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Encyclopedia > Drainage

Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. Many agricultural soils need drainage to improve production or to manage water supplies. Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, Soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ...

Contents

Early history

The earliest archaeological record of an advanced system of drainage comes from the Indus Valley Civilization from around 3100 BC in what is now Pakistan and North India. The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the civilization were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in some areas of modern Pakistan and India today. All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had access to water and drainage facilities. Waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... (32nd century BC – 31st century BC – 30th century BC – other centuries) (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC) Events 3000 BC – Menes unifies Upper and Lower Egypt, and a new capital is erected at Memphis. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Harappa (Urdu: ہڑپا) is a city in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 35km (22 miles) southwest of Sahiwal. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Reasons for artificial drainage

An agricultural drainage channel outside Magome, Japan after a heavy rain. Note that protuberances create turbulent water, preventing sediment from settling in the channel.
An agricultural drainage channel outside Magome, Japan after a heavy rain. Note that protuberances create turbulent water, preventing sediment from settling in the channel.

Wetland soils may need drainage to be used for agriculture. In the northern USA and Europe, glaciation created numerous small lakes which gradually filled with humus to make marshes. Some of these were drained using open ditches and trenches to make mucklands, which are primarily used for high value crops such as vegetables. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 401 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1792 pixel, file size: 404 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An agricultural drainage channel outside Magome, Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 401 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1792 pixel, file size: 404 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An agricultural drainage channel outside Magome, Japan. ... Magome (馬籠) was one of the sixty-nine stations of the Nakasendō, an ancient road that connected Kyoto and Edo. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... Humus is a term used to describe two different types of organic material in soil. ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, cat tails, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ... Ditches at the Ouse Washes nature reserve. ... Muck is a soil made up primarily of humus from drained swampland. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ...


The largest project of this type in the world has been in process for centuries in the Netherlands. The area between Amsterdam, Haarlem and Leiden was, in prehistoric times swampland and small lakes. Turf cutting (Peat mining), subsidence and shoreline erosion gradually caused the formation of one large lake, the Haarlemmermeer, or lake of Haarlem. The invention of wind powered pumping engines in the 15th century permitted drainage of some of the marginal land, but the final drainage of the lake had to await the design of large, steam powered pumps and agreements between regional authorities. The elimination of the lake occurred between 1849 and 1852, creating thousands of km2 of new land. Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... Leyden redirects here. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... A road destroyed by subsidence and shear. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... Haarlemmermeer (population: 127,750 in 2004) is a municipality in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... A steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the potential energy that exists as pressure in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... km redirects here. ...


Coastal plains and river deltas may have seasonally or permanently high water tables and must have drainage improvements if they are to be used for agriculture. An example is the flatwoods citrus-growing region of Florida. After periods of high rainfall, drainage pumps are employed to prevent damage to the citrus groves from overly wet soils. Rice production requires complete control of water, as fields need to be flooded or drained at different stages of the crop cycle. The Netherlands has also led the way in this type of drainage, not only to drain lowland along the shore, but actually pushing back the sea until the original nation has been greatly enlarged. Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Brown basmati rice Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ...


In moist climates, soils may be adequate for cropping with the exception that they become waterlogged for brief periods each year, from snow melt or from heavy rains. Soils that are predominantly clay will pass water very slowly downward, meanwhile plant roots suffocate because the excessive water around the roots eliminates air movement through the soil.
Other soils may have an impervious layer of mineralized soil, called a hardpan or relatively impervious rock layers may underlie shallow soils. Drainage is especially important in tree fruit production. Soils that are otherwise excellent may be waterlogged for a week of the year, which is sufficient to kill fruit trees and cost the productivity of the land until replacements can be established. In each of these cases appropriate drainage is used to carry off temporary flushes of water to prevent damage to annual or perennial crops. Waterlogging is a verbal noun meaning the saturation of such as ground or the filling of such as a boat with water. ... Animation of snowcover changing with the seasons Trees covered with snow Snow covering a leaf. ... A distant Rain Rain is a type of precipitation which forms when separate drops of water fall to the Earths surface from clouds. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... In soil science, agriculture and gardening, hardpan is a general term for a dense layer of soil, residing usually below the uppermost topsoil layer. ... A plum tree Flowering almond tree A fruit tree is a tree bearing fruit — the structures formed by the ripened ovary of a flower containing one or more seeds. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ...


In farming drier areas, irrigation is often used, and one would not consider drainage necessary. However, irrigation water always contains minerals and salts, and these can be concentrated to toxic levels by evapotranspiration. Irrigated land may need periodic flushes with excessive irrigation water and drainage to remove these toxic minerals. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. ...


