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Encyclopedia > Dracula
Dracula
Dracula by Bram Stoker, 1st edition cover, Archibald Constable and Company, 1897
The cover of the first edition
Author Bram Stoker
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Language English
Genre(s) Horror novel, Gothic novel
Publisher Archibald Constable and Company (UK)
Publication date 1897
Media type Print (Hardback)
ISBN NA

Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary antagonist the vampire Count Dracula. Count Dracula is a fictional character, the titular antagonist of Bram Stokers 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula. ... Look up Dracula in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... first edition cover to Bram Stokers novel Dracula from http://isd. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish writer of novels and short stories, who is best known today for his 1897 horror novel Dracula. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole Gothic fiction is an important genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... See also: 1896 in literature, other events of 1897, 1898 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... ISBN redirects here. ... See also: 1896 in literature, other events of 1897, 1898 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish writer of novels and short stories, who is best known today for his 1897 horror novel Dracula. ... For other uses, see Antagonist (disambiguation). ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... Count Dracula is a fictional character, the titular antagonist of Bram Stokers 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula. ...


Dracula has been attributed to many literary genres including vampire literature, horror fiction, the gothic novel and invasion literature. Structurally it is an epistolary novel, that is, told as a series of diary entries and letters. Literary critics have examined many themes in the novel, such as the role of women in Victorian culture, conventional and repressed sexuality, immigration, colonialism, postcolonialism and folklore. Although Stoker did not invent the vampire, the novel's influence on the popularity of vampires has been singularly responsible for many theatrical and film interpretations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... For information on movies about vampires, see Vampire films. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... The Battle of Dorking (1871) triggered an explosion of invasion literature. ... Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ... == c programming[[a--203. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Postcolonialism (postcolonial theory, post-colonial theory) is a set of theories in philosophy, film, political sciences and literature that deal with the cultural legacy of colonial rule. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... This article is about motion pictures. ...

Contents

Plot summary

The novel is mainly composed of journal entries and letters written by several narrators who are also the novel's main protagonists; Stoker supplemented the story with occasional newspaper clippings to relate events not directly witnessed by the story's characters. The tale begins with Jonathan Harker, a newly qualified English solicitor, journeying by train and carriage from England to Count Dracula's crumbling, remote castle (situated in the Carpathian Mountains on the border of Transylvania and Moldavia). The purpose of his mission is to provide legal support to Dracula for a real estate transaction overseen by Harker's employer, Peter Hawkins, of Exeter in England. At first seduced by Dracula's gracious manner, Harker soon discovers that he has become a prisoner in the castle. He also begins to see disquieting facets of Dracula's nocturnal life. One night while searching for a way out of the castle, and against Dracula's strict admonition not to venture outside his room at night, Harker falls under the spell of three wanton female vampires, the Brides of Dracula. He is saved at the last second by the Count, however, who ostensibly wants to keep Harker alive just long enough because his legal advice and teachings about England and London (Dracula's planned travel destination was to be among the "teeming millions") are needed by Dracula. Harker barely escapes from the castle with his life. Jonathan Harker is a fictional character in the 1897 novel Dracula by Bram Stoker. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century... Count Dracula is a fictional character, the titular antagonist of Bram Stokers 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... The Brides of Dracula are the three seductive female vampires, minions of the infamous King of Vampires, Count Dracula - who inhabit his castle in Transylvania with him, in the novel Dracula by Bram Stoker. ...


Not long afterward, a Russian ship, the Demeter, having weighed anchor at Varna, runs aground on the shores of Whitby, England, during a fierce tempest. All of the crew are missing and presumed dead, and only one body is found, that of the captain tied to the ship's helm. The captain's log is recovered and tells of strange events that had taken place during the ship's journey. These events led to the gradual disappearance of the entire crew apparently owing to a malevolent presence on board the ill-fated ship. An animal described as a large dog is seen on the ship leaping ashore. The ship's cargo is described as silver sand and boxes of "mould" or earth from Transylvania. This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... , For other uses, see Whitby (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ...


