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Encyclopedia > Drama
Literature
Major forms

Epic · Romance · Novel
Tragedy · Comedy · Drama Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: drama Drama may refer to: Drama (art form) Drama (Yes album), an album by progressive rock group Yes Drama (Flaw album), an independantly released album by rock group Flaw Drama, Greece, a city in the Drama Prefecture in Greece Drama, a well-known... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ...

Media

Performance · Book Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ...

Techniques

Prose · Poetry Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... This article is about the art form. ...

History and lists

Basic topics · Literary terms
History · Modern history
Books · Writers
Literary awards · Poetry awards Literature is prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. ... The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of literature. ... The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. ... This article is homosexual and should be burned the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of best-selling books List of... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that the section Literature from the article List of prizes, medals, and awards be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of awards that are, or have been, given out to writers of poetry, either for a specific poem, collection of poems, or body of work. ...

Discussion

Criticism · Theory · Magazines Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. ...

Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance.[1] It is derived from a Greek word meaning "action" (Classical Greek δράμα / dráma), derived from "to do" (Classical Greek δράω / dráō). In literature, a mode is an employed method or approach, identifiable within a written work. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... Mimesis (μίμησις from μιμεîσθαι) in its simplest context means imitation or representation in Greek. ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... Action, as a concept in philosophy, is what an agent can do, as for instance humans as agents can do. ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since Turkey, Italy and Libya. ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since Turkey, Italy and Libya. ...


Dramas are performed in various media: theatre, radio, film, and television. Drama is often combined with music and dance: the drama in opera is sung throughout; musicals include spoken dialogue and songs; and some forms of drama have regular musical accompaniment (melodrama and Japanese , for example).[2] In certain periods of history (the ancient Roman and modern Romantic) dramas have been written to be read rather than performed.[3] In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance; performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience.[4] Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Script may refer to the following: Writing system Manuscript, a scroll Draft document for a book Screenplay, containing the dialog and instructions for a movie The dialog for a comic book or comic strip Script (performing arts), the dialog and instructions for a play Dance script or Choreology, such as...

Contents

History of drama

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Greek

The three types of drama composed in the city of Athens were tragedy, comedy, and satire. The origins of Athenian tragedy and comedy are far from clear, but they began (and continued to be) as a part of the celebrations of the god Dionysus, which were held once a year. Every year three authors were chosen to write three dramas, and one satire play each. Similarly, five authors were also chosen to write three comedies and a satire play each. Each tragedy tetralogy was then performed in 3 successive days, and on the last day the 5 comedies competed. All the plays were played in the Dionysos theatre in Athens, and the best author for both tragedy and comedy was chosen. Image File history File links Drama-icon. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...


The chorus seems to have originated during ??? with a leader singing a song about some legendary hero. Later the leader, rather than singing about the hero, began to think about the hero while impersonating him. Spoken dialogue between several actors was added, and the result was "tragedy" in the Greek form. The very first prize for tragedy went to Thespis in 534 BC. The Greek chorus (choros) is believed to have grown out of the Greek dithyrambs and tragikon drama in tragic plays of the ancient Greek theatre. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Thespis car, relief of the Giottos Belltower in Florence, Italy, Nino Pisano, 1334-1336 Thespis (1965), bronze sculpture by Robert Cook, commissioned for the opening of the Canberra Theatre Thespis of Icaria (6th century BC) is claimed to be the first person ever to have a man-gina According...


In fact, the two masks associated with drama with the smiling and frowning faces are both symbols of the Muses Thalia and Melpomene. Thalia is the Muse of comedy (the smiling face), and Melpomene is the Muse of tragedy (the frowning face). For other uses see Muse (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Thalia (disambiguation). ... Hesiod and the Muse, 1891 - Oil on canvas, Musee dOrsay, Paris Gustave Moreau Melpomene (to sing) was a Muse in Greek mythology. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ...


