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Encyclopedia > Dr. Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (IPA: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfrɔʏ̯t]) (May 6, 1856September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. The theories distinctive of this school generally include the following hypotheses: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x1536, 712 KB) Summary Sigmund Freud Published in the U.S. after 1923, but public domain because copyright was not renewed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x1536, 712 KB) Summary Sigmund Freud Published in the U.S. after 1923, but public domain because copyright was not renewed. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sigmund Freud founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Psychology (Gk: psyche, soul or mind + logos, speech) is an academic and applied field involving the study of the human mind, brain, and behavior. ...

  • Human development is best understood in terms of changing objects of sexual desire.
  • The psychic apparatus habitually represses wishes, usually of a sexual or aggressive nature, whereby they become preserved in one or more unconscious systems of ideas.
  • Unconscious conflicts over repressed wishes have a tendency to manifest themselves in dreams, parapraxes ("Freudian slips"), and symptoms.
  • Unconscious conflicts are the source of neuroses.
  • Neuroses can be treated through bringing the unconscious wishes and repressed memories to consciousness in psychoanalytic treatment.

The name Freud is generally pronounced /fɹɔɪd/ in English and /frɔɪt/ in German. He is commonly referred to as "the father of psychoanalysis" and his work has been tremendously influential in the popular imagination--popularizing such notions as the unconscious, defense mechanisms, freudian slips, and dream symbolism--while also making a long-lasting impact on fields as diverse as literature, film, marxist and feminist theories, literary criticism, philosophy, and of course psychology. The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ... A Freudian slip, or parapraxia, is an error in human action, speech or memory that is believed to be caused by the unconscious mind. ... A neurosis, in psychoanalytic theory, is an ineffectual coping strategy that Sigmund Freud suggested was caused by emotions from past experience overwhelming or interfering with present experience. ... Pronunciation refers to: the way a word or a language is usually spoken; the manner in which someone utters a word. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The following tables list men and women consistently described as a father or mother of something, except those described as fathers or mothers of nations. ... The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ... In psychoanalytic theory, a defence mechanism is an unconscious way to protect ones personality from unpleasant thoughts which may otherwise cause anxiety. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents


Life

Sigmund Freud, 1907
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Sigmund Freud, 1907

Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born into an Ashkenazi Jewish family in Freiberg (Příbor), Moravia, in the Austrian Empire (now belonging to the Czech Republic). In 1877, at the age of 21, he abbreviated his given name to "Sigmund." Although he was the first-born of three brothers and five sisters among his mother's children, Sigmund had older half-brothers from his father's previous marriage. His family had limited finances and lived in a crowded apartment, but his parents made every effort to foster his intellect (often favoring Sigmund over his siblings), which was apparent from an early age. Sigmund was ranked first in his class in six of eight years of schooling. He went on to attend the University of Vienna at 17, in 1873–1881. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1006x1300, 282 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sigmund Freud ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1006x1300, 282 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sigmund Freud ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi, AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... This article describes some ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity; for a consideration of the Jewish religion, refer to the article Judaism. ... Location of Příbor in the Czech Republic Příbor (Freiberg in German) is a town in the Czech Republic in Moravian-Silesian Region. ... Moravia in relation to the current kraje of the Czech Republic Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava, German: ( ), Hungarian: Morvaország, Polish: Morawy) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor For the history of these states before 1804, see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. ... The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Austria was founded in 1365 by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria and hence named Alma Mater Rudolphina. ...


Overall, little is known of Freud's early life, as he destroyed his personal papers at least twice, once in 1885 and again in 1907. Additionally, his later papers were closely guarded in the Sigmund Freud Archives and were only made available to his official biographer Ernest Jones and a few other members of the inner circle of psychoanalysis. The Sigmund Freud Archives mainly consists of a trove of documents housed at the US Library of Congress and in a former residence of Freud. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... // Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud. ...


