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Encyclopedia > Dravidian architecture

Dravidian architecture, as unique and spectacular as any Greek, Roman or Egyptian architecture, spans many thousands of years. These pyramid shaped temples relied on intricate carved stone in order to create a step design consisting of numerous statues of deities, warriors, kings, and dancers. Hundreds of these ancient wonders can be found in the Southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh, Kerala, and Karnataka. Various kingdoms and empires such as the Pallavas, Cholas, Chalukyas, and Hoysalas amongst the many others have contributed greatly to the evolution of Dravidian architecuture through the ages. Dravidian styled architecture can also be found in parts of Northeastern Sri Lanka, Maldives, and various parts of Southeast Asia. Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశం in Telugu) (Ä€ndhra Prādesh), is a state in south-eastern India and is part of the linguistic-cultural region of South India. ...   (IPA: ; , Written as േകരളം in the native language Malayalam) is a state on the Western Coast of south-western India. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

Contents

Composition and structure

Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu
Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu

Dravidian style temples consist almost invariably of the four folowing parts, arranged in various manners, as afterwards to be explained, but differing in themselves only according to the age in which they were executed:[1]

1. The principal part, the actualtemple itself, is called the Vimana. It is alwasy square in plan, and surmounted by a pyramidal roof of one or more stories; and it contains the cell in which the image of the god or his emplem is placed. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Srirangam, also known as Thiruvarangam, is a small island town adjoining Tiruchirapalli ( also known shortly as Trichy or Tiruchi) in South India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


2. The porches or Mantapams, which always cover and preced the door leading to the cell.


3. Gate-pyramids, Gopurams, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples.


4. Pillard halls or Chaultris -- properly Chawadis -- used for various purposes, and which are the invariable accompaniments of these temples.

Besides these, a temple always contains tanks or wells for water -- to be used either for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests -- dwellings for all the various grades of the priest-hood are attached to it, and numerous other buildings for state or convenience.[1]


Influence from different time periods

In Southern India seven kingdoms and empires stamped their influence on architecture during different times.: South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ...


Pallavas

The Rathas in Mahabalipuram
The Rathas in Mahabalipuram

The Pallavas ruled from AD (600-900) and their greatest constructed accomplishments are the single rock temples in Mahabalipuram and their capital Kanchipuram, now located in Tamilnadu. Image File history File links Rathas-Mahabalipuram. ... Image File history File links Rathas-Mahabalipuram. ... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Events Persian scientist, Rhazes, distinguished smallpox from measles in the course of his writings. ... Mahabalipuram Mahabalipuram(Tamil:மகாபலிபுரம்) (also known as Mamallapuram) is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


Pallavas were pioneers of south Indian architecutre. The earliest examples of temples in the Dravidian style belong to the Pallava period. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610 - 690 CE and structural temples between 690 - 900 CE. The greatest accomplishments of the Pallava architecture are the rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram. There are excavated pillared halls and monolithic shrines known as rathas in Mahabalipuram. Early temples were mostly dedicated to Shiva. The Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram built by Nandhivarman is a fine example of the Pallava style temple. Mahabalipuram Mahabalipuram(Tamil:மகாபலிபுரம்) (also known as Mamallapuram) is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811. ...


Cholas

Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple
Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple

The Chola kings ruled from AD (900-1150) and included Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola who built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple and Siva temple of Thanjavur. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x900, 70 KB) Summary Detail of the main Vimanam (Tower) of the Great Temple at Thanjavur Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x900, 70 KB) Summary Detail of the main Vimanam (Tower) of the Great Temple at Thanjavur Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... The Chola dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: Chola pronounced Sola) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century CE. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. ... Events Persian scientist, Rhazes, distinguished smallpox from measles in the course of his writings. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Detail of a statue of Rajaraja at Brihadisvara Temple Rajaraja Chola I was the king of the Chola dynasty, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. Rajaraja, the greatest of all the Chola rulers of the Vijayalaya dynasty, laid the foundation for the growth of the Chola kingdom into an... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... The Brihadisvara temple (also spelled Brihadeshvara Temple) is an ancient Hindu temple located at Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... This article is about the Hindu God. ... “Tanjore” redirects here. ...


Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola I. The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. The magnificent Siva temple of Thanjavur, completed around 1009, is a fitting memorial to the material achievements of the time of Rajaraja. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time, it is at the apex of South Indian architecture.[2] Rajaraja Chola the first is considered the greatest of all Chola kings. ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... The Brihadisvara temple (also spelled Brahadeeswarar temple) is an ancient Hindu temple located at Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ...


The temple of Gangaikondacholapuram, the creation of Rajendra Chola, was intended to exceed its predecessor in every way. Completed around 1030, only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur and in much the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra.[3] Events July 29 - Battle of Stiklestad in Norway. ...