Medieval

In the Middle Ages, drama in the vernacular languages of Europe emerged from religious enactments of the liturgy. Mystery plays were presented on the porch of the cathedrals or by strolling players on feast days. These again evolved into tragic and comic forms, depending on the theme. The first truly secular plays in Europe were historical plays, celebrating the lives of historical or legendary kings, these combined the functions of entertainment and propaganda. Some scholars today believe that Shakespeare's Richard III, for instance, served to propagate the Tudor myth. Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... The Tudor Myth is the tradition in English history, historiography and literature that cast the period of the Wars of the Roses as well as the entire 15th Century in England as a dark age of anarchy and bloodshed. ...


Miracle and mystery plays (such as Everyman) later evolved into more elaborate forms of drama, such as was seen on the Elizabethan stages. Everyman is a 16th century English morality play, with origins in a late 15th century Dutch morality play called Elckerlijc. ...


Elizabethan and Jacobean

One of the great flowerings of drama in England occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries. Many of these plays were written in verse, particularly iambic pentameter. In addition to Shakespeare, such authors as Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Middleton, and Ben Jonson were prominent playwrights during this period. As in the medieval period, historical plays celebrated the lives of past kings, enhancing the image of the Tudor monarchy. Authors of this period drew some of their storylines from Greek mythology and Roman mythology or from the plays of eminent Roman playwrights such as Plautus and Terence. Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... Thomas Middleton (1580 – 1627) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Titus Macchius Plautus, generally referred to simply as Plautus, was a playwright of Ancient Rome. ... Publius Terentius Afer, better known as Terence, was a comic playwright of the Roman Republic. ...


Opera

Western opera is a dramatic art form, which arose during the Renaissance in an attempt to revive the classical Greek drama tradition in which both music and theatre were combined. Being strongly intertwined with western classical music, the opera has undergone enormous changes in the past four centuries and it is an important form of theatre until this day. Noteworthy is the huge influence of the German 19th century composer Richard Wagner on the opera tradition. In his view, there was no proper balance between music and theatre in the operas of his time, because the music seemed to be more important than the dramatic aspects in these works. To restore the connection with the traditional Greek drama, he entirely renewed the operatic format, and to emphasize the equally importance of music and drama in these new works, he called them "music dramas". For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the 2000s . ... Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner... For other uses of Greek Theatre, see Greek theatre (disambiguation). ... Music drama is the term ascribed to the revolutionary medium of artistic expression created by the German composer Richard Wagner. ...


Chinese

Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. In general, it dates back to the Tang Dynasty with Emperor Xuanzong (712-755), who founded the "Pear Garden" (梨园), the first known opera troupe in China. The troupe mostly performed for the emperors' personal pleasure. To this day operatic professionals are still referred to as "Disciples of the Pear Garden" (梨园弟子). In the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), forms like the Zaju (杂剧, variety plays), which acts based on rhyming schemes plus the innovation of having specialized roles like "Dan" (旦,female), "Sheng" (生, male), "Hua" (花, painted-face) and "Chou" (丑, clown) were introduced into the opera. The dominant form of the Ming and early Qing dynasties was Kunqu, which came from the Wu cultural area, and evolved a longer form of play called chuanqi. Chinese operas continue to exist in 368 different forms now, the best known of which is Beijing opera, which assumed its present form in the mid-19th century and was extremely popular in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (685 - 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China reigining from 712 to 756. ... The Pear Garden (梨园), the first known opera troupe in China. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Dan(æ—¦) is the general name for the female roles in Chinese opera. ... Zhou refers to Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC) Zhou Dynasty (690 AD - 705 AD) Zhou (political division) — Zhou is the name of a type of political division of China. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... A Kunqu performers portrayal of Hu Sanniang Kunqu (崑曲; pinyin: KÅ«nqÇ”; Wade-Giles: kun-chü), also known as Kunju, Kun opera or Kunqu Opera, is one of the oldest extant forms of Chinese opera. ... Wu (吳) is a region in the Jiangnan area (the south of Yangtze River), surrounding Suzhou, in Jiangsu province and Zhejiang province of China. ... A cultural area is a region (area) with one relatively homogenous human activity or complex of activities (culture). ... A female Beijing opera performer with traditional costume and makeup A male Beijing opera performer Beijing opera or Peking opera (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Chinese opera which arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


In Beijing opera, traditional Chinese string and percussion instruments provide a strong rhythmic accompaniment to the acting. The acting is based on allusion: gestures, footwork, and other body movements express such actions as riding a horse, rowing a boat, or opening a door. Spoken dialogue is divided into recitative and Beijing colloquial speech, the former employed by serious characters and the latter by young females and clowns. Character roles are strictly defined. Elaborate make-up designs portray which character is acting. The traditional repertoire of Beijing opera includes more than 1,000 works, mostly taken from historical novels about political and military struggles. Peking redirects here. ... Cosmetics or makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. ...