In 1886, Freud returned to Vienna and, after opening a private practice specializing in nervous and brain disorders, he married. He experimented with hypnotism with his most hysteric and neurotic patients, but he eventually gave up the practice. He found that he could get his patients to talk by putting them on a couch and encouraging them to say whatever came into their minds (a practice termed free association). Vienna (German: Wien ; Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Beč, Czech: Vídeň, Hungarian: Bécs, Romanian: Viena, Romani: Bech or Vidnya, Russian: Вена, Slovak: Viedeň, Slovenian: Dunaj) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Hypnosis, as defined by the American Psychological Association Division of Psychological Hypnosis, is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests that a client, patient, or experimental participant experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. ... In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ... Free association (Psychodynamic theory) is a technique used in psychology, devised by Sigmund Freud. ...


In his 40s, Freud "had numerous psychosomatic disorders as well as exaggerated fears of dying and other phobias" (Corey 2001, p. 67). During this time Freud was involved in the task of exploring his own dreams, memories, and the dynamics of his personality development. During this self-analysis, he came to realize the hostility he felt towards his father (Jacob Freud), and "he also recalled his childhood sexual feelings for his mother (Amalia Freud), who was attractive, warm, and protective" (Corey 2001, p. 67). Corey (2001) considers this time of emotional difficulty to be the most creative time in Freud's life. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... A phobia (from the Greek φόβος fear), is a strong, persistent fear of situations, objects, activities, or persons. ... It has been suggested that Personality psychology be merged into this article or section. ... Amalia Freud Amalia Nathansohn Freud (1835–1930) was the second (possibly third) wife of Jacob Freud and mother of Sigmund Freud. ...


After publishing successful books on the unconscious mind in 1900 and 1901, Freud was appointed to a professorship at the University of Vienna from where he began to develop a loyal following.

Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, Granville Stanley Hall, Carl Jung. Back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sandor Ferenczi.
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, Granville Stanley Hall, Carl Jung. Back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sandor Ferenczi.

Freud had little tolerance for colleagues who diverged from his psychoanalytic doctrines. He attempted to expel those who disagreed with the movement or even refused to accept certain central aspects of his theory (Corey, 2001): the most notable examples are Carl Jung and Wilhelm Reich. Freud wrote a stinging attack on both Jung and Alfred Adler in a piece called "On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement". Image File history File links Hall_Freud_Jung_in_front_of_Clark_1909. ... Image File history File links Hall_Freud_Jung_in_front_of_Clark_1909. ... Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts in the United States, is a private teaching and research institution founded in 1887 by the industrialist Jonas Clark. ... Granville Stanley Hall (1 February 1844 - 24 April 1924) was a psychologist and educationalist who pioneered American psychology. ... Carl Jungs autobiographical work Memories , Dreams and Reflections, Fontana edition Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) (IPA:) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. ... Abraham Arden Brill (1874–1948), American psychiatrist, born in Austria, graduated New York University. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Sándor Ferenczi 1873-1933 was a Hungarian psychoanalyst who came to believe that his patients accounts of sexual abuse as children were truthful, having verified those accounts through other patients in the same family. ... Carl Jungs autobiographical work Memories , Dreams and Reflections, Fontana edition Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) (IPA:) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. ... Dr. Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was a Jewish-Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and author, who was trained in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. ... Dr. Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ...


In 1930, Freud was awarded the Goethe Prize by the city of Frankfurt, in recognition of his contributions to psychology. His mother died the same year at the age of ninety-five. In 1933, as Hitler and the Nazis seized power in Germany, Freud's books were burnt publicly by the S. A.. Goethe Prize recipients: 1927 - Stefan Georg, Germany 1928 - Albert Schweitzer, Germany 1929 - Leopold Ziegler, Germany 1930 - Sigmund Freud, Germany 1931 - Ricarda Huch, Germany 1932 - Gerhart Hauptmann, Germany 1933 - Hermann Sehr, Germany 1934 - Hans Pfitzner, Germany 1935 - Hermann Stegemann, Germany 1936 - Georg Kolbe , Germany 1937 - Erwin Guido Kolbenheyer, Germany 1938 - Hans... The seal of SA The (SA, German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ...