The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms, such as Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, and the Siva saints. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.[4] Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... For South Indian actress, see Laxmi (actress). ... Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja Nataraja (literally, The King of Dance) is the dancing posture of Lord Åšiva, the aspect of God as the Destroyer in Hinduism. ...


Chalukyas

Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740
Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740

The Badami Chalukyas also called the Early Chalulyas, ruled from Badami in the period AD 543 - 753 and spawned the Vesara style called Badami Chalukya Architecture. The finest examples of their art is seen in Pattadakal, Aihole and Badami in northern Karnataka. Over 150 temples remain in the the Malaprabha basin. Image File history File links Pattadakal_Virupaksha_temple. ... Image File history File links Pattadakal_Virupaksha_temple. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Events October 26 - An earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople. ... Events Synod of Constantinople called by Emperor Constantine V. Samarkand conquered by Arabs. ... Vesara is a type of Indian architecture primarily used in temples. ... Virupaksha temple(dravidian) (740 C.E. Pattadakal Sangameshvara temple (dravidian) (725 C.E. Pattadakal Galaganatha temple (rekhanagara) (680 C.E. Pattadakal The Badami Chalukya Architecture was a temple building idiom that evolved in the time period of 5th. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Malaprabha is a river flowing through the Indian state of Karnataka. ...


The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty is the architecture and art that they left behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the Badami Chalukya, and built between 450 and 700, remain in the Malaprabha basin in Karnataka.[5] Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Malaprabha is a river flowing through the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ...


The rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Badami and Aihole are their most celebrated monuments. Two of the famous paintings at Ajanta cave no. 1, "The Temptation of the Buddha" and "The Persian Embassy" are attributed to them.[6][7] This is the beginning of Chalukya style of architecture and a consolidation of South Indian style. Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Ajanta takes the name after the village Ajinţhā in Aurangabad district in the state of Maharashtra(N. lat. ...


Rashtrakutas

The view of the Kailash temple from the top. The photo is taken at the cave temples clusters of Ellora, Maharastra, India.
The view of the Kailash temple from the top. The photo is taken at the cave temples clusters of Ellora, Maharastra, India.

The Rashtrakutas who ruled the deccan from Manyakheta, Gulbarga district in the period AD 753 - 973 built some of the finest dravidian monuments in Ellora (Kailasanatha temple) in the rock cut architecture idiom. Some other fine monuments are the Jaina Narayana temple at Pattadakal and the Navalinga temples at Kuknur in Karnataka. Kailasanatha Temple Ellora is an ancient village 30 km from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra famous for its magnificent rock cut architecture comprising of Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina cave temples and monasteries built between the 6th and 10th century A.D. These structures were excavated... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Modern Malkheda in Karnataka, once tha capital of Rashtrakutas ... Gulbarga District Gulbarga District is situated between 76°.04 and 77°.42 east longitude, and 16°.12 and 17°.46 north latitude, covering an area of 16,224 square kilometres. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events Synod of Constantinople called by Emperor Constantine V. Samarkand conquered by Arabs. ... Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician († 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... Kailasanatha Temple Ellora is an ancient village 30 km from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra famous for its magnificent rock cut architecture comprising of Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina cave temples and monasteries built between the 6th and 10th century A.D. These structures were excavated... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ...


The Rashtrakutas contributed much to the culture of the Deccan. The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rock-cut shrines at Ellora and Elephanta, situated in present day Maharashtra. It is said that they altogether constructed 34 rock-cut shrines, but most extensive and sumptuous of them all is the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora. The temple is a splendid achievement of Dravidian art. The walls of the temple have marvellous sculptures from Hindy mythology including Ravana, Shiva and Parvathi while the ceilings have paintings. The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Maharashtra   (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , English: , IPA: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Kailasanatha Temple Ellora is an ancient village 30 km from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra famous for its magnificent rock cut architecture comprising of Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina cave temples and monasteries built between the 6th and 10th century A.D. These structures were excavated... A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, IAST ; sometimes transliterated Raavana and as Ravan) is the principal antagonist of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ... In Hinduism, Parvathi (The Little One) is one of the names of the goddess Durga, also called Uma, Bhavani and Kali among others. ...


The project was commissioned by King Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India from the Deccan. The architectural style used was dravidian. It does not contain any of the Shikharas common to the Nagara style and was built on the same lines as the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal in Karnataka.[8] The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pattadakal is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that comprise of initial experiments in Hindu temple architecture. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ...