In traditional Chinese theater, no plays were performed in the vernacular Chinese or without singing. But at the turn of the 20th century, Chinese students returning from abroad began to experiment with Western plays. Following the May Fourth Movement of 1919, a number of Western plays were staged in China, and Chinese playwrights began to imitate this form. The most notable of the new-style playwrights was Cao Yu (b. 1910). His major works — "Thunderstorm," "Sunrise," "Wilderness," and "Peking Man" — written between 1934 and 1940, have been widely read in China. For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... Cao Yu (Chinese: 曹禺, pinyin: Cáo YÇ”, Wade-Giles: Tsao Yü) was the literary name of Wan Jiabao (萬家寶 / 万家宝; Wade-Giles: Wan Chia-pao) (Tianjin, China; September 24, 1910 - Beijing; December 13, 1996). ...


In the 1930s, theatrical productions performed by traveling Red Army cultural troupes in Communist - controlled areas were consciously used to promote party goals and political philosophy. By the 1940s theater was well-established in the Communist controlled areas and many other areas as well. Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ...


Japanese

Japanese Nō drama is a serious dramatic form that combines drama, music, and dance into a complete aesthetic performance experience. It developed in the 14th and 15th centuries and has its own musical instruments and performance techniques, which were often handed down from father to son. The performers were generally male (for both male and female roles), although female amateurs also perform Nō dramas. Nō drama was supported by the government, and particularly the military, with many military commanders having their own troupes and sometimes performing themselves. It is still performed in Japan today.[5] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Kyogen is the comic counterpart to Nō drama. It concentrates more on dialogue and less on music, although Nō instrumentalists sometimes appear also in Kyogen. Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ...


Indian

Main article: Theatre in India

Indian drama is traced back to certain dramatic episodes described in the Rigveda. The dramas dealt with human concerns as well as the gods. The earliest theoretical account of Indian drama is the Natya Shastra of Bharata that may be as old as the 3rd century BC. Drama was patronized by the kings as well as village assemblies. Famous early playwrights include Bhasa and Kalidasa. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Natya Shastra of Bharata( Nātyaśāstra ) (titled as Natyashastra) is the principal work of dramatic theory in the Sanskrit drama of classical India. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Literature stubs ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Ramayana and the Mahabharata stories have often been used for plots in Indian drama and this practice continues today. For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Today

Except the sacred classical Indian musical theatre, the usual purpose of drama is as entertainment. However drama can also be used as an educational activity or for therapeutic purposes. It is even used for religious ministry. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Mohiniaattam Classical Indian musical theatre is a sacred art of the Hindu temple culture. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


It has a unique ability to allow us to play, allowing us to be another person or in a situation that we would not normally encounter such as, being a general in a war. This is what makes drama a useful way of teaching, learning, and growing as a person. If the role of a teacher is to teach, the role of a student must be to learn. ...


Drama has a holistic way of teaching people. Whether it be in a play or by partaking in a role-play situation, participants learn through interactions with others -- this allows participants to not only learn facts as they would from a book or in a classroom, but to enter the world of another person, to be allowed to explore how they feel about this situation or person, whether it be a war-torn town or the wolf in the Three Little Pigs. Every interaction with another character or situation gives a greater understanding of what is happening around us. In role-playing, participants adopt characters, or parts, that have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own. ... The third pig builds a house of brick The wolf lands in the cooking pot For the Disney animated short film, see Three Little Pigs (film). ...


If you look at a small child when they are playing, they are enthralled with their own world, and through their actions, thoughts and the way they play they learn about themselves, others, and the world around them. Play allows them to act out new situations, try out new ways of doing things and by doing so learn. (see Nativity Play) For the Nativity of Jesus, see Nativity of Jesus. ...