Memorial plaque of Sigmund Freud at his birthplace in Příbor, Czech Republic.
Memorial plaque of Sigmund Freud at his birthplace in Příbor, Czech Republic.

Following the Nazi German Anschluss, Freud fled Austria with his family with the financial help of his patient and friend Princess Marie Bonaparte. On June 4, 1938, they were allowed across the border into France and then they traveled from Paris to Hampstead, London, England, where they lived at 20 Maresfield Gardens (now the Freud Museum). As he was leaving Germany, Freud was required to sign a statement that he had been treated respectfully by the Nazis. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1448x1483, 156 KB) Summary Trim and gamma. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1448x1483, 156 KB) Summary Trim and gamma. ... Location of Příbor in the Czech Republic Příbor (Freiberg in German) is a town in the Czech Republic in Moravian-Silesian Region. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Princess is the feminine form of prince (Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen). ... Princess Marie Bonaparte (2 July 1882-21 September 1962) was a French psychoanalyst, closely linked with Freud. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, as viewed from the Trocadéro This article is about the capital and largest city in France. ... Hampstead is a place in the London Borough of Camden and is close to Hampstead Heath. ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... Sigmund Freuds couch used during psychoanalytic sessions can be found at the Freud Museum In 1938, the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, left Vienna after the Nazi annexation of Austria and moved to London, taking up residence at 20 Maresfield Gardens in Hampstead, Londons most intellectual suburb. ...


In England, in 1938, Freud's longing to be embraced by society as an important scientist was partly realized when two secretaries of the Royal Society brought the book of the Society for Freud to sign. Freud wrote to his friend Arnold Zweig: "They left a facsimile of the book with me and if you were here I could should show you the signatures from I. Newton to Charles Darwin. Good company!" Arnold Zweig (November 10, 1887 - November 26, 1968) was a German writer and an active pacifist. ... In his lifetime, Charles Darwin gained international fame as an influential scientist examining controversial topics. ...


Freud smoked cigars for most of his life; even after having his jaw removed due to malignancy, he continued to smoke until his death on September 23, 1939. He smoked an entire box of cigars daily. After contracting cancer of the mouth in 1923 at the age of 67, he underwent over 30 operations to treat the disease. In the end, Freud could no longer tolerate the pain associated with his cancer. He requested that his personal physician visit him at his London home. Freud's death was by a physician-assisted morphine overdose. Various smoking equipment including different pipes, mothe lungs. ... Four cigars of different brands (from top: H. Upmann, Montecristo, Macanudo, Romeo y Julieta) An airtight cigar storage tube and a guillotine-style cutter A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco, one end of which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into... Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a powerful opioid analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium. ...


Family/descendants

Sigmund Freud's youngest daughter Anna Freud was also a distinguished psychologist, particularly in the fields of child and developmental psychology. Sigmund is the grandfather of painter Lucian Freud and comedian/politician/writer Clement Freud, and the great-grandfather of journalist Emma Freud, fashion designer Bella Freud, and media magnates Matthew Freud and Ria Willems. Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ... Hans Baldung Grien: The Ages And Death, c. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... The painters room, 1943, Private collection. ... A comedian, or comic, is an entertainer who amuses an audience by making them laugh. ... A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Sir Clement Raphael Freud (born April 24, 1924) is a British writer, broadcaster and politician. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Emma Vallencey Freud (born January 25, 1962) is a British broadcaster and cultural commentator. ... Brief introduction on the history of fashion design and designers Fashion design is the art dedicated to the creation of wearing apparel and lifestyle. ... Bella Freud is a London based fashion designer with a number of celebrity clients. ... Matthew Freud is head of Freud Communications Limited, and is a descendant of Sigmund Freud and relation of Lucien Freud and Clement Freud. ...