Soon Dracula is menacing Harker's devoted fiancée, Wilhelmina "Mina" Murray, and her vivacious friend, Lucy Westenra. Lucy receives three marriage proposals in one day, from an asylum psychiatrist, Dr. John Seward; an American, Quincey Morris; and the Hon. Arthur Holmwood (later Lord Godalming). Lucy accepts Holmwood's proposal while turning down Seward and Morris, but all remain friends. There is a notable encounter between Dracula and Seward's patient Renfield, an insane man who means to consume insects, spiders, birds, and other creatures — in ascending order of size — in order to absorb their "life force". Renfield acts as a kind of motion sensor, detecting Dracula's proximity and supplying clues accordingly. Wilhelmina Mina Harker is a fictional character of Bram Stokers seminal horror novel Dracula. ... Lucy Westenra is a fictional character in the novel Dracula (1897) by Bram Stoker. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called a mental hospital or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... Dr. John Seward (sometimes as Jack) is a fictional character appearing in Bram Stokers vampire novel Dracula. ... Quincey Morris is a is a fictional character in Bram Stokers novel Dracula. ... The Honourable Arthur Holmwood (later Lord Godalming) is a fictional character in Bram Stokers novel Dracula. ... Dwight Fry as Renfield in the 1931 adaptation of Dracula. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Lucy begins to waste away suspiciously. All her suitors fret, and Seward calls in his old teacher, Professor Abraham Van Helsing from Amsterdam. Van Helsing immediately determines the cause of Lucy's condition but refuses to disclose it, knowing that Seward's faith in him will be shaken if he starts to speak of vampires. Van Helsing tries multiple blood transfusions, but they are clearly losing ground. On a night when Van Helsing must return to Amsterdam (and his message to Seward asking him to watch the Westenra household is accidentally sent to the wrong address), Lucy and her mother are attacked by a wolf. Mrs Westenra, who has a heart condition, dies of fright, and Lucy apparently dies soon after. Helsing and Van Helsing redirect here. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call...


Lucy is buried, but soon afterward the newspapers report children being stalked in the night by a "bloofer lady" (as they describe it), i.e. "beautiful lady"[1]. Van Helsing, knowing that this means Lucy has become a vampire, confides in Seward, Lord Godalming, and Morris. The suitors and Van Helsing track her down, and after a disturbing confrontation between her vampiric self and Arthur, they stake her heart, behead her, and fill the mouth with garlic. Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ...


Around the same time, Jonathan Harker arrives home from recuperation in Budapest (where Mina joined and married him after his escape from the castle); he and Mina also join the coalition, who turn their attentions to dealing with Dracula.


After Dracula learns of Van Helsing and the others' plot against him, he takes revenge by visiting — and biting — Mina at least three times. Dracula also feeds Mina his blood, creating a spiritual bond between them to control her. The only way to forestall this is to kill Dracula first. Mina slowly succumbs to the blood of the vampire that flows through her veins, switching back and forth from a state of consciousness to a state of semi-trance during which she is telepathically connected with Dracula. It is this connection that they start to use to deduce Dracula's movements. It is only possible to detect Dracula's surroundings when Mina is put under hypnosis by Van Helsing. This ability gradually gets weaker as the group makes their way to Dracula's castle.


Dracula flees back to his castle in Transylvania, followed by Van Helsing's group, who manage to track him down just before sundown and destroy[2] him by shearing "through the throat" and stabbing him in the heart with a Bowie knife. Dracula crumbles to dust, his spell is lifted and Mina is freed from the marks. Quincey Morris is killed in the final battle, stabbed by Gypsies who had been charged with returning Dracula to his castle; the survivors return to England. A typical bowie knife, with its hallmark large blade and unique shape. ...


The book closes with a note about Mina's and Jonathan's married life and the birth of their first-born son, whom they name Quincey in remembrance of their American friend.


Background

Between 1879 and 1889 Stoker was business manager for the world-famous Lyceum Theatre in London, where he supplemented his income by writing a large number of sensational novels, his most famous being the vampire tale Dracula published on May 18, 1897. Parts of it are set around the town of Whitby, where he was living at the time. The Lyceum Theatre is a theatre on Wellington Street near Covent Garden in the West End of London. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... , For other uses, see Whitby (disambiguation). ...

Shakespearean actor and friend of Stoker's, Sir Henry Irving was a real-life inspiration for the character of Dracula, tailor-made to his dramatic presence, gentlemanly mannerisms and affinity for playing villain roles. Irving, however, never agreed to play the part on stage.

Before writing Dracula, Stoker spent seven years researching European folklore and stories of vampires, being most influenced by Emily Gerard's 1885 essay "Transylvania Superstitions", and an evening spent talking about Balkan superstitions with Arminius Vambery. Image File history File links Henry_Irving_portrait. ... Sir Henry Irving, as Hamlet, in an 1893 illustration from The Idler magazine John Henry Brodribb (February 6, 1838 – October 13, 1905), knighted in 1895, as Sir Henry Irving, was one of the most famous stage actors of the Victorian era. ... Emily Gerard was a nineteenth century author best known for the influence her collections of Transylvania folklore had on Bram Stoker and his creation of Dracula. ... Armin Vambéry (19 March 1832-1913) was a Hungarian Orientalist and traveler. ...