Drainage in the 19th century

From the 1881 Household Cyclopedia


This operation is always best performed in spring or summer, when the ground is dry. Main drains ought to be made in every part of the field where a cross-cut or open drain was formerly wanted; they ought to be cut four feet (1.2 m) deep, upon an average. This completely secures them from the possibility of being damaged by the treading of horses or cattle, and being so far below the small drains, clears the water finely out of them. In every situation, pipe-turfs for the main drains, if they can be had, are preferable. If good stiff clay, a single row of pipe-turf; if sandy, a double row. When pipe-turf cannot be got conveniently, a good wedge drain may answer well, when the subsoil is a strong, stiff clay; but if the subsoil be only moderately so, a thorn drain, with couples below, will do still better; and if the subsoil is very sandy, except pipes can be had, it is in vain to attempt under-draining the field by any other method. It may be necessary to mention here that the size of the main drains ought to be regulated according to the length and declivity of the run, and the quantity of water to be carried off by them. It is always safe, however, to have the main drains large, and plenty of them; for economy here seldom turns out well. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Summer is one of the four seasons of the year. ... Fill may refer to: In civil engineering, a fill is an artificial ridge or dam of earth or gravel (fill dirt) constructed to support a prepared right-of-way such as a railroad or highway across a valley or depression. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...


Having finished the main drains, proceed next to make a small drain in every furrow of the field if the ridges formerly have not been less than fifteen feet (5 m) wide. But if that should be the case, first level the ridges, and make the drains in the best direction, and at such a distance from each other as may be thought necessary. If the water rises well in the bottom of the drains, they ought to be cut three feet (1 m) deep, and in this ease would dry the field sufficiently well, although they were from twenty-five to thirty feet (8 to 10 m) asunder; but if the water does not draw well to the bottom of the drains, two feet (0.6 m) will be a sufficient deepness for the pipe-drain, and two and a half feet (1 m) for the wedge drain. In no case ought they to be shallower where the field has been previously leveled. In this instance, however, as the surface water is carried off chiefly by the water sinking immediately into the top of the drains, it will be necessary to have the drains much nearer each other--say from fifteen to twenty feet (5 to 6 m). If the ridges are more than fifteen feet (5 m) wide, however broad and irregular they may be, follow invariably the line of the old furrows, as the best direction for the drains; and, where they are high-gathered ridges, from twenty to twenty-four inches will be a sufficient depth for the pipe-drain, and from twenty-four to thirty inches for the wedge-drain. Particular care should be taken in connecting the small and main drains together, so that the water may have a gentle declivity, with free access into the main drains.


When the drains are finished, the ridges are cleaved down upon the drains by the plough; and where they had been very high formerly, a second clearing may be given; but it is better not to level the ridges too much, for by allowing them to retain a little of their former shape, the ground being lowest immediately where the drains are, the surface water collects upon the top of the drains; and, by shrinking into them, gets freely away. After the field is thus finished, run the new ridges across the small drains, making them about ten feet (3 m) broad, and continue afterwards to plough the field in the same manner as dry land.


It is evident from the above method of draining that the expense will vary very much, according to the quantity of main drains necessary for the field, the distance of the small drains from each other, and the distance the turf is to be carried.


The advantage resulting from under-draining, is very great, for besides a considerable saving annually of water furrowing, cross cutting, etc., the land can often be ploughed and sown to advantage, both in the spring and in the fall of the year, when otherwise it would be found quite impracticable; every species of drilled crops, such as beans, potatoes, turnips, etc., can be cultivated successfully; and every species, both of green and white crops, is less apt to fail in wet and untoward seasons.


Wherever a burst of water appears in any particular spot, the sure and certain way of getting quit of such an evil is to dig hollow drains to such a depth below the surface as is required by the fall or level that can be gained, and by the quantity of water expected to proceed from the burst or spring. Having ascertained the extent of water to be carried off, taken the necessary levels, and cleared a mouth or loading passage for the water, begin the drain at the extremity next to that leader, and go on with the work till the top of the spring is touched, which probably will accomplish the intended object. But if it should not be completely accomplished, run off from the main drain with such a number of branches as may be required to intercept the water, and in this way disappointment will hardly be experienced. Drains, to be substantially useful, should seldom be less than three feet (1 m) in depth, twenty or twenty four inches thereof to be close packed with stones or wood, according to circumstances. The former are the best materials, but in many places are not to be got in sufficient quantities; recourse therefore, must often be made to the latter, though not so effectual or durable. A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ...