Sigmund Freud was also both a blood uncle and an uncle-in-law to public relations and propaganda wizard Edward Bernays. Bernays's mother, Anna Freud Bernays, was sister to Sigmund. Bernays's father, Ely Bernays, was brother to Sigmund's wife, Martha Bernays Freud. Public relations is the art and science of building relationships between an organization and its key publics. ... It has been suggested that Propaganda in the United States be merged into this article or section. ... The front cover of Bernays 1928 book Propaganda Edward Bernays (November 22, 1891 - March 9, 1995) is regarded by many as the father of public relations, although some people believe that title properly belongs to some other early PR practitioner, such as Ivy Lee. ...


Innovations

Freud has been influential in two related but distinct ways. He simultaneously developed a theory of the human mind and human behavior, and clinical techniques for attempting to help neurotics. Mind refers to the collective aspects of human intellect and consciousness that originate in the brain and which are manifest in some combination of thought, perception, emotion, will, memory, and imagination. ... Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... A neurosis, in psychoanalytic theory, is an ineffectual coping strategy that Sigmund Freud suggested was caused by emotions from past experience overwhelming or interfering with present experience. ...


Early work

A lesser known interest of Freud's was neurology. He was an early researcher on the topic of cerebral palsy, then known as "cerebral paralysis". He published several medical papers on the topic. He also showed that the disease existed far before other researchers in his day began to notice and study it. He also suggested that William Little, the man who first identified cerebral palsy, was wrong about lack of oxygen during the birth process being a cause. Instead, he suggested that complications in birth were only a symptom of the problem. It was not until the 1980s that his speculations were confirmed by more modern research. Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Cerebral palsy or CP is the most common childhood physical disability. ... William Little can refer to: William Little (Pittsburgh mayor), a politician in Pittsburgh. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ...


Freud was an early user and proponent of cocaine as a stimulant. He wrote several articles on the antidepressant qualities of the drug, and he was influenced by his friend and confidant, Wilhelm Fliess, who recommended cocaine for the treatment of the "nasal reflex neurosis." Fliess operated on Freud and a number of Freud's patients whom he believed to be suffering from the disorder. Emma Eckstein underwent disastrous nasal surgery by Fliess. This article is about the drug cocaine. ... An antidepressant is a medication designed to treat or alleviate the symptoms of clinical depression. ... Wilhelm Fliess (1858–1928) was a German otorhinolaryngologist who practiced in Berlin. ... Emma Eckstein (1865 - 1924) was an early patient of Sigmund Freud who underwent disastrous nasal surgery, undertaken by Freuds friend and confidant, Wilhelm Fliess. ...


Freud felt that cocaine would work as a cure-all for many disorders, and wrote a well-received paper, "On Coca", explaining its virtues. He prescribed it to his friend Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow to help him beat a morphine addiction he had acquired while treating a disease of the nervous system. Freud also recommended it to many of his close family and friends. He narrowly missed out on obtaining scientific priority for discovering cocaine's anesthetic properties (of which Freud was aware but on which he had not written extensively), after Karl Koller, a colleague of Freud's in Vienna, presented a report to a medical society in 1884 outlining the ways in which cocaine could be used for delicate eye surgery. Freud was bruised by this, especially because this would turn out to be one of the few safe uses of cocaine, as reports of addiction and overdose began to filter in from many places in the world. Freud's medical reputation became somewhat tarnished for his early enthusiasm. Furthermore, Freud's friend Fleischl-Marxow developed an acute case of "cocaine psychosis" as a result of Freud's prescriptions and died a few years later. Freud felt great regret over these events, which later biographers have dubbed "The Cocaine Incident". Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow (1846-1891) was an Austrian physiologist and physician who became known for his important investigations on the electrical activity of nerves and the brain. ... Addiction is chronic disorder proposed to be precipitated by a combination of genetic, biological/pharmacological and social factors. ... Cetacaine, a typical topical anesthetic Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Closeup of a blue-green human eye. ...