The Dead Un-Dead was one of Stoker's original titles for Dracula, and up until a few weeks before publication, the manuscript was titled simply The Un-Dead. The name of Stoker's count was originally going to be Count Vampyre, but while doing research, Stoker became intrigued by the word dracul. Dracul is derived from the word draco in the Megleno-Romanian language, meaning devil (originally dragon). There was also a historic figure known as Vlad III Dracula, but whether Stoker based his character on him remains debated and is now considered unlikely. Megleno-Romanian (known as Vlăheşte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Ţepeş IPA: in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). ...


The novel has been in the public domain in the United States since its original publication because Stoker failed to follow proper copyright procedure. In England and other countries following the Berne Convention on copyrights, however, the novel was under copyright until April 1962, fifty years after Stoker's death.[3] When the unauthorized film adaptation was released in 1922, the popularity of the novel increased considerably, owing to the controversy caused when Stoker's widow tried to have the film banned.[4] The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... For the treaty establishing the General Postal Union, see Treaty of Bern. ...


Reaction

When it was first published, in 1897, Dracula was not an immediate bestseller, although reviewers were unstinting in their praise. The contemporary Daily Mail ranked Stoker's powers above those of Mary Shelley and Edgar Allan Poe as well as Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights. [5]


According to writers Nina Auerbach and David Skal, the novel is more important for modern readers than contemporary Victorian readers, who, they assert, enjoyed it as a good adventure story; and allege that it reached its iconic legend status only later in the 20th century.[6]This assertion is contradicted, however, by the actual statements of Victorian readers and reviewers themselves who described Dracula as "the sensation of the season" and "the most blood-curdling novel of the paralysed century".[7] The Daily Mail review of June 1, 1897 proclaimed it a classic of Gothic horror: is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The gothic novel is an English literary genre, which can be said to have been born with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ...

"In seeking a parallel to this weird, powerful, and horrorful story our mind reverts to such tales as The Mysteries of Udolpho, Frankenstein, The Fall of the House of Usher ... but Dracula is even more appalling in its gloomy fascination than any one of these."[8]

Other reviewers compared it favorably to the novels of Wilkie Collins and similar good reviews appeared when the book was published in the USA in 1899[9]. The Mysteries of Udolpho, by Ann Radcliffe, was published in the summer of 1794 by G. G. and J. Robinson of London in 4 volumes. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... The Fall of the House of Usher is a short story written by Edgar Allan Poe. ... Wilkie Collins William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and writer of short stories. ...


Historical and geographical references

Although Dracula is a work of fiction, it does contain some historical references. The historical connections with the novel and how much Stoker knew about the history are a matter of conjecture and debate.


Following the publication of In Search of Dracula by Radu Florescu and Raymond McNally in 1972, the supposed connections between the historical Transylvanian-born Vlad III Dracula of Wallachia and Bram Stoker's fictional Dracula attracted popular attention. During his main reign (1456–1462), "Vlad the Impaler" is said to have killed from 20,000 to 40,000 European civilians (political rivals, criminals, and anyone else he considered "useless to humanity"), mainly by using his favourite method of impaling them on a sharp pole. The main sources dealing with these events are records by Saxon settlers in neighboring Transylvania, who had frequent clashes with Vlad III and may have been biased. Vlad III is revered as a folk hero by Romanians for driving off the invading Turks. His impaled victims are said to have included as many as 100,000 Turkish Muslims. Radu Florescu (b. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ IPA: in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Historically, the name "Dracul" is derived from a secret fraternal order of knights called the Order of the Dragon, founded by Sigismund of Luxembourg (king of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, and Holy Roman Emperor) to uphold Christianity and defend the Empire against the Ottoman Turks. Vlad II Dracul, father of Vlad III, was admitted to the order around 1431 because of his bravery in fighting the Turks. From 1431 onward, Vlad II wore the emblem of the order and later, as ruler of Wallachia, his coinage bore the dragon symbol. The name Dracula means "Son of Dracul". The Order of the Dragon (Latin Societas Draconistrarum, German Der Drachenorden, Hungarian Sárkány Lovagrend, Romanian Ordinul Dragonului, Serbian Витешки ред Змаја) was an order of selected nobles modeled on the Order of Saint George of Hungary. ... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Vlad II (also known as Dracul or The Dragon) (c. ... Coinage is: A Drinking game also known as Quarters a series of coins struck as part of currency a magazine about numismatics, capitalized: COINage The right or process of making coins The creation of a neologism, or new word; see word coinage The duty or tax on refined tin, abolished...


