25,000 and 100,000.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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