Freud hoped that his research would provide a solid scientific basis for his therapeutic technique. The goal of Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis, was to bring to consciousness repressed thoughts and feelings. According to some of his successors, including his daughter Anna Freud, the goal of therapy is to allow the patient to develop a stronger ego; according to others, notably Jacques Lacan, the goal of therapy is to lead the analysand to a full acknowledgment of his or her inability to satisfy the most basic desires. // Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Cover of Elisabeth Roudinescos biography of Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


Classically, the bringing of unconscious thoughts and feelings to consciousness is brought about by encouraging the patient to talk in free association and to talk about dreams. Another important element of psychoanalysis is a relative lack of direct involvement on the part of the analyst, which is meant to encourage the patient to project thoughts and feelings onto the analyst. Through this process, transference, the patient can reenact and resolve repressed conflicts, especially childhood conflicts with (or about) parents. Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings of one person to another. ...


The unconscious

Perhaps the most significant contribution Freud has made to modern thought is his conception of the dynamic unconscious. During the 19th century, the dominant trend in Western thought was positivism, the belief that people could ascertain real knowledge concerning themselves and their environment and judiciously exercise control over both. Freud, however, suggested that such declarations of free will are in fact delusions; that we are not entirely aware of what we think and often act for reasons that have little to do with our conscious thoughts. The concept of the unconscious was groundbreaking in that he proposed that awareness existed in layers and that there were thoughts occurring "below the surface." Dreams, which he called the "royal road to the unconscious", provided the best access to our unconscious life and the best illustration of its "logic", which was different from the logic of conscious thought. Freud developed his first topology of the psyche in The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) in which he proposed the argument that the unconscious exists and described a method for gaining access to it. The Preconscious was described as a layer between conscious and unconscious thought—that which we could access with a little effort. Thus for Freud, the ideals of the Enlightenment, positivism and rationalism, could be achieved through understanding, transforming, and mastering the unconscious, rather than through denying or repressing it. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Positivism can have several meanings. ... Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes: The Dream, 1883 A dream is the experience of envisioned images, voices, or other sensations during sleep. ... Topology (Greek topos, place and logos, study) is a branch of mathematics concerned with spatial properties preserved under bicontinuous deformation (stretching without tearing or gluing); these are the topological invariants. ... The Interpretation of Dreams is a book by Sigmund Freud, the first edition of which came out in 1900. ... ...


Crucial to the operation of the unconscious is "repression." According to Freud, people often experience thoughts and feelings that are so painful that people cannot bear them. Such thoughts and feelings—and associated memories—could not, Freud argued, be banished from the mind, but could be banished from consciousness. Thus they come to constitute the unconscious. Although Freud later attempted to find patterns of repression among his patients in order to derive a general model of the mind, he also observed that individual patients repress different things. Moreover, Freud observed that the process of repression is itself a non-conscious act (in other words, it did not occur through people willing away certain thoughts or feelings). Freud supposed that what people repressed was in part determined by their unconscious. In other words, the unconscious was for Freud both a cause and effect of repression. Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from ones consciousness and attempting to hold or subdue them in the subconscious. ...


Later, Freud distinguished between three concepts of the unconscious: the descriptive unconscious, the dynamic unconscious, and the system unconscious. The descriptive unconscious referred to all those features of mental life of which we are not subjectively aware. The dynamic unconscious, a more specific construct, referred to mental process and contents which are defensively removed from consciousness as a result of conflictual forces or "dynamics". The system unconscious denoted the idea that when mental processes are repressed, they become organized by principles different from those of the conscious mind, such as condensation and displacement. Social scientists and literary scholars have claimed that many things are social constructions or social constructs, or that they have been socially constructed. ...


Eventually, Freud abandoned the idea of the system unconscious, replacing it with the concept of the Ego, super-ego, and id (discussed below). Throughout his career, however, he retained the descriptive and dynamic conceptions of the unconscious. This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Psychosexual development