Stoker came across the name Dracula in his reading on Romanian history, and chose this to replace the name (Count Wampyr) that he had originally intended to use for his villain. However, some Dracula scholars, led by Elizabeth Miller, have questioned the depth of this connection. They argue that Stoker in fact knew little of the historic Vlad III except for his nickname. There are sections in the novel where Dracula refers to his own background, and these speeches show that Stoker had some knowledge of Romanian history. Yet Stoker includes no details about Vlad III's reign and does not mention his use of impalement. Given Stoker's use of historical background to make his novel more horrific, it seems unlikely he would have failed to mention that his villain had impaled thousands of people. It seems that Stoker either did not know much about the historic Vlad III, or did not intend his character Dracula to be the same person as Vlad III. This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ...


Vlad III was an ethnic Vlach. In the novel, Dracula claims to be a Székely: "We Szekelys have a right to be proud..." Vlachs (also called Vallachians, Wallachians, Wlachs, Wallachs, Vlahs, Olahs or Ulahs; (Albanian: Vllehë; Czech: ; Greek: ; Polish: ; South Slavic: Власи Vlasi; Turkish: ; Ukrainian: ) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) ( sék-ei in pronunciation ) are a Hungarian ethnic group mostly living in Transylvania in Romania, with a significant population also living in Vojvodina, Serbia. ...


The Dracula legend as he created it and as it has been portrayed in films and television shows may be a compound of various influences. Many of Stoker's biographers and literary critics have found strong similarities to the earlier Irish writer Sheridan le Fanu's classic of the vampire genre, Carmilla. In writing Dracula, Stoker may also have drawn on stories about the sídhe — some of which feature blood-drinking women. Sheridan Le Fanu Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (August 28, 1814 – February 7, 1873) was an Irish writer of Gothic tales and mystery novels. ... Carmilla is a Gothic novella by Joseph Sheridan le Fanu. ... Sídhe (IPA , shee, modern Irish: sí; Scottish Gaelic: sìth) is an Irish and Scottish Gaelic word referring first to earthen mounds that were thought to be home to a supernatural race related to the fey and elves of other traditions, and later to these inhabitants themselves. ...


It has been suggested that Stoker was influenced by the history of Countess Elizabeth Bathory, who was born in the Kingdom of Hungary. Bathory is known to have tortured and killed anywhere between 36 and 700 young women over a period of many years, and it was commonly believed that she committed these crimes in order to bathe in or drink their blood, believing that this preserved her youth. No credible evidence of blood-drinking or other blood crimes in the Bathory case has ever been found, however the stories and influence may explain why Dracula appeared younger after feeding.[10] Elizabeth Báthory (Báthory Erzsébet in Hungarian, Alžbeta Bátoriová-Nádašdy in Slovak, August 7?, 1560 - August 21, 1614), the Bloody Lady of Čachtice, born approximately 84 years after Vlad_III_Dracula died, was a Hungarian countess and the most famous serial killer in Slovak and Hungarian history. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some have claimed the castle of Count Dracula was inspired by Slains Castle, at which Bram Stoker was a guest of the 19th Earl of Erroll. However, since as Stoker visited the castle in 1895—five years after work on Dracula had begun—there is unlikely to be much connection. Many of the scenes in Whitby and London are based on real places that Stoker frequently visited, although in some cases he distorts the geography for the sake of the story. Slains Castle is a ruined castle near Cruden Bay in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, overlooking the North Sea. ... The title Earl of Erroll is an ancient one in the Peerage of Scotland. ...


It has been suggested that Stoker received much historical information from Ármin Vámbéry, a Hungarian professor he met at least twice. Miller argues that "there is nothing to indicate that the conversation included Vlad, vampires, or even Transylvania" and that, "furthermore, there is no record of any other correspondence between Stoker and Vámbéry, nor is Vámbéry mentioned in Stoker's notes for Dracula."[11] Ármin Vámbéry, Arminius Vámbéry born Hermann Bamberger, or Bamberger Ármin (19 March 1832, Dunaszerdahely – 15 September 1913, Budapest) was a Hungarian orientalist and traveler. ...


Themes

Dracula is an epistolary novel, written as a collection of diary entries, telegrams, and letters from the characters, as well as fictional clippings from the Whitby and London newspapers and phonograph cylinders. This literary style, made most famous by one of the most popular novels of the 19th century, The Woman in White (1860), was considered rather old-fashioned by the time of the publication of Dracula, but it adds a sense of realism and provides the reader with the perspective of most of the major characters. By use of the epistolary structure, Stoker, without employing either an omniscient narrator or any awkward framing device, maximizes suspense by avoiding any implicit promise to the reader that any first-person narrator must survive all the story's perils. Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ... For other uses, see The Woman in White. ... In literature, an omniscient narrator is a narrator who appears to know everything about the story being told, including what all the characters are thinking. ... The term framing device refers to the usage of the same single action, scene, event, setting, or any element of significance at both the beginning and end of an artistic, musical, or literary work. ...


Although some critics find the novel somewhat crude and sensational, it nevertheless retains its psychological power, and the sexual longings underlying the vampire attacks are manifest. As one critic wrote:

What has become clearer and clearer, particularly in the fin de siècle years of the twentieth century, is that the novel's power has its source in the sexual implications of the blood exchange between the vampire and his victims...Dracula has embedded in it a very disturbing psychosexual allegory whose meaning I am not sure Stoker entirely understood: that there is a demonic force at work in the world whose intent is to eroticize women. In Dracula we see how that force transforms Lucy Westenra, a beautiful nineteen-year-old virgin, into a shameless slut.[12]

Dracula may be viewed as a novel about the struggle between tradition and modernity at the fin de siècle. Throughout, there are various references to changing gender roles; Mina Harker can be seen as a thoroughly modern woman, using such modern technologies as the typewriter. She also displays some characteristics of the New Woman through her rejection of deference to male superiority and her economic independence. However, Mina still embodies a traditional gender role, as seen in her feminine and maternal nature and her occupation as as an assistant schoolmistress. Fin de siècle is French for end of the century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ...


Stoker's novel deals in general with the conflict between the world of the past — full of folklore, legend, and religious piety — and the emerging modern world of technology, positivism, and secularism. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience. ... This article is about secularism. ...


Van Helsing epitomizes this struggle because he uses, at the time, extremely modern technologies like blood transfusions; but he is not so modern as to eschew the idea that a demonic being could be causing Lucy's illness: he spreads garlic around the sashes and doors of her room and makes her wear a garlic flower necklace. After Lucy's death, he receives an indulgence from a Catholic cleric to use the Eucharist (held by the Church to be trans-substantiated into the body and blood of Jesus) in his fight against Dracula. In trying to bridge the rational/superstitious conflict within the story, he cites new sciences, such as hypnotism, that were only recently considered magical. He also quotes (without attribution) the American psychologist William James, whose writings on the power of belief become the only way to deal with this conflict. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hypnosis, as defined by the American Psychological Association Division of Psychological Hypnosis, is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests that a client, patient, or experimental participant experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


No character in the novel advocates a rejection of science in favour of either religion or superstition. Van Helsing receives the admiration of the other characters and succeeds in defeating Dracula by dint of a combination of encyclopedic knowledge and "open-mindedness." Late in the novel, as Dr. Seward comes to embrace Van Helsing's open-mindedness, he writes, "In an age when the existence of ptomaines is a mystery we should not wonder at anything!" For the characters, and presumably for the author, science opens the possibility of shockingly unfamiliar phenomena. If the novel sounds a cautionary note, it merely warns against the presumption that established science as yet offers a complete world-view. Within Stoker's fictional universe, (correct) superstitious beliefs have an empirical basis and promise to yield to scientific inquiry.


Jonathan Harker's character displays the problems of dwelling in a strictly rational modern world. Visiting Count Dracula in Eastern Europe, Jonathan scoffs at the peasants who tell him to delay his visit until after Saint George's feast day. As a solicitor, Jonathan is concerned “with facts — bare meagre facts, verified by books and figures, and of which there can be no doubt”. All of Jonathan’s rationality weakens him to what he witnesses at Castle Dracula. For example, the first time Jonathan witnesses Dracula crawling down the face of the castle headfirst, he is in complete disbelief. Not believing what he sees, he attempts to explain what he saw as a trick of the moonlight. Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ...


The characters of Dracula use modern technology and rationalism to defeat the Count. For example, during their pursuit of the vampire, they use railroads and steamships, not to mention the telegraph (and a telephone is even used on their behalf at one point), to keep a step ahead of him (in contrast, Dracula escapes in a sailing ship). Van Helsing uses hypnotism to pinpoint Dracula's location. Mina even employs criminology to anticipate Dracula's actions and cites both Cesare Lombroso and Max Nordau, who at that time were considered experts in this field. railroads redirects here. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Cesare Lombroso Cesare Lombroso (Verona, November 6, 1835 - Turin, October 19, 1909) was a historical figure in modern criminology, and the founder of the Italian Positivist School of criminology. ... Max Simon Nordau (July 29, 1849 - January 23, 1923), born Simon Maximilian Südfeld, Südfeld Simon Miksa in Pest, Hungary, was a Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic. ...


A number of scholars have noted the theme of a 'barbarian' prince attempting to usurp British society as being an example of the invasion literature which was popular at the time. Author Kim Newman characterized Dracula as being the story of "a one-man invasion" and drew attention to Van Helsing's claim that Dracula's goal was to become "the father or furthurer of a new order of beings, whose road must lead through Death, not Life".[13] The Battle of Dorking (1871) triggered an explosion of invasion literature. ... Kim Newman (born July 31, 1959) is an English journalist, film critic, and fiction writer. ...


Adaptations

For more details on this topic, see Dracula in popular culture.

Dracula has been the basis for countless films and plays. Three of the most famous are Nosferatu (1922), Dracula (1931), and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992). Nosferatu, a film directed by the German director F.W. Murnau, was produced while Stoker's widow was alive, and the filmmakers were forced to change the setting and the characters' names for copyright reasons. The vampire in Nosferatu is called Count Orlok rather than Count Dracula. The character of Count Dracula from the 1897 novel Dracula by Bram Stoker, has remained popular over the years, and many films have used the Count as a villain, while others have named him in their titles, such as Draculas Daughter, Brides of Dracula, and Zoltan, Hound of Dracula. ... This article is about the 1922 silent film. ... Dracula is a 1931 horror film produced by Universal Pictures Co. ... Bram Stokers Dracula is a 1992 horror romance film produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola, based on the novel Dracula by Bram Stoker. ...


The character of Count Dracula has remained popular over the years, and many films have used the character as a villain, while others have named him in their titles, such as Dracula's Daughter, Brides of Dracula, and Zoltan, Hound of Dracula. An estimated 160 films (as of 2004) feature Dracula in a major role, a number second only to Sherlock Holmes. The number of films that include a reference to Dracula may reach as high as 649, according to the Internet Movie Database. This article is about motion pictures. ... Draculas Daughter is a 1936 horror film, a sequel to the 1931 film Dracula. ... For the characters, see Brides of Dracula. ... Zoltan, Hound of Dracula is a 1978 film in which a 17th century innkeeper (played by Reggie Nalder) becomes the willing thrall to the line of Dracula. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Arthur Conan Doyles fictional detective. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ...


Most tellings of the Dracula story include the Count along with the rest of the "cast": Jonathan and Mina Harker, Van Helsing, and Renfield. (Notably, the novel roles of characters Jonathan Harker and Renfield are more than occasionally reversed or combined, as are the roles of Mina and Lucy. Quincey Morris is usually omitted entirely, as is Arthur Holmwood.)


Dracula's Guest

In 1914, two years after Stoker's death, the short story Dracula's Guest was posthumously published. It was, according to most contemporary critics, the deleted first (or second) chapter from the original manuscript[14] and the one which gave the volume its name,[15] but which the original publishers deemed unnecessary to the overall story. Draculas Guest is a short story by Bram Stoker, first published in 1914. ...


Dracula's Guest follows an unnamed Englishman traveller (whom most readers identify as Jonathan Harker, assuming it is the same character from the novel) as he wanders around Munich before leaving for Transylvania. It is Walpurgis Night, and in spite of the coachman's warnings, the young Englishman foolishly leaves his hotel and wanders through a dense forest alone. Along the way he feels he is being watched by a tall and thin stranger (possibly Count Dracula). For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Walpurgis Night in Sweden. ...


The short story climaxes in an old graveyard, where in a marble tomb (with a large iron stake driven into it), he encounters the ghost of a female vampire called Countess Dolingen. The spirit of this malevolent and beautiful vampire awakens from her marble bier to conjure a snowstorm before being struck by lightning and returning to her eternal prison. Harker's troubles are not quite over, as a wolf then emerges through the blizzard and attacks him. However, the wolf merely keeps him warm and alive until help arrives. A bier from Grendon church A bier is a flat frame, traditionally wooden but sometimes made of other materials, used to carry a corpse for burial in a funeral procession. ...