Western Chalukyas

Kedareshwara temple, Balligavi, Shimoga District
Kedareshwara temple, Balligavi, Shimoga District

The Western Chalukyas also called the Later Chalukyas ruled the deccan from AD 973 - 1180 and further refined the Chalukyan style, called the "in-between" or "Gadag" style. Over 50 temples exist in the Krishna River-Tungabhadra doab in central Karnataka. The Kasi Vishveshvara at Lakkundi, Mallikarjuna at Kuruvatii, Kalleshwara temple at Bagali and Mahadeva at Itagi are the finest examples produced by the Later Chalukya architects. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2311 KB) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) in July 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2311 KB) Photograph taken by self (Dineshkannambadi) in July 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Shimoga District is in southern part of Karnataka state in India. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician († 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Gadag, is a district of Karnataka state in India. ... The Krishna River is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ...


The reign of Western Chalukya dynasty was an important period in the development of architecture in the deccan. Their architectural developments acted as a conceptual link between the Badami Chalukya Architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture popularised in the 13th century.[9][10] The art of Western Chalukyas is sometimes called the "Gadag style" after the number of ornate temples they built in the Tungabhadra - Krishna River doab region of present day Gadag district in Karnataka.[11] Their temple building reached its maturity and culmination in the 12th century, with over a hundred temples built across the deccan, more then half of them in present day Karnataka. Apart from temples they are also well known for ornate stepped wells (Pushkarni) which served as ritual bathing places, many of which are well preserved in Lakkundi. Their stepped well designs were later incorporated by the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagara empire in the coming centuries. Virupaksha temple(dravidian) (740 C.E. Pattadakal Sangameshvara temple (dravidian) (725 C.E. Pattadakal Galaganatha temple (rekhanagara) (680 C.E. Pattadakal The Badami Chalukya Architecture was a temple building idiom that evolved in the time period of 5th. ... Categories: Buildings and structures stubs ... Gadag, is a district of Karnataka state in India. ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... The Krishna River is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... Gadag District has a population of 971,955 (2001 Census of India), which increased 13. ...


Hoysalas

Symmetrical architecture on Jagati, Somanathapura
Symmetrical architecture on Jagati, Somanathapura

The Hoysala kings ruled southern India during the period AD (1100-1343) and developed an unique idiom of architecture called the Hoysala architecture in Karnataka state. The finest examples of their architecture are the Chennakesava Temple in Belur, Hoysaleswara temple in Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple in Somanathapura. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1993 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me (Dineshkannambadi) in June, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1993 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me (Dineshkannambadi) in June, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events William II of England dies in a hunting accident - Henry I becomes King of England King Henry I proclaims the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of a constitution. ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ... Categories: Buildings and structures stubs ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Chennakesava Temple The Chennakesava Temple sits on the banks of the Yagachi River in Belur, 220 km from Bangalore, in Karnataka, India. ... Belur may refer to any of the following: Belur, Karnataka, town in Karnataka, India Belur, West Bengal, India, a locality on the west bank of the Hooghly River Belur Math, the religious abbey located in Belur, West Bengal, India This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with... Siva and Parvathi - Hoysaleswara temple Hoysaleswara temple is in Halebidu 16 kms from Belur, 31 kms from Hassan and 149 kms from Mysore in the state of Karnataka in India. ... Halebidu is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... The entrance of the temple, illustrating the various relief bands Somanathapura (also known as Somnathpur) is a town located in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. ...


The modern interest in the Hoysalas is due to their patronage of art and architecture rather than their military conquests. The brisk temple building throughout the kingdom was accomplished despite constant threats from the Pandyas to the south and the Seunas Yadavas to the north. Their architectural style, an offshoot of the Western Chalukya style,[12] shows distinct Dravidian influences. The Hoysala architecture style is described as Karnata Dravida as distinguished from the traditional Dravida,[13] and is considered an independent architectural tradition with many unique features.[14][15] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Vijayanagar

Virupaksha Temple
Virupaksha Temple

The whole of South India was ruled by Vijayanagar Empire from AD (1343-1565), who built a number of temples and monuments in their hybrid style in their capital Vijayanagar in Karnataka. Their style was a combination of the styles developed in South India in the previous centuries. In addition, the Yali columns (pillar with charging horse), balustrades (parapets) and ornate pillared manatapa are their unique contribution. King Krishna Deva Raya and others built many famous temples all over South India in Vijayanagar Architecture style. Hampi- Virupaksha Temple Photograph taken by me (KRS) in December 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hampi- Virupaksha Temple Photograph taken by me (KRS) in December 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagar empire in the Southern part of India. ... This article needs cleanup. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Chennakeshava temple with Raya Gopura added by Vijayanagar dynasty, Belur, Karnataka The Vijayanagar Architecture of the period (1336 - 1565) C.E. was a unique building idiom evolved by the imperial Vijayanagar Empire who ruled at their peak the whole of South India from their regal capital at Vijayanagara, on the...