Main article: Psychosexual development

Freud also believed that the libido developed in individuals by changing its object, a process designed by the concept of sublimation. He argued that humans are born "polymorphously perverse", meaning that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. He further argued that, as humans developed, they become fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development—first in the oral stage (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing), then in the anal stage (exemplified by a toddler's pleasure in controlling his or her bowels), then in the phallic stage. Freud argued that children then passed through a stage in which they fixated on the mother as a sexual object, known as the Oedipus Complex but that the child eventually overcame and repressed this desire because of its taboo nature. (The lesser known Electra complex refers to such a fixation upon the father.) The concept of psychosexual development began with Sigmund Freud when he developed his theories of psychoanalysis in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Libido in its common usage means sexual desire, however more technical definitions, such as found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general, referring to libido as the free creative, or psychic, energy an individual has to put toward personal development, or individuation. ... In psychology, sublimation is a coping mechanism. ... The oral stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the development during the first eighteen months of life, in which an infants pleasure centers are in the mouth. ... The Anal Stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the development during the second year of life, in which an childs pleasure and conflict centers are in the anal area. ... The phallic stage is the third of Freuds psychosexual stages, when awareness of and manipulation of the genitals is supposed to be a primary source of pleasure. ... Oedipus Complex is a metal band from Chicago that everyone should hear. ... The Electra complex is an ambiguous psychiatric concept which attempts to explain the maturation of the human female. ...


Freud hoped to prove that his model was universally valid and thus turned to ancient mythology and contemporary ethnography for comparative material. Freud named his new theory the Oedipus complex after the famous Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. “I found in myself a constant love for my mother, and jealousy of my father. I now consider this to be a universal event in childhood,” Freud said. Freud sought to anchor this pattern of development in the dynamics of the mind. Each stage is a progression into adult sexual maturity, characterized by a strong ego and the ability to delay gratification (cf. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality). He used the Oedipus conflict to point out how much he believed that people desire incest and must repress that desire. The Oedipus conflict was described as a state of psychosexual development and awareness. He also turned to anthropological studies of totemism and argued that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment of a tribal Oedipal conflict. // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ... Oedipus Complex is a metal band from Chicago that everyone should hear. ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... Oedipus the King (also known as Oedipus Rex and Oedipus Tyrannos, Oι̉δίπoÏ…Ï‚ τύραννoÏ‚ in Greek) is a Greek tragedy, written by Sophocles around 425 BC. The play was the second of Sophocles three Theban plays to be produced, but comes first in the internal chronology of the plays, followed... A Roman bust. ... Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality was a 1905 work by Sigmund Freud which advanced his theory of sexuality, in particular its relation to childhood. ... Incest is sexual activity between close family members. ... Cultural anthropology, also called social anthropology or socio-cultural anthropology, forms one of four commonly-recognized fields of anthropology, the holistic study of humanity. ... Totemism (derived from the root -oode in the Ojibwe language, which referred to something kinship-related) is a religious belief that is frequently associated with shamanistic religions. ... The Oedipus complex is a concept developed by Sigmund Freud, who was inspired by Carl Jung (he described the concept and coined the term Complex), to explain the maturation of the infant through identification with the father and desire for the mother. ...


It is interesting to note that originally Freud believed childhood sexual abuse to be the cause of hysteria—but he then recanted this so-called "seduction theory" ("The Index of Sexual Abuse"), claiming that he had found many cases in which apparent memories of childhood sexual abuse were based more on imagination than on real events. Instead he began to emphasize the Oedipus Theory, which asserts that everyone unconsciously wishes to possess their parents. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Ego, super-ego, and id

Main article: Ego, super-ego, and id

In his later work, Freud proposed that the psyche was divided into three parts: Ego, super-ego, and id. This structural model of the mind was released by Freud in the 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and fully adopted in The Ego and The Id (1923) as an alternative to his topographical scheme (conscious, unconscious, preconscious). This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Defense mechanisms