When Harker is finally taken back to his hotel, a telegram awaits him from his expectant host Dracula, with a warning about "dangers from snow and wolves and night".


See also

Countess Erzsébet Báthory (Báthory Erzsébet in Hungarian, Alžbeta Bátoriová(-Nádasdy) in Slovak, Elżbieta Batory in Polish, August 7(?), 1560 – August 21, 1614), was a Hungarian countess from the renowned Báthory family. ... Sheridan Le Fanu Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (August 28, 1814 – February 7, 1873) was an Irish writer of Gothic tales and mystery novels. ... Vlad Tepes redirects here. ... Tsutomu Miyazaki , born August 21, 1962), also known as The Otaku Murderer, The Little Girl Murderer, and Dracula, is a Japanese serial killer. ... Alucard is Dracula spelled backwards, and as such is often in Dracula or vampire related fiction. ... This article is about the entire video game series. ... Blacula is the name of a fictional character that appeared in two blaxploitation horror films produced for American International Pictures in 1972 and 1973, respectively. ... Universal Horror DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ... Draculin is a glycoprotein found in the saliva of vampire bats. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Leonard Wolf (2004), The Essential Dracula, Chapter 13, Note 31. "Bloofer lady" is explained as baby-talk for "beautiful lady."
  2. ^ Already dead, Dracula can not be killed, only destroyed.
  3. ^ Lugosi v. Universal Pictures, 70 Cal.App.3d 552 (1977), note 4.
  4. ^ [1] — Article at the BBC Cult website.
  5. ^ Cited in Paul Murray's "From the Shadow of Dracula: A Life of Bram Stoker" 2004. p. 363-4
  6. ^ Nina Auerbach and David Skal, editors. Dracula. Norton Critical Edition. 1997. ISBN 0393970124. Preface, first paragraph.
  7. ^ Richard Dalby (1986) "Bram Stoker" in The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural
  8. ^ Cited in Nina Auerbach and David Skal, editors, Dracula, Norton Critical Edition, 1997, p. 363-4
  9. ^ Richard Dalby (1986) "Bram Stoker" in The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural
  10. ^ Báthory Erzsébet - Elizabeth Bathory: Bram Stoker, Elizabeth Bathory, and Dracula (Elizabeth Miller)
  11. ^ [2][dead link]
  12. ^ Leonard Wolf, "Introduction" to the Signet Classic Edition, 1992
  13. ^ Anno Dracula: The Background
  14. ^ James Craig Holte (1997), Dracula Film Adaptations, Page 27.
  15. ^ Barbara Belford (2002), Bram Stoker and the Man Who Was Dracula, ISBN 0-306-81098-0.Page 325

Leonard Wolf is an author, teacher and father of Naomi Wolf. ... Leonard Wolf is an author, teacher and father of Naomi Wolf. ...

Bibliography

  • Dalby, Richard and Hughes, William. Bram Stoker: A Bibliography (Westcliff-on-Sea: Desert Island Books, 2005)
  • Frayling, Christopher. Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula (1992) ISBN 0-571-16792-6
  • Hughes, William. Beyond Dracula: Bram Stoker's Fiction and its Cultural Contexts (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000)
  • McNally, Raymond T. & Florescu, Radu. In Search of Dracula. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994. ISBN 0-395-65783-0
  • Miller, Elizabeth. Dracula: Sense & Nonsense. 2nd ed. Desert Island Books, 2006. ISBN 1-905328-15-X
  • Wolf, Leonard. The Essential Dracula. ibooks, inc., 2004. ISBN 0-7434-9803-8

Sir Christopher John Frayling (born 25 December 1946) is a British educationalist and writer, known for his study of popular culture. ... Leonard Wolf is an author, teacher and father of Naomi Wolf. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Dracula

Editions Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Dracula, edited by William Hughes and Diane Mason (Bath: Artswork Books, 2007) ISBN 978-0-9545648-7-2 Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...

