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Encyclopedia > Dragunov Sniper Rifle
Dragunov (SVD)

Military Izhmash Dragunov SVD
Type Sniper rifle
Place of origin Soviet Union, Russia
Service history
In service 1963–
Used by Russia, China, Turkey, Finland, Venezuela
Production history
Designer Evgeniy Fedorovich Dragunov
Designed 1958–1963
Manufacturer Izhmash, Norinco
Variants See Variants
Specifications
Weight 4.31 kg (unloaded with scope)
Length 1225 mm
Barrel length 610 mm (4 grooves, right hand twist)

Cartridge 7.62 x 54 mm R
Action Gas operated
Muzzle velocity 830 m/s
Effective range 600 m (standard ammunition), 1300 m (7N1 ammunition)
Maximum range 3000m
Feed system 10-round detachable box magazine
Sights Telescopic sight and Iron sight

The Dragunov Sniper Rifle (Russian: Снайперская винтовка Драгунова, Snayperskaya vintovka Dragunova, abbreviated SVD, GRAU index 6V1), is a semi-automatic rifle designed by Evgeniy Fedorovich Dragunov in the Soviet Union between 1958 and 1963. The SVD was the world's first purpose-built military precision marksman's rifle, and is common (along with several variants) throughout the former Eastern Bloc. Image File history File links Svd_1_russian. ... The M40, United States Army standard-issue sniper rifle. ... Evgeniy Fedorovich Dragunov (Russian: Евгений Фёдорович Драгунов) (February 20, 1920, Izhevsk - August 4, 1991) was a Russian weapons designer. ... It has been suggested that Izhevsk Arsenal be merged into this article or section. ... The China North Industries Corporation (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally North Industries), official English name Norinco, manufactures vehicles (trucks, cars and motorcycles), machinery, optical-electronic products, oil field equipment, chemicals, light industrial products, explosives and blast materials, civil and military firearms and ammunition, etc. ... The Dragunov Sniper Rifle (Russian: , abbreviated SVD, GRAU index 6V1), is a semi-automatic rifle designed by Evgeniy Fedorovich Dragunov in the Soviet Union between 1958 and 1963. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 7. ... In firearms terminology, an action is the system of operation that the firearm employs to seal the breech (in a breech-loading firearm), and to load consecutive rounds. ... Gas-operation is one of the firearm actions used in automatic firearms. ... A guns muzzle velocity is the speed at which the projectile leaves the muzzle of the gun. ... A 30-round STANAG magazine. ... View through a 4x rifle scope A telescopic sight, commonly referred to as a scope, is a device used to give an accurate point of aim for a firearm. ... With regard to firearms, the term iron sights refers to the open unmagnified sighting system which comes as standard with most weapons. ... Main Agency of Missiles and Artillery of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union (Главное ракетно-артиллерийское управление МО РФ, ГРАУ) is a department of Soviet/Russian Ministry of Defense which is subordinated to the Chief of Armament and Munition of the Armed Forces, vice-minister of defense (начальник вооружения ВС РФ - заместитель Министра обороны РФ). In particular, the GRAU is responsible for assignment... A semi-automatic firearm requires a trigger pull for each round that is fired. ... Evgeniy Fedorovich Dragunov (Russian: Евгений Фёдорович Драгунов) (February 20, 1920, Izhevsk - August 4, 1991) was a Russian weapons designer. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A US Marine marksman. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...

Contents

History

The need for a new precision platoon-level, semi-automatic rifle became apparent to Soviet military leadership in the 1950s, and in 1958 a contest among Soviet arms designers was opened for the creation of such a rifle. The winner of the contest was a rifle designed by a team headed by Evgeniy Fedorovich Dragunov. In 1963, the Dragunov Sniper Rifle was accepted into the arsenal of the Soviet Army. Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ... A semi-automatic rifle is a type of rifle that fires a single bullet each time the trigger is pulled, without the need to manually operate a bolt, lever or other firing or loading mechanism. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Evgeniy Fedorovich Dragunov (Russian: Евгений Фёдорович Драгунов) (February 20, 1920, Izhevsk - August 4, 1991) was a Russian weapons designer. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


Ballistics

Cross sections of rare imported 7N1 ammunition
Cross sections of rare imported 7N1 ammunition