According to Freud, the defense mechanisms are the method by which the ego can solve the conflicts between the super-ego and the id. The use of the mechanisms required Eros (named after the Greek god of love; Cupid in Roman mythology), and they are helpful if moderately used. The use of defense mechanisms may attenuate the conflict between the id and super-ego, but their overuse or reuse rather than confrontation can lead to either anxiety or guilt which may result in psychological disorders such as depression. His daughter Anna Freud had done the most significant work on this field, yet she credited Sigmund with defense mechanisms, as he began the work. The defense mechanisms include: denial, reaction formation, displacement, repression/suppression (the proper term), projection, intellectualisation, rationalisation, compensation, sublimation and regressive emotionality. In psychoanalytic theory, a defence mechanism is an unconscious way to protect ones personality from unpleasant thoughts which may otherwise cause anxiety. ... In Freudian psychology, Eros is the life instinct innate in all humans. ... In Greek mythology, Eros was the god responsible for lust, love, and sex; he was also worshipped as a fertility deity. ... Cupidon (French for Cupid), by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1875. ... Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Guilt is primarily an emotion experienced by people who believe they have done something wrong. ... Denial is a psychological defense mechanism in which a person faced with a fact that is uncomfortable or painful to accept rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence. ... In Freuds psychoanalytic theory, reaction formation is a defense mechanism in which anxiety-producing or unacceptable emotions are replaced by their direct opposites. ... In psychology, the term displacement is an unconscious defence mechanism, whereby the mind redirects emotion from a dangerous object to a safe object. ... Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from ones consciousness and attempting to hold or subdue them in the subconscious. ... Censorship is the control of speech and other forms of human expression, often by government intervention. ... Psychological projection (or projection bias) can be defined as unconsciously assuming that others have the same or similar thoughts, beliefs, values, or positions on any given subject as oneself. ... Intellectualization is a defense mechanism where reasoning is used to block confrontation with an unconscious conflict and its associated emotional stress. ... In psychology, rationalization is the process of constructing a logical justification for a decision that was originally arrived at through a different mental process. ... In psychology, sublimation is a coping mechanism. ...

  • Denial occurs when someone fends off awareness of an unpleasant truth or of a reality that is a threat to the ego. For example, a student may have received a bad grade on a report card but tells himself that grades don't matter. (Some early writers argued for a striking parallel between Freudian denial and Nietzsche's ideas of ressentiment and the revaluation of values that he attributed to "herd" or "slave" morality.)
  • Reaction formation takes place when a person takes the opposite approach consciously compared to what that person wants unconsciously. For example, someone may engage in violence against another race because, that person claims, the members of the race are inferior, when unconsciously it is that very person who feels inferior.
  • Displacement takes place when someone redirects emotion from a "dangerous" object to a "safe" one, such as punching a pillow to avoid hitting a friend.
  • Repression occurs when an experience is so painful (such as war trauma) that it is unconsciously forced from consciousness, while suppression is a conscious effort to do the same.
  • Psychological projection occurs when a person "projects" his or her own undesirable thoughts, motivations, desires, feelings—basically parts of oneself—onto someone or something else. An example of this would be to say that Alice doesn't like Bob, but rather than to admit she doesn't like Bob, she will project her sentiment onto Bob, saying that Bob doesn't like her.
  • Intellectualisation involves removing one's self, emotionally, from a stressful event. Intellectualisation is often accomplished through rationalisation rather than accepting reality, one may explain it away to remove one's self.
  • Rationalization involves constructing a logical justification for a decision that was originally arrived at through a different mental process. For example, Jim may have bought a tape player to listen to self-help tapes, but he tells his friends he bought it so that he can listen to classic rock mixes for fear of his actual reason being rejected.
  • Compensation occurs when someone takes up one behavior because one cannot accomplish another behavior. For example, the second born child may clown around to get attention since the older child is already an accomplished scholar.
  • Sublimation is the channeling of impulses to socially accepted behaviours. For instance, the use of a dark, gloomy poem to describe life by such poets as Emily Dickinson.

Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Res·sen·ti·ment Etymology/Pronunciation: From the French for resentment; pronounced r&-sän-tE-män, or ray-sawn-tay-mawn, with the sawn and the mawn gently expelled from the elite upper nasal regions. ... A young Emily Dickinson, sometime around 1846-1847, for a long time the only known photograph of her. ...