  • Dracula, human-read audio version by LibriVox
  • eBooks@Adelaide — HTML version
Librivox is a digital library of free public domain audio books, read by volunteers. ... Count Dracula is a fictional character, the titular antagonist of Bram Stokers 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula. ... Jonathan Harker is a fictional character in the 1897 novel Dracula by Bram Stoker. ... Wilhelmina Mina Harker is a fictional character of Bram Stokers seminal horror novel Dracula. ... Helsing and Van Helsing redirect here. ... Lucy Westenra is a fictional character in the novel Dracula (1897) by Bram Stoker. ... The Honourable Arthur Holmwood (later Lord Godalming) is a fictional character in Bram Stokers novel Dracula. ... For other uses, see Dracula (disambiguation). ... Quincey Morris is a is a fictional character in Bram Stokers novel Dracula. ... Dwight Fry as Renfield in the 1931 adaptation of Dracula. ... The Brides of Dracula are the three seductive female vampires, minions of the infamous King of Vampires, Count Dracula - who inhabit his castle in Transylvania with him, in the novel Dracula by Bram Stoker. ... This article is about the 1922 silent film. ... Dracula is a 1931 horror film produced by Universal Pictures Co. ... Dracula is a 1958 British horror film, and the first of a series of Hammer Horror films inspired by the Bram Stoker novel Dracula. ... Dracula Has Risen from the Grave is a 1968 British horror film directed by Freddie Francis for Hammer Studios. ... Count Dracula (German: Nachts, wenn Dracula erwacht) was a film adaptation of Bram Stokers novel Dracula. ... Dracula is a television adaptation of Bram Stokers 1897 novel Dracula written by Richard Matheson and directed by Dark Shadows creator Dan Curtis. ... Count Dracula (1977) was a television adaptation of the famous novel by Bram Stoker. ... Dracula is a 1979 horror/romance film starring Frank Langella as Count Dracula. ... Nosferatu the Vampyre (ger. ... Bram Stokers Dracula is a 1992 horror romance film produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola, based on the novel Dracula by Bram Stoker. ... Dracula (2002) was an Italian TV movie made in 2002. ... Dracula is a television adaptation of Bram Stokers 1897 novel Dracula produced by Granada Television for WGBH Boston and BBC Wales in 2006. ... Draculas Daughter is a 1936 horror film, a sequel to the 1931 film Dracula. ... Son of Dracula is an American horror film released in 1943. ... House of Frankenstein was an American horror film produced in 1944 by Universal Studios as part of its ongoing series of monster films. ... House of Dracula was an American horror film released by Universal Studios in 1945. ... Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein (onscreen title: Bud Abbott Lou Costello Meet Frankenstein) is a 1948 comedy/horror film directed by Charles Barton and starring the comedy team of Abbott and Costello. ... For the characters, see Brides of Dracula. ... Dracula Has Risen from the Grave is a 1968 British horror film directed by Freddie Francis for Hammer Studios. ... Taste the Blood of Dracula is a horror film produced by Hammer Film Productions. ... Scars of Dracula is a 1970 British horror film directed by Roy Ward Baker for Hammer Studios. ... Dracula A.D. 1972 is a 1972 Hammer Horror film directed by Alan Gibson, written by Don Houghton and starring Christopher Lee, Peter Cushing and Stephanie Beacham. ... The Satanic Rites of Dracula is a 1974 Hammer Horror film directed by Alan Gibson, and starring Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee. ... The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires, released in 1974, was very much a movie of its time. ... Dracula 2000 (also known as Dracula 2001 in some countries) is a horror movie which attempts to transfer the story of Dracula into the setting of a modern teen horror film. ... Dracula 3000 is a horror movie that brings the legend of Dracula into outer space in the distant future (particularly, the year 3000). ... Blade: Trinity is a 2004 movie, directed by David S. Goyer, which is a motion_picture directorial debut for him. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... Dracula is a 1924 stage play adapted by Hamilton Deane from the novel of the same name by Bram Stoker, and subsequently revised by John L. Balderston. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Blacula is the name of a fictional character that appeared in two blaxploitation horror films produced for American International Pictures in 1972 and 1973, respectively. ... Love At First Bite is a 1979 comedy horror film directed by Stan Dragoti and written by Robert Kaufman, using characters originally created by Bram Stoker. ... Dracula: Dead and Loving It is a 1995 movie directed by Mel Brooks. ... Dracula ) is a fictional vampire from the multi-platform Castlevania video game series. ... This article is about the entire video game series. ... Adrian Farenheights Tepes ), better known as Alucard ) is a fictional character in Konamis Castlevania series of video games. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish writer of novels and short stories, who is best known today for his 1897 horror novel Dracula. ... The Snakes Pass is a novel by Bram Stoker, first published in 1890. ... The Jewel of Seven Stars is a horror novel by Bram Stoker (more famous as the author of Dracula) about a mummys curse. ... This article is about the novel. ... Under the Sunset is a collection of short stories by Bram Stoker, first published in 1881. ...

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