FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Dravidian people
Dravidian
Total population

approx. 250 million  (2006)[citation needed] Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in Southern India and Northeastern Sri Lanka Dravidian people, a member of any of the peoples that speak one of the Dravidian languages Dravidian architecture style, is a style of Hindu temple construction The...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of India India
           Tamil Nadu
           Kerala
           Karnataka
           Andhra Pradesh
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan
           Balochistan
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia
Flag of Singapore Singapore
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Hong Kong Hong Kong
Flag of Fiji Fiji
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka
Flag of South Africa South Africa
Flag of Réunion Réunion
Flag of the Seychelles Seychelles
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh (some parts where people speak Kurukh)
Languages
Dravidian languages
Religions
Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Jainism, Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Brahui people · Gondi people · Kannadigas · Kodava · Malayalis · Tamils · Telugus · Tuluvas

Dravidian people refers to populations who speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. Populations of speakers are found mostly in Southern India and some minor populations are found in Brahui-speaking parts of Pakistan, Kurukh-speaking parts of Bangladesh, and Tamil-speaking parts of Sri Lanka. Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hong_Kong. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Seychelles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... The Oraon are a tribal (Adivasi) people of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, India. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... The Brahui people or Brohi people (Urdu: بروہی) are an ethnic group of about 2. ... Gondi refers to a people and their language in central India. ... Kannadiga (Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ |masculine|), or Kannadati (Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡತಿ |feminine|) are an ethnic group primarily located in the state of Karnataka in India and neighbouring areas like Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Kerala ,Goa and Maharashtra. ... Languages Kodava Takk Religions Hinduism, Christianity Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahuis Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas The Kodava (written ಕೊಡವ in Kannada script) are a people of southern India, originating in the western region of Kodagu. ... Languages Malayalam (മലയാളം) Religions Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Malayali or Malayalee(മലയാളി) is a name given to the inhabitants of the state of Kerala. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Tuluvas (Tulu: ತುಳುವ) are speakers of the Tulu language. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... The Brahui (بروہی) or Bravi (براوِ) language, spoken by the Brahui, is mainly spoken in Balochistan, Pakistan, although it is also spoken in Afghanistan and Iran. ... The Oraon are a tribal (Adivasi) people of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...

Contents

Concept of the Dravidian people

The term Dravidian is taken from the Sanskrit term Dravida. It was adopted following the publication of Robert Caldwell's Comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages (1856); a publication which established the language grouping as one of the major language groups of the world. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bishop Robert Caldwell (1814 -1891) was an orientalist who pioneered the study of the Dravidian languages with his influential work Comparative Grammar of Dravidian Languages (1856; revised edition 1875). ...


However over seventy three languages are presently listed as Dravidian in the study. Further the languages are spread out and cover parts of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka as is indicated in the study.


Racial classifications

In 440 BCE, Herodotus considered Dravidians to be a type of Ethiopian called the "Eastern Ethiopian" in contrast with the standard Ethiopian which he called a "Western Ethiopian".[1] In Herodotus' work The History of Herodotus he said, "The eastern Ethiopians... They differed in nothing from the other Ethiopians, save in their language, and the character of their hair."[2] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Scientific racism. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


In 1937, Betram Thomas claimed that Dravidians are descended from a protonegroid belt that spanned from Africa, the Arabian peninsula and South India.[3] Later, through the evolutionary process, this protonegroid belt gave rise to the "Hamitic race" in Africa, an intermediate people in the Arabian peninsula and Dravidians in India.[3]


In 1972, W.E.B. DuBois explained the Dravidians as, "...pre-Dravidians, a taller larger type of Negro; then the Dravidians, Negroes with some mixture of Mongoloid and later Caucasoid stocks."[4] W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ...


In 2003, Kethesh Loganathan stated that the "black Dravidian sub-race is the same as the black East African sub-race".[5] Kethesh Loganathan (full name Ketheeswaran Loganathan, 1952–2006) was a Sri Lankan Tamil political activist, a Human Rights advocate and deputy secretary general of the governments peace secretariat (SCOPP). ...


Genetic classifications

The genetic views on race differ in their classification of Dravidians. Most modern anthropologists, however, reject the genetic existence of race,[6] like Richard Lewontin who states that "every human genome differs from every other", showing the impossibility of using genetics to define races. (Biology as Ideology, page 68).[7] According to population geneticist L.L. Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford, whose work was done in the 1980s almost all Indians are genetically similar to Caucasian, but Lewontin rejects the label Caucasian. Cavalli-Sforza found that Indians are about three times closer to West Europeans than to East Asians.[8] Dr. Eduardas Valaitis, in 2006, found that India is genetically closest to East and Southeast Asians with little genetic similarity to Europeans; that said he also found that India could be considered very distinct from other regions.[9] Genetic anthropologist Stanley Marion Garn considered in the 1960s that the entirety of the Indian Subcontinent to be a "race" genetically distinct from other populations.[10][11] Others, such as Lynn B. Jorde and Stephen P. Wooding, claim South Indians are genetic intermediaries between Europeans and East Asians.[12][13][14] There has been significant progress in genetic and archaeogenetic studies of the Indian caste populations in the last five years (as of 2006); this has implications for the Indo-Aryan migration/invasion theory. ... It has been suggested that Race and multilocus allele clusters be merged into this article or section. ... Richard Lewontin Richard Charles Dick Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and social commentator. ... Categories: People stubs | 1922 births | Italian people | Population geneticists ... Stanford may refer: Stanford University Places: Stanford, Kentucky Stanford, California, home of Stanford University Stanford Shopping Center Stanford, New York, town in Dutchess County. ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... See Anthropology. ... Stanley Marion Garn Ph. ...


Recent studies of the distribution of alleles on the Y chromosome,[15] microsatellite DNA,[16] and mitochondrial DNA[17] in India have cast overwhelmingly strong doubt for a biological Dravidian "race" distinct from non-Dravidians in the Indian subcontinent. An allele is any one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Microsatellites, or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), are polymorphic loci present in nuclear DNA that consist of repeating units of 1-4 base pairs in length [1]. They are typically neutral, co-dominant and are used as molecular markers which have wide-ranging applications in the field of genetics, including kinship... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ...


This doubtfulness applies to both paternal and maternal descent; however, it does not preclude the possibility of distinctive South Indian ancestries associated with Dravidian languages.[18]


Linguistic classifications

Main article: Dravidian languages

The best known Dravidian languages are: Tamil (தமிழ்),Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ), Malayalam (മലയാളം), Telugu (తెలుగు), and Tulu (ತುಳು). Notably one Dravidian language, Brahui (بروہی), is spoken in Pakistan and minor tribal languages are used in Nepal and Bangladesh, perhaps hinting at the language family's wider distribution prior to the spread of the Indo-Aryan languages, though relatively recent migrations of populations have also been proposed. For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Tulu (Kannada script: ತುಳು) is a Dravidian language of India with fewer than two million speakers, known as Tuluvas. ... The Brahui (بروہی) or Bravi (براوِ) language, spoken by the Brahui, is mainly spoken in Balochistan, Pakistan, although it is also spoken in Afghanistan and Iran. ... http://www. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ...


Early arrival theory

Dravidian populated areas in South Asia
Dravidian populated areas in South Asia

Kamil V. Zvelebil has suggested that the proto-Dravidians of the Indian subcontinent arrived from the Middle East, and may have been related to the Elamites,[19] whose language some propose be categorized along with the Dravidian languages as part of a larger Elamo-Dravidian language family. However, S.A. Starostin has disputed the existence of an Elamo-Dravidian language family. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (648 × 662 pixel, file size: 82 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions Image:Dravidische Sprachen Verbreitung. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (648 × 662 pixel, file size: 82 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions Image:Dravidische Sprachen Verbreitung. ... Proto-Dravidian is the proto-language of the Dravidian languages. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The ancient Elamite Empire lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India and Pakistan, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Dr. Starostin on June 2, 2005 Dr. Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin, Cyrillic Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин, (March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russian historical linguist and scholar, best known for his work with proto-languages, and for his formulation of the Dene-Caucasian hypothesis. ... The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India and Pakistan, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. ...


According to a view put forward by geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza in the book The History and Geography of Human Genes, the Dravidians were preceded in the subcontinent by an Austro-Asiatic people, and followed by Indo-European-speaking migrants sometime later. The original inhabitants may be identified with the speakers of the Munda languages, which are unrelated to either Indo-Aryan or Dravidian languages. However, the Munda languages, as a subgroup of the larger Austro-Asiatic language family, are known to have arrived in the Indian subcontinent from the east, possibly from the area that is now southwestern China, so any genetic similarity between the present-day speakers of the Munda languages and the "original inhabitants" of India is likely to be due to assimilation of the natives by Southeast Asian immigrants speaking a proto-Munda language. A geneticist is a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms. ... Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born January 25, 1922) is an Italian population geneticist born in Genoa, who has been a professor at Stanford University since 1970 (now emeritus). ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. ... Austro-Asiatic languages The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. ...