When people grow up, the idea of play becomes less important and entering into the imagination becomes more difficult. However this is where drama has the unique and undeniable ability to help others learn and grow as individuals, as it allows them to play. Through playing we can once again try out situations, whether it be for a job interview by live action role-playing (aka. LARP), or just to think about new ideas, we can also gain confidence in ourselves and learn to trust others.


Role-play and can also play an important part in therapy, again entering the imagination and allowing ourselves to pretend and to think of things in other ways. Drama therapy is often considered an effective treatment for people who have had severe emotional and psychological problems, although it is important to note that the evidence to support therapeutic efficacy of Drama therapy is anecdotal rather than scientific. Drama therapy is a health and human services profession that seeks to facilitate physical integration and personal growth for individuals, couples, families, and various groups through the use of theatrical and dramatic processes. ... Drama therapy is a health and human services profession that seeks to facilitate physical integration and personal growth for individuals, couples, families, and various groups through the use of theatrical and dramatic processes. ...


In the theater, drama is a living, breathing art form. Actors are placed on stage, so that they can breathe life into the characters that have been created by the playwrights. In theater, the two main things to consider are: a) drama is driven by conflict and b) that drama is action. Action can be loosely defined as anything a character does with an objective behind it, whereas conflict can be briefly summarized as a clash between the motives of one or more characters.


Tool for education

See also: Applied Drama

There are many forms of educational drama these all share one common goal, to create awareness or an understanding of an idea or issue. The following is a few examples of the main forms in which drama is used as a tool for education. Applied Drama is an umbrella term for the wider use of drama practice in a specific social context and environment. ...


Theatre in education (TIE) is the typical image of drama, seen since the 1960s. Usually performed for youth groups, or schools by a drama group this form of theatre was usually a devised piece which used abstract ideas to communicate a message, it follows in the tradition of plays seen throughout history such as morality plays like Everyman. This form of theatre could also be compared to commedia del arte, and other such travelling forms of theatre. Theatre-in-Education (or TIE or Diadactic theatre) is a medium of theatre for exploring various issues with young people. ... Morality plays are a type of theatrical allegory in which the protagonist is met by personifications of various moral attributes who try to prompt him to choose a godly life over one of evil. ... Everyman is a 16th century English morality play, with origins in a late 15th century Dutch morality play called Elckerlijc. ...


Pantomime

These stories follow in the tradition of fables and folk tales, usually there is a lesson learned, and with some help from the audience the hero/heroine saves the day. This kind of play uses stock characters seen in masque and again commedia del arte, these characters include the villain (doctore), the clown/servant(Arlechino/Harlequin/buttons), the lovers etc. These plays usually have an emphasis on moral dilemmas, and good always triumphs over evil, this kind of play is also very entertaining making it a very effective way of reaching many people. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Drama in education

Unlike theatre in education, Drama in Education (DIE) is workshop-based, with groups creating their own scenarios, ideas and even subject matter through the use of drama and drama workshops. Sometimes this kind of work may lead to the creation of a play, or a piece of TIE or some other kind of means to show a result from the work. Drama in Education utilises skills used across the spectrum of dramatic activity, everything from teacher in role to normal theatrical conventions of audience and spectator. DIE is usually run in youth clubs, schools, community centres etc. DIE involves a high amount of participation by the group, and is therefore aimed for smaller groups of individuals.


Workshops

A workshop is a situation where a group is allowed to explore and think about an issue, a book, a thought, a play, anything. Within drama terms it is an active situation with a lot of learning and experiencing. Drama workshops have many different styles and approaches much like any group activity, this style and approach is determined by the group's willingness to participate, the frame and distance that they are from the drama is usually the holding form for the session, in the example shown through teacher in role we see the group are "framed" as social workers and because of their role in the drama they are at a very close distance, if the group were older at age 14-17 say then they would be less likely to enter into the drama and a more suitable frame would have to be chosen. For example, instead of social workers they could become reporters, which would allow them to remain at the spectator end of the drama and give them a chance to reflect on the conditions surrounding events. However, this does not mean that the group always has to have a frame. they can remain themselves and still participate in the drama, allowing them to think about how they feel about the situation. In this case, the group may enter the drama as themselves and how they would act in a situation, or explore being characters in a situation and what is making them act the way they are. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... In drama, a frame is a situation or position of importance given to a person, and distance relates to how engaged the frame makes the group. ... If the role of a teacher is to teach, the role of a student must be to learn. ...