It is of vast importance to fill up drains as fast as they are dug out; because, if left open for any length of time, the earth is not only apt to fall in but the sides get into a broken, irregular state, which cannot afterwards be completely rectified. A proper covering of straw or sod should be put upon the top of the materials, to keep the surface earth from mixing with them; and where wood is the material used for filling up, a double degree of attention is necessary, otherwise the proposed improvement may be effectually frustrated. Rolled sod Sod is turf and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a piece of this material. ...


The pit method of draining is a very effectual one, if executed with judgment. When it is sufficiently ascertained where the bed of water is deposited, which can easily be done by boring with an auger, sink a pit into the place of a size which will allow a man freely to work within its bounds. Dig this pit of such a depth as to reach the bed of the water meant to be carried off; and when this depth is attained, which is easily discerned by the rising of the water, fill up the pit with great land-stones and carry off the water by a stout drain to some adjoining ditch or mouth, whence it may proceed to the nearest river.


Current practices

Modern drainage systems incorporate geotextile filters that retain and prevent fine grains of soil from passing into and clogging the drain. Geotextiles are synthetic textile fabrics specially manufactured for civil and environmental engineering applications. Geotextiles are designed to retain fine soil particles while allowing water to pass through. In a typical drainage system they would be laid along a trench which would then be filled with coarse granular material: gravel, sea shells, stone or rock. The geotextile is then folded over the top of the stone and the trench is then covered by soil. Groundwater seeps through the geotextile and flows within the stone to an outfall. In high groundwater conditions a perforated plastic (PVC or PE) pipe is laid along the base of the drain to increase the volume of water transported in the drain. A geotextile is a synthetic permeable textile. ... Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, Soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide). ... Gravel being unloaded from a barge Gravel is rock that is of a certain grain size range. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Alternatively prefabricated plastic drainage systems, often incorporating geotextile, coco fiber or rag filters can be considered. The use of these materials has become increasingly more common due to their ease of use which eliminates the need for transporting and laying stone drainage aggregate which is invariably more expensive than a synthetic drain. Coco can be: Plants Coconut Cocoyam Callaloo made with cocoyam leaves A musical about the life of Coco Chanel Coco the Clown, (1900-1974) Coco (bondage model) Coco (wireless company) Isla del Coco, a Costa Rica-administered island rumored to hide treasure A computer - see TRS-80 Color Computer The... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... An industrial water filter with geared motor A water filter is a device which removes impurities from water by means of a fine physical barrier, chemical processes and/or biological process. ...


Over the past 30 years geotextile and PVC filters have become the most commonly used soil filter media. They are cheap to produce and easy to lay, with factory controlled properties that ensure long term filtration performance even in fine silty soil conditions..


Drainage in Construction

The civil engineer or site engineer is responsible for drainage in construction projects. They set out from the plans all the roads, drainage, culverts and sewers involved in construction operations. During the construction of the work on site he/she will set out all the necessary levels for each of the previously mentioned factors. A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... A culvert is a flowing body of water which passes underneath a road, railway, or embankment, or the part thereof that does so. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Site engineers work alongside architects and construction managers, supervisors, planners, quantity surveyors, the general workforce, as well as subcontractors. An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


See also

John Johnston (April 11, 1791 - November 24, 1880) is credited with the first public introduction of agricultural drainage in the United States. ... Construction on the North Bytown Bridge in Ottawa, Canada. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Deep drainage is defined as the volume of water flux passing below the depth at which plant roots extract water. ... A drain commissioner is an elected official in most Michigan counties. ... A trencher is piece of construction equipment used to dig trenches, typically for laying pipes or cable, or for drainage. ... Energy balance has the following meanings in several fields: In physics, energy balance is a systematic presentation of energy flows and transformations in a system. ... Well drainage means drainage of agricultural lands by wells. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings Plumbing, from the Latin for lead (plumbum), is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for potable water systems and the drainage of waste. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A buildings waste-disposal system has two parts: the drainage system and the venting system. ... On-site septic disposal systems are common in rural areas where public sewage treatment systems do not exist. ...

External links

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

Notes


  Results from FactBites:
 
Drainage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1707 words)
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.
Drainage was first developed in the Indus Valley Civilization from around 3100 BC in what is now Pakistan and North India.
The invention of wind powered pumping engines in the 15th century permitted drainage of some of the marginal land, but the final drainage of the lake had to await the design of large, steam powered pumps and agreements between regional authorities.
DRAINAGE (997 words)
The specific drainage requirements for any given skatepark will be a function of the design and the topography of the site.
Above grade drainage relies upon gravity and the slope of the park to drain water across the surface of the park and away without drainpipes, etc. This drainage technique is the least expensive approach.
Below grade drainage relies upon gravity and the slope of the skatepark to carry water into a series of underground drainpipes where it flows into the municipal drain system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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