Some linguists believe that Dravidian-speaking people were spread throughout the Indian subcontinent before the Aryans settled there. In this view the early Indus Valley civilization (Harappa and Mohenjo Daro) is often identified as having been Dravidian[6]. According to them it is now considered likely that the collapse of Indus Valley civilization was caused by environmental change (drought) which then encouraged the migration of the nomadic Indo-Aryans into the area. In that perspective it is therefore more likely that the Dravidian speakers of South India were already living in the region and were merely one of the groups little affected by the initial Indo-Aryan migration[citation needed][original research?]. Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Mohenjo-daro ( Urdu: موئن جودڑو, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو English: Mound of the dead) was a city of the Indus Valley Civilization built around 2600 BC and is located in the Sindh Province of Pakistan. ... Indo-Aryan migration is a hypothesis, based on linguistic evidence, regarding the expansion of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages following the breakup of Proto-Indo-Iranian and the subsequent Indo-Iranian expansion out of Central Asia (Mallory 1989). ...


Late arrival theory

Some scholars like J. Bloch and M. Witzel believe that the Dravidians moved into an already Indo-Aryan speaking area after the oldest parts of the Rig Veda were already composed (see Bryant 2001: chapter 5) Michael E. J. Witzel (born 1943) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit and Chair of the Committee on South Asian Studies at Harvard University. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...


This theory might be supported if a higher antiquity of the Indo-Aryan languages could be established. However, since this theory is mainly a linguistic hypothesis, the Dravidian influence on Aryan languages must not necessarily be equated to a movement of populations.


Prominent Dravidian linguistic subgroups

There are three subgroups within the Dravidian linguistic family: North Dravidian, Central Dravidian and South Dravidian matching for the most part the corresponding regions in the Indian subcontinent.

  • Brahui : Brahuis belong to North-Dravidian subgroup. They are found in Balochistan province of Pakistan.
  • Gonds: A prominent group of Dravidian speaking Tribal people the Central region of India.
  • Kannadiga : These people belong to South-Dravidian subgroup. Mostly found in Karnataka , Tamil nadu and Maharashtra.
  • Kurukh : These people belong to North-Dravidian subgroup. Found in India and Bangladesh. It is the only language indigenous in Bangladesh.
  • Malayali : The people of Kerala belong to South-Dravidian linguistic subgroup.
  • Tamil : These people belong to South-Dravidian linguistic subgroup. Mostly found in Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Malaysia.
  • Telugu : These people belong to South Dravidian subgroup (formerly classified with the Central Dravidian but now more specifically in the South Dravidian II or South Central Dravidian inner branch of the South Dravidian (Krishnamurti 2003:p19)). Mostly found in Andhra Pradesh also in Orissa and Tamil Nadu.

Brahui may refer to: The Brahui language The Brahui people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... Gondi refers to a people and their language in Central India. ... http://www. ... Kannadiga is the term for a native speaker of Kannada. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... The Oraon or Kurukh are a tribal (Adivasi) people of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, India. ... Languages Malayalam (മലയാളം) Religions Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Malayali or Malayalee(മലയാളി) is a name given to the inhabitants of the state of Kerala. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...

Geographic distribution

Political ramifications

The concept of a Dravidian race has affected thinking in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh about racial and regional differences.


India

Some Indians believe that the British Raj exaggerated differences between northern and southern Indians beyond linguistic differences to help sustain their control of India. The British Raj ended in 1947, yet all discussion of Aryan or Dravidian "races" remains highly controversial in India. It is now widely believed that the British only used this as their 'Divide and rule' blueprint for taking over the region.[20]The British also used this "theory" of perceived differences between so-called "Aryans" and "Dravidians" to propagate racist beliefs concerning the inherent "inferiority" of the Dravidians when compared to the "Aryans", thus justifying their colonization of South Asia (since the British identified themselves as "Aryans")[21] This article is about historical, ideological and socio-political aspects of this controversy. ... Self-Respect Movement is a movement that was called by Thanthai Periyar in Tamil Nadu state of India. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... For the divide and conquer computer algorithm, see Divide and conquer algorithm. ...


It has also informed aspects of radical politics (e.g. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, DK, AIADMK, VC, etc.) in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu nationalistic politics, which has at times appropriated the claim that Dravidians are the earliest inhabitants of India in order to argue that other populations such as the locally or ritually dominant were oppressive interlopers from which the Dravidians should liberate themselves. DMK redirects here. ... DK can refer to any of the following: Denice Klarskov, Danish Adultstar Diskeeper, a disk defragmenter for Microsoft Windows and Open VMS, often abbreviated DK Donkey Kong, a popular video game character created by Nintendos Shigeru Miyamoto Diddy Kong, a popular video game character The IATA code for MyTravel... All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) is a regional political party in India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil nationalism is a strong aspiration by some Tamils to establish traditional Tamil home lands in India and Sri Lanka as separate nations. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...


Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, the current ethnic conflict and the civil war are further complicated by the view that the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamils belong to two different ethnic and linguistic families. Sinhalese (like Dhivehi) is an Indo-Aryan language that exists in the southern part of South Asia. Combatants Sri Lankan Army Sri Lankan Air Force Sri Lankan Navy Karuna Fraction Renegades From LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam A Sri Lankan Tamil terrorist group Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present... Languages Sinhala Religions Theravada Buddhism, Christianity, small groups of atheists, agnostics, Muslims, others Related ethnic groups Indo-Aryans, Dravidians, Veddahs, Bengalis The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , IPA: [], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Dhivehi is an Indo-Aryan language and the official language of the Republic of the Maldives. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


See also

The Vedic culture in South India has been in some respects the best preserved of ancient Vedic culture and traditions, especially when the north of India was dominated by Buddhism and later was affected by Islam. ... The Burusho (or Burushas) are an ethnic group living in northeastern Pakistan, most of whom inhabit the Hunza Valley. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Tamil New Year Ethnic problems In India After independence, Tamilians felt they and their dravidian race were ignored by the North Indians. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Jackson, John G. Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization. 1939. September 25, 2007.[1]
  2. ^ Rawlison, George. Fordham University. The History of Herodotus. 440 BCE [2]
  3. ^ a b Thomas, Bertram. The Arabs. Garden City: Doubleday, 1937.
  4. ^ W.E. Burghardt DuBois, The World and Africa (International Publishers, New York, 1972), p. 176
  5. ^ Loganathan, Kethesh. "Dravidians and Africans." September 25, 2007. 2003. [3]
  6. ^ Bindon, Jim. University of Alabama. Department of Anthropology. August 23, 2006. <http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/bindon/ant275/presentations/POST_WWII.PDF#search=%22stanley%20marion%20garn%22>.
  7. ^ Lewontin, R.C. Biology as Ideology The Doctrine of DNA. Ontario: HarperPerennial, 1991.
  8. ^ Robert Jurmain, Lynn Kilgore, Wenda Trevathan, and Harry Nelson. Introduction to Physical Anthropology. 9th ed. (Canada: Thompson Learning, 2003)
  9. ^ Valaitis, E., Martin, L. DNA Tribes. 2006. January 22, 2007. [4]
  10. ^ Garn SM. Coon. On the Number of Races of Mankind. In Garn S, editor. Readings on race. Springfield C.C. Thomas.
  11. ^ Robert Jurmain, Lynn Kilgore, Wenda Trevathan, and Harry Nelson. Introduction to Physical Anthropology. 9th ed. (Canada: Thompson Learning, 2003)
  12. ^ Jorde, Lynn B Wooding, Stephen P. Nature Genetics. Department of Human Genetics. 2004. <http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/full/ng1435.html>.
  13. ^ Bamshad, M.J. et al. Human population genetic structure and inference of group membership. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72, 578−589 (2003).
  14. ^ Rosenberg, N.A. et al. Genetic structure of human populations. Science 298, 2381−2385 (2002).
  15. ^ [5]Entrex PubMed: A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: evaluating demic diffusion scenarios
  16. ^ Entrez PubMed: Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of central asian pastoralists
  17. ^ Entrez PubMed: Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups
  18. ^ Sitalaximi, T "Microsatellite Diversity among Three Endogamous Tamil Populations Suggests Their Origin from a Separate Dravidian Genetic Pool" Human Biology - Volume 75, Number 5, October 2003, pp. 673-685
  19. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil V. 1974. "Dravidian and Elamite - A Real Break-Through?", Journal of the American Oriental Society 94.3 (July-Sept.): 384-5.
  20. ^ Nelson, Robin (2003). Antinomies of Modernity: Essays on Race, Orient, Nation (in English). Duke University Press, 37-38. ISBN 0822330466. 
  21. ^ van der Veer, Peter. Conversion to modernities: The Globalization of Christianity (in English). Routledge (UK), 130. ISBN 0415912733. 
  • Krishnamurti, B., The Dravidian Languages, Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-77111-0, p19.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Maldives People (3042 words)
The country is populated by roughly 180,000 people who call themselves Devehi(s) ('islanders'), and their language is Divehi, which is also the ethnographic term.
The Maldives people are a clear ethnic category, having a unique language derived from Sinhala but grafted on to an earlier Tamil base, and they have a homogeneous cultural tradition.
Most fundamental is the Dravidian: kinship terms classify kin into those marriable and unmarriable with self; cross-cousin marriage is preferred; girls have a puberty ceremony; and matriliny is possible.
Dravidian people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2094 words)
Dravidian people, Dravidian race or Dravidians are terms that are some times given to people of India (mainly Southern India), Northern Sri Lanka, and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal who currently speak Dravidian languages or are historically assumed to have spoken Dravidian languages but no longer are.
Notably one Dravidian language, Brahui, is spoken in Pakistan as well minor tribal languages are used in Nepal and Bangladesh, perhaps hinting at the language family's wider distribution prior to the spread of the Indo-Aryan languages.
According to the Puranas, the Dravidians are descendants of the Vedic Turvasha people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m