The SVD is chambered for the 7.62 x 54R rimmed cartridge, with a muzzle velocity of about 830 meters per second. The rifle can accept the older Mosin Nagant M1891/30 cartridge, but a more accurate 7N1 round was designed specifically for it. The 7N1 was the original load developed by Russian armorer Sabelnikov in conjunction with the development of the SVD back in the late 1950s. It has a steel jacketed projectile with an air pocket, steel core, and a lead knocker in the base for maximum terminal effect. The 7N1 was replaced in 1999 by the 7N14 round. The 7N14 is a new load developed for the SVD. It consists of a 151 grain projectile which travels at the same 830 m/s, but it has a lead core projectile and is supposed to be the more accurate of the two. Nikolai Bezborodov, head of R&D at Izhmash, stated that it was the most accurate load for the SVD. However, the Soviet Union never offered this ammunition for export, and it is very rare outside of Russia. This ammunition can be identified by its packaging which has Russian: "Снайперские" (For sniper use) stamped on its crates, cans, and paper wrap to prevent it from being wasted in other weapon applications. Image File history File links 7N1. ... Image File history File links 7N1. ... The 7. ...


Although the rifle is lethal at ranges above 1000 m, it is not really intended or designed for ultimate accuracy and can only reasonably engage targets at up to 600 m with standard ammunition, achieving 2 Minutes of arc at that distance. This range and accuracy can be improved upon with the specialty ammunition. Inaccuracy in this weapon is primarily due to the effects of the semiautomatic action of the SVD on the barrel harmonics; the accuracy of the rifle suffers at greater ranges. However, the weapon handles easily for its size, and is designed to be very durable; the gas system and bore are chrome lined to resist against corrosion and it is easy to clean. The rifle also has a bayonet lug for close-quarters combat, although the mounting of a bayonet will cause a slight change in center of gravity, affecting the handling qualities of the rifle, and possibly accuracy. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A semi-automatic firearm automatically loads a round into the chamber after the weapon is fired, but still requires a trigger pull for each round that is fired. ... The US Marine Corps OKC-3S Bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle barrel or similar weapon. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Equipment

PSO-1 scope
PSO-1 scope

The SVD comes standard with a PSO-1 scope, a 4×24 device which includes a battery-operated reticule and a passive infrared filter. At the time of its development, the PSO-1 scope was considered one of the most advanced sniper scope designs ever fielded. Its reticule consists of multiple aiming points (chevrons) which are used for distances beyond 1000 meters. There is also a range finder built in to the reticule which allows approximate distance calculations based on the height of an average human (which the Soviets felt was 1.7 meters tall). Many other conventional and night-vision optics are available. In case of scope failure, the rifle has non-detachable iron sights, a feature that does not exist on most sniper rifles. The SVD also came with a bayonet identical to that of the AK-47, a cheek rest, a carrying strap, magazine pouch and basic cleaning utensils and maintenance tools. Image File history File links PSO-1_rifle_scope_1458. ... Image File history File links PSO-1_rifle_scope_1458. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... The US Marine Corps OKC-3S Bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle barrel or similar weapon. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ...


Battlefield use

While the Soviet army was in operation each squad was issued one SVD. Soldiers issued an SVD typically are specially trained for the weapon. They move with their squad and are intended to increase the range of their infantry squad up to and above 600 m (without an SVD, the effective range of a squad when the rifle began production would have been 300 m due to the limitations of the AK-47). As such, it is not a sniper's rifle in the sense used by, among others, the U.S. military, but the first example of what is today known as a marksman's weapon. Soviet redirects here. ... In the fire service a Squad is a Engine Company with a compliment of rescue tools. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... A US Marine marksman. ...


Designed with the simple purpose of extending a squad's range, the weapon is rugged and durable. The rifle's reliability is still recognized, and the weapon is still fielded by the Russian army and Russian law enforcement agencies. Within the Russian military, the SVD is colloquially known as "veslo" (весло, meaning "oar") for its length.