Vijayanagara architecture is a vibrant combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya and Chola styles, idioms that prospered in previous centuries.[16][17] Its legacy of sculpture, architecture and painting influenced the development of the arts long after the empire came to an end. Its stylistic hallmark is the ornate pillared Kalyanamantapa (marriage hall), Vasanthamantapa (open pillared halls) and the Rayagopura (tower). Artisans used the locally available hard granite because of its durability since the kingdom was under constant threat of invasion. While the empire's monuments are spread over the whole of Southern India, nothing surpasses the vast open air theatre of monuments at its capital at Vijayanagara, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[18] The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Deconstructing a Roman pillar. ... Vijayanagara (Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ, English: ) is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


In the 14th century the kings continued to build Vesara or Deccan style monuments but later incorporated dravida-style gopurams to meet their ritualistic needs. The Prasanna Virupaksha temple (underground temple) of Bukka Raya I and the Hazare Rama temple of Deva Raya I are examples of Deccan architecture.[19] The varied and intricate ornamentation of the pillars is a mark of their work.[20] At Hampi, though the Vitthala temple is the best example of their pillared Kalyanamantapa style, the Hazara Ramaswamy temple is a modest but perfectly finished example.[21] A visible aspect of their style is their return to the simplistic and serene art developed by the Chalukya dynasty.[22] A grand specimen of Vijayanagara art, the Vitthala temple, took several decades to complete during the reign of the Tuluva kings.[23] Vesara is a type of Indian architecture primarily used in temples. ... Gopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam Gopuram, a prominent feature of the Hindu temple architecture of South India, is the rising tower at the entrance of a temple. ... Background Bukka (also known as Bukka Raya) as well as his brother Hakka (also known as Harihara) would found the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire from the year 1336 and onwards. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Fergusson, James [1910] (1997). History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, 3rd, New Delhi: Low Price Publications, p. 309. 
  2. ^ See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, pp 421
  3. ^ Nagasamy R, Gangaikondacholapuram (1970)
  4. ^ The bronze image of nataraja at the Nagesvara Temple in Kumbakonam is the largest image known.
  5. ^ Over 125 temples exist in Aihole alone, Michael D. Gunther, 2002. Monuments of India. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  6. ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka - Chalukyas of Badami. © 1998-00 OurKarnataka.Com,Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  7. ^ The Badami Chalukya introduced in the western Deccan a glorious chapter alike in heroism in battle and cultural magnificence in peace said art critic K.V. Sounderrajan. They have influenced the architecture in Vengi and Gujarat- Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p68
  8. ^ Takeo Kamiya. Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent,20 September 1996. Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  9. ^ An important period in the development of Indian art (Kamath 2001, p115)
  10. ^ Arthikaje. History of Karnataka - Chalukyas of Kalyani. 1998-2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  11. ^ Kannikeswaran. Temples of Karnataka, Kalyani Chalukyan temples. webmaster@templenet.com,1996-2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-16.
  12. ^ James Fergusson and Henry Cousens write that the Hoysala style has many features in common with that of the Western Chalukya, Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire. 1998-2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  13. ^ Adam Hardy. Indian Temple Architecture : Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries,1995. Vedams Books from India, Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  14. ^ Percy Brown writes that the Hoysala style has negligible influences on the Indo-Aryan style and owing to its many independent features, qualifies as an independent school of architecture, Suryanath U. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, 2001, Jupiter books, MCC, (Reprinted 2002), p134
  15. ^ Havell, R. Narasimhachar, M. Sheshadri and S. Settar also claim their style is an independent tradition, Arthikaje, Mangalore. History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire. 1998-2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  16. ^ Art critic, Percy Brown calls Vijayanagar architecture a blossoming of Dravidian style, Kamath, p182
  17. ^ Arthikaje Literary Activity}
  18. ^ "So intimate are the rocks and the monuments they were used for make, it is was sometimes impossible to say where nature ended and art began" (Art critic Percy Brown, quoted in Hampi, A Travel Guide, p64)
  19. ^ Fritz & Mitchell, p9
  20. ^ Nilakanta Sastri about the importance of pillars in the Vijayanagar style in Kamath (2001), p183
  21. ^ "Drama in stone" wrote art critic Percy Brown, much of the beauty of Vijayanagara architecture came from their pillars and piers and the styles of sculpting (Hampi, A Travel Guide, p77)
  22. ^ About the sculptures in Vijayanagara style, see Kamath (2001), p184
  23. ^ Several monuments are categorised as Tuluva art (Fritz & Mitchell 2001, p9)

 
 

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