Legal status

UK

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 does not define a dramatic work except to state that it includes a work of dance or mime. However, it is clear that dramatic work includes the scenario or script for films, plays (written for theatre, cinema, television or radio),[6] and choreographic works.[7] The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (c. ...


See also

History of theatre // The origin of me pooping my pants and Asian theatre can be traced to over 3500 years ago, beginning with early 3000BC Main article: Sanskrit Plays Folk theatre and dramatics can be traced to the religious ritualism of the Vedic Aryans. ...


Works cited

  • Banham, Martin, ed. 1998. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521434378.
  • Duchartre, Pierre Louis. 1929. The Italian Comedy. Unabridged republication. New York: Dover, 1966. ISBN 0486216799.
  • Durant, Will & Ariel Durant. 1963 The Story of Civilization, Volume II: The Life of Greece. 11 vols. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • Elam, Keir. 1980. The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. New Accents Ser. London and New York: Methuen. ISBN 0416720609.
  • Gordon, Mel. 1983. Lazzi: The Comic Routines of the Commedia dell'Arte. New York: Performing Arts Journal Publications. ISBN 0933826699.
  • Johnstone, Keith. 1981. Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre Rev. ed. London: Methuen, 2007. ISBN 0713687010.
  • Spolin, Viola. 1967. Improvisation for the Theater. Third rev. ed Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University Press, 1999. ISBN 081014008X.

Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Lazzi (from the Italian lazzo, a joke or witticism) is a piece of well-rehearsed comic action commonly used in the Commedia dellarte. ... Commedia redirects here. ... Keith Johnstone is a drama instructor who has taught in England and Canada and more recently around the world. ... Image:Spolin2. ...

References

  1. ^ Elam (1980, 98).
  2. ^ See the entries for "opera", "musical theatre, American", "melodrama" and "Nō" in Martin Banham, (ed.) The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (1998).
  3. ^ Although there is some dispute among theatre historians, it is probable that the plays by the Roman Seneca were not intended to be performed. Manfred by Byron is a good example of a 'dramatic poem.' See the entries on "Seneca" and "Byron (George George)" in Martin Banham, (ed.) The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (1998).
  4. ^ Some forms of improvisation, notably the Commedia dell'arte, improvise on the basis of 'lazzi' or rough outlines of scenic action (see Gordon (1983) and Duchartre (1929)). All forms of improvisation take their cue from their immediate response to one another, their characters' situations (which are sometimes established in advance), and, often, their interaction with the audience. The classic formulations of improvisation in the theatre are Joan Littlewood and Keith Johnstone in Vancouver and Viola Spolin in the USA. See Johnstone (1981) and Spolin (1963).
  5. ^ Website reference
  6. ^ Green v. Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand [1989]
  7. ^ The fixation of such a work can be in writing "or otherwise" and may accordingly be, for instance, on film. Where a dramatic work is recorded on a film, the film must contain the whole of the dramatic work in an unmodified state: Norowzian v. Arks [2000] (dance recorded on film, which was then edited, could not be protected because the film had been drastically edited and was not therefore a recording of the dance).

Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Scene from Manfred by Thomas Cole Manfred is a dramatic poem written in 1816-1817 by Lord Byron; it contains supernatural elements, in keeping with the popularity of the ghost story in England at the time. ... Byron redirects here. ... Commedia redirects here. ... Joan Maud Littlewood (6 October 1914 - 20 September 2002) was a theatrical director, famous for her work in developing the left-wing Theatre Workshop. ... Keith Johnstone is a drama instructor who has taught in England and Canada and more recently around the world. ... Image:Spolin2. ...

External links

  • Greek & Roman Drama Timeline
  • Greek & Roman Mask Timeline

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