Russian small arms are generally regarded as very sturdy and this has led to widespread use and long "careers" for particular Dragunovs. The rifle has been used in numerous conflicts around the world such as the Vietnam War, the Lebanese Civil War, Chechnya, Operation Desert Storm and in the Iraq War to name only a few. They are also used by the Indian Army [1] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Indian Army is one of the armed forces of India and has responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


Modernization

Initial versions of the SVD featured laminated wooden furniture (stock, pistol grip and handguard). The aesthetically-pleasing clear lacquer was used as a protective coating for the wood but placed its user at a tactical disadvantage when faced with an enemy using night vision. The wood would glow a bright yellow when viewed through night vision goggles. Today the SVD is made with black polymer furniture to decrease weight and manufacturing costs and increase ergonomics.


Another modernization of the SVD took place about 1990 when the Izhmash factory eliminated the lightening cuts on each side of the rifle's receiver. When factory engineers decided to prepare an export version of the SVD in a variety of calibers, it was found that eliminating the cuts in the receiver made it stiffer and allowed it to handle cartridges with higher pressure. The SVD as well as the hunting version (Tigr/Tiger) now feature smooth-sided receivers.


Variants

Pair of Dragunovs imported to US as Tigers. Top rifle has cheek pad, two 10-round magazines, and flash suppressor. Bottom rifle was marketed as a hunting "carbine". It has no cheek pad, two 5-round magazines, and no flash suppressor. Both have wooden stocks and polymer foregrips.
Pair of Dragunovs imported to US as Tigers. Top rifle has cheek pad, two 10-round magazines, and flash suppressor. Bottom rifle was marketed as a hunting "carbine". It has no cheek pad, two 5-round magazines, and no flash suppressor. Both have wooden stocks and polymer foregrips.

Image File history File links Dragunovedit. ... Image File history File links Dragunovedit. ...

USSR/Russia

  • Snayperskaya Vintovka Dragunova Skladnaja (SVDS): An airborne version of the SVD developed in the 1980s. The SVDS has a tubular metal buttstock which folds to the right. It cannot be fired when the buttstock is folded. The bayonet lug has been removed, the barrel reduced in length to 590mm, and the flash suppressor shortened.
  • SVU: A bullpup version of the SVD with a shorter (520 mm) barrel, bipod and a flash/sound suppressor.
  • SVU-A (SVU with selective fire capability).
  • Dragunov Tiger (Russian: Тигр, Tigr, Tiger): A civilian version of the SVD, available in a variety of large game hunting calibers including .308 Winchester.

Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ... The SVU (Snaiperskaya Vintovka Ukorochennaya = Short Sniper Rifle) is a a shortened variant of SVD sniper rifle with bull-pup configuration and folding ajustable bipods. ... The Steyr AUG is one of the most successful bullpup rifles Bullpup is a firearm configuration in which the action (or mechanism) and magazine are located behind the trigger. ... A selective fire weapon can be fired in either of at least two modes, depending on the position of the selector switch. ... The Dragunov Tiger was the second rifle made by Evgeny Dragunov. ...

China

  • Type 79 rifle: A Norinco copy of the SVD used by the Chinese military.
  • Type 85 rifle: An improved Type 79.
  • NDM-86: A version made for commercial export, available in .308 Winchester (0.25-0.75MOA depend on type of Match Ammo) or 7.62x54R.

The China North Industries Corporation (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally North Industries), official English name Norinco, manufactures vehicles (trucks, cars and motorcycles), machinery, optical-electronic products, oil field equipment, chemicals, light industrial products, explosives and blast materials, civil and military firearms and ammunition, etc. ... The Ground Forces of the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) deploys over 8,000 tanks, 4,000 armored vehicles, and 25,000 artillery pieces. ... NATO 7. ...

Finland

  • Local variant known as TKIV Dragunov (7,62mm)

India

  • Local variant known as Dragunov SVD59, is a straight copy of the Dragunov, but with lessor capabilities to the original

Iraq

  • Al-Kadesiah: An Iraqi variant of the SVD. It's closer in relation to the Romanian PSL/PPH in that the reciever is based off of the AK-47 instead of the SKS.

Iran

  • Nakhjir: Iranian-made SVD made by Defense Industries Organization.

Poland

  • SWD-M: a modernized version with heavier barrel, detachable bipod, new side mount and PCO LD-6x42 scope. About 70 were created in ZM Lucznik for Polish Army and Ministry of Internal Affairs units before the project was canceled in favour of buying new 7.62 mm SAKO TRG-21 rifles.