The life and death instincts

Freud believed that humans were driven by two conflicting central desires: the life drive (Eros) (incorporating the sex drive) and the death drive (Thanatos). Freud's description of Eros/Libido included all creative, life-producing drives. The Death Drive (or death instinct) represented an urge inherent in all living things to return to a state of calm, or, ultimately, of non-existence. The presence of the Death Drive was only recognized in his later years, and the contrast between the two represents a revolution in his manner of thinking. In Freudian psychology, Eros is the life instinct innate in all humans. ... In Greek mythology, Thanatos (θάνατος, death) was the personification of death (Roman equivalent: Mors), and a minor figure in Greek mythology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Thanatos (Freud). ...


Social psychology

Freud leaves Vienna for exile in London, 1938 (Memorial to the German Resistance, Berlin)
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Freud leaves Vienna for exile in London, 1938 (Memorial to the German Resistance, Berlin)

Freud gave explanations of the genesis of religion in his writings, included in a reflection on crowd psychology. In Totem and Taboo (1913), he proposed that humans originally banded together in “primal hordes”, consisting of a male, a number of females and the offspring of this polygamous arrangement. According to Freud’s psychoanalytical theory, a male child early in life has sexual desires for his mother – the Oedipus Complex – which he held to be universal. Ethnologists would later criticize this point, leading to ethno-psychoanalytic studies. According to Freud, the father is protective, so his sons love him, but they are also jealous of their father for his relationship with their mothers. Finding that individually they cannot defeat the father-leader, they band together, kill and eat him in a ritual meal, thereby ingesting the substance of the father’s hated power – but their subsequent guilt leads the sons to elevate their father's memory and to worship him. The super-ego then takes the place of the father as the source of internalized authority. A ban was then put upon incest and upon marriage within the clan, and symbolic animal sacrifice was substituted for the ritual killing of a human being. Ordinary people typically can gain direct power by acting collectively. ... Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics was a book written by Sigmund Freud published in German as Totem und Tabu: Einige Ãœbereinstimmungen im Seelenleben der Wilden und der Neurotiker in 1913. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... Oedipus Complex is a metal band from Chicago that everyone should hear. ... Look up universal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ethnology (greek ethnos: (non-greek, barbarian) people) is a genre of anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the folklore, beliefs and practices of different societies. ... In his theory of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud sought to explain how the unconscious mind operates by proposing that it has a particular structure. ... Incest is sexual activity between close family members. ... A marriage is a committed relationship between or among individuals, recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the...


In Moses and Monotheism (1939) Freud reconstructed biblical history in accord with his general theory, but biblical scholars and historians would not accept his account since it defied the viewpoint of the accepted criteria of historical evidence. However, his point was probably more in proposing a just-so story and an interpretation of leadership based on mass psychology, using the Prophetic figure of Moses. His ideas about religion were also developed in The Future of an Illusion (1927). When Freud spoke of religion as an illusion, he maintained that it is a fantasy structure from which a man must be set free if he is to grow to maturity; and in his treatment of the unconscious he moved toward atheism. In this sense, Freud approached the Marxist theory of alienation. Freud isolated two main principles: Thanatos is the drive towards the disillusion of all life, whereas, Eros is to strive towards stopping that drive. When one goal is reached, the other becomes out of reach, and vice versa. Moses and Monotheism is a book by Sigmund Freud. ... A just-so story is a term used in academic anthropology, biological sciences, and social sciences for a narrative explanation for a cultural practice or a biological trait or behavior of humans or animals which is unverifiable and unfalsifiable. ... The word leadership can refer to: the process of leading the concept of leading those entities that perform one or more acts of leading. ... The herding instinct in humans may have some connection with group behaviours in other animals The so-called herding instinct is a social tendency in humans to identify with and model many behaviors and beliefs after a larger group of individuals with whom they identify. ... A prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ... The Future of an Illusion (written 1927) by Sigmund Freud is a book that describes his interpretation of religions origins, development, psychoanalysis, and its future. ... An illusion is a distortion of a sensory perception. ... // For other meanings see Fantasy (disambiguation) Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Maturity may refer to: Sexual maturity Maturity, a geological term describing hydrocarbon generation Maturity, a financial term indