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Encyclopedia > Drang nach Osten

Drang nach Osten (German for "Drive towards the East") was a term used by 19th century intellectuals and Nazi propaganda to explain Germany's desire for land and influence in Eastern Europe (see Lebensraum). After World War II, the term was used by Polish propaganda to corroborate anti-German sentiments. In some instances, Drang nach Osten refers to the medieval German eastern colonization itself. Poster depicting America as a monstrous war machine destroying European culture. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... Lebensraum (German for habitat or living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... Ostiedlung also known as Ostkolonisation or German eastward expansion, is a term used to refer to the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples into Slavic, Baltic, Romanian and Hungarian areas beginning in the twelfth century A.D. In German scholarship, it refers especially to the reassertion of Saxon authority over Sorbian...


Background

Main article: Ostsiedlung

Drang nach Osten is connected with the medieval German Ostsiedlung. This "east colonization" referred to the expansion of German culture, language, states, and settlement eastern European regions inhabited by Slavs and Balts. Ostiedlung also known as Ostkolonisation or German eastward expansion, is a term used to refer to the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples into Slavic, Baltic, Romanian and Hungarian areas beginning in the twelfth century A.D. In German scholarship, it refers especially to the reassertion of Saxon authority over Sorbian... Ostiedlung also known as Ostkolonisation or German eastward expansion, is a term used to refer to the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples into Slavic, Baltic, Romanian and Hungarian areas beginning in the twelfth century A.D. In German scholarship, it refers especially to the reassertion of Saxon authority over Sorbian... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples have lived around the eastern coast of Mare Suebicum, or Baltic Sea (Tacitus, AD 98) since ancient times. ...


Population growth during the High Middle Ages stimulated movement of peoples from the Rhenish, Flemish, and Saxon territories of the Holy Roman Empire eastwards into the less-populated Baltic region and Poland. These movements were supported by the German nobility, the Slavic kings and dukes, and the medieval Church. The majority of this settlement was peaceful, although it sometimes took place at the expense of Slavs and pagan Balts (see Northern Crusades). The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ...


The future state of Prussia, named for the conquered Old Prussians, had its roots largely in these movements. As the Middle Ages came to a close, the Teutonic Knights, who had been invited to northern Poland by Konrad of Masovia, had assimilated and forcibly converted much of the southern Baltic coastlands. The Teutonic Knights became a Polish vassal in 1466. Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Dukes of Masovia | Polish monarchs | Dukes of Sieradz-Leczyca | Prussian history ...


After the Partitions of Poland by the Kingdom of Prussia, Austria, and the Russian Empire in the late 18th century, Prussia gained much of western Poland. Russia and Sweden eventually conquered the lands taken by the Livonian Order in Estonia and Livonia. The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day...


Drang nach Osten

With the development of romantic nationalism in the 19th century, Polish and Russian intellectuals began referring to the German Ostsiedlung as a Drang nach Osten, or drive to the east. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary attempted to expand their power eastward; Germany by gaining influence in the declining Ottoman Empire (the Eastern Question) and Austria-Hungary through the acquisition of territory in the Balkans (such as Bosnia and Herzegovina). Alongside the Kulturkampf policies directed against Catholics, Imperial Germany tried to recolonize its eastern (mostly-Catholic) Polish-inhabitated territories with Germans. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The Eastern Question, in European history, encompasses the diplomatic and political problems posed by the decay of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). ... Balkan peninsula with northwest border Isonzo-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. ... The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle, invented by Rudolf Virchow[1]) refers to German policies in relation to the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ...


Halford John Mackinder's The Geographical Pivot of History pointed out the strategic position of Eastern Europe. German nationalists pointed to the historic and contemporary movements towards Eastern Europe as proof of German "vitality", while critics claimed it was another example of German imperialistic tendencies which contributed to the outbreak of World War I (see also Geopolitik). Halford John Mackinder Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (February 15, 1861 - March 6, 1947), was an English geographer and geopolitician. ... The Geographical Pivot of History was an article submitted by Halford John Mackinder in 1902 to the Royal Geographical Society that advanced his Heartland Theory. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The war ended with the Treaty of Versailles, by which most or parts of the Imperial German provinces of Posen, West Prussia, and Upper Silesia were given to reconstituted Poland; the West Prussian city of Danzig became the Free City of Danzig. Poland at this stage was in an expansionist nationalist phase under Marshal Józef Piłsudski, and, according to some writers, used the opportunity for a first wave of assimilation and expulsion of German populations, thus reversing the trend of German eastward expansionism.[1] The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Upper Silesia (Polish: , German: ) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays...


Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany from 1933-1945, called for a Drang nach Osten to acquire territory for German colonists at the expense of eastern European nations (Lebensraum). His eastern campaigns during World War II were initially successful with the conquests of Poland and much of European Russia by the Wehrmacht; Generalplan Ost was designed to remove the native Slavs from these lands and replace them with Germans. However, the Soviet Union began to reverse the German conquests by 1943, and Nazi Germany was defeated by the Allies in 1945. Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Lebensraum (German for habitat or living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... European Russia can be considered the western areas of Russia, where most of the population is centred. ... Image:Wehrmacht 20 April 1939 Birthday Parade. ... Generalplan Ost (GPO) was a Nazi plan to realize Hitlers new order of ethnographical relations in the territories occupied in Eastern Europe during World War II. It was prepared in 1941 and confirmed in 1942. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ...


Not only was the Drang nach Osten reversed, but the Ostsiedlung was as well. The massive expulsion of German populations east of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945-48 on the basis of decisions of the Potsdam Conference were later justified by their beneficiaries as a rollback of the Drang nach Osten. Historical Eastern Germany was split between Poland, Russia, and Lithuania and the boundaries of the German states (East Germany and West Germany) generally became that of before the Ostsiedlung began. Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Clement Atlee, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945 The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ... Anthem: Auferstanden aus Ruinen Capital East Berlin, in spite of status as part of an occupied city Language(s) German Government Socialist state Head of State  - 1990 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl Head of Government  - 1990 Lothar de Maizière Historical era Cold War  - Established October 7 1949  - Final Settlement September 25...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Drang nach Osten - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (410 words)
A definitive halt to the idea of the Drang nach Osten came during World War II, after Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.
Nazi officials used it as grounds for the expulsion of 800,000 Poles from Warsaw to concentration camps after the defeat of the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, which caused 200,000 deaths.
Himmler stated that the Poles had been an obstacle to German Eastern expansion for the last 700 years, and that the aim was to remove that obstacle permanently.
Article about "Drang nach Osten" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (468 words)
German nationalists of the 19th and 20th centuries used the term Drang nach Osten ("Striving towards the East") to express the expansion of Germany, German states and German settlement, that led to the conquest of former Slavic and Baltic areas by Germany from the Middle Ages to 1943.
Nevertheless, the Nazi officials used it as ground for the expulsions of 800,000 Poles from Warsaw to concentration camps after defeat of Warsaw Uprising 1944, caused 200,000 deaths.
Decisions made at the Potsdam conference in 1945, especially as relating to the Oder-Neisse line, rolled back the Drang nach Osten and redesignated German territories within the approximate Germanic borders of the year 1000 AD.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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