Łucznik Arms Factory (Polish: , also known as Fabryka Broni Radom or Zakłady Mechaniczne Łucznik) is a Polish enterprise from Radom. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Sako TRG-22/42 sniper rifles were developed by Finnish company SAKO. The TRG-22 is designed to fire standard 7. ...

Yugoslavia/Serbia

Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... The M91 Sniper Rifle is a modern military sniper rifle developed and manufactured by Zastava Arms of Kragujevac, Republic of Serbia. ... Zastava Arms is a subsidiary of Zastava, and is the sole producer of military firearms in Serbia. ...

The Dragunov in Venezuela

On the 26th of August, 2007, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez declared that Venezuela would be purchasing 5000 Dragunov Sniper Rifles from Russia [2]. He added that they would be purchased with advanced scopes. President Hugo Chávez Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (born July 28, 1954) has been the President of Venezuela since 1999. ...


See also

Rifles
Military Roles

A U.S. Army soldier peers through a scope mounted atop his M-14 rifle during operations in Iraq A sniper rifle is a type of rifle used for engaging in the act of sniping, most purely a rifle used for shooting with great accuracy. ... The M21 Sniper Weapon System (SWS) is the semi-automatic sniper rifle adaptation of the popular M14 rifle. ... The United States Marine Corps Designated Marksman Rifle (DMR, NSN 1005-01-458-6235; more formally the United States Rifle, 7. ... The Mosin-Nagant (Мосин-Наган) is a military rifle of Russia and later the Soviet Union, in service in various forms from 1891 until the 1960s, when it was finally replaced in its final function as a sniper rifle by the SVD... The SV-98 (Snaiperskaya Vintovka Model 1998) is an upgrade of the Russian SVD rifle. ... The VSS (Russian: ), Special Sniper Rifle, also named Vintorez (Thread Cutter), is a suppressed sniper rifle in use by various military and otherwise militant organizations, especially those of former Soviet states. ... The PSL (Romanian: PuÅŸcă Semiautomată cu Lunetă, semi-automatic rifle with scope) is a Romanian military sniper rifle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Designated Marksman (DM) is a military role in a U.S. infantry squad. ... Arkansas Army National Guard soldiers practice sniper marksmanship at their firing range near Baghdad, Iraq in 2005. ...

References

External links and sources

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
SVD
  • IZHMASH JSC official site: 7.62 mm Dragunov Sniper Rifle "SVD"
  • IZHMASH JSC official site: 7.62 mm Dragunov Sniper Rifle with folding butt "SVDS"
  • www.dragunov.net
  • Buddy Hinton Collection / SVD
  • Modern Firearms Information
  • SVD manual
  • US Army Field Manual 100-2-3 - The Soviet Army; Troops Organisation and Equipment (June 1991)
  • Dragunov's field manual
  • Type 79 and Type 85
  • BROŃ I AMUNICJA 02/2006: SWD-M
  • Dragunov Sniper Rifle (in Russian)
  • New York Times - August, 16th, 2007: Chávez’s Bid for Russian Arms Pains U.S. (Dragunov export and technology transfer to Venezuela)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dragunov SVD Resource Page - svd dragunov (817 words)
The Dragunov SVD is chambered for the km svd dragunov Russian 7.62×54 mm rimmed cartridge, firing at approximately 830 meters per second.
Although the rifle is lethal at ranges above 1000 m, it is not really intended or dragunov svd airsoft rifle designed for ultimate accuracy and can only reasonably engage targets at up to 600 m with standard ammuniton, achieving svd dragunov sniper rifle 2 Minutes of arc at that distance.
Rifling, which first made an appearance in the 18th century, is the process of making grooves in gun barrels for increased accuracy and range.
Sniper rifle at AllExperts (4534 words)
Sniper rifle is a term applied to a wide range of rifles specifically designed or adapted for military or law enforcement use that ensures accurate placement of shots at ranges normally exceeding those of other small arms.
The rifle itself could be a standard rifle (at first, a bolt-action rifle); however, when fitted with a telescopic sight, it would become a sniper rifle.
For most rifles equipped with a telescopic sight, it is necessary to have this area raised slightly, because the telescope is positioned higher than iron sights, and a rifle shooter should steady his cheek against a rifle while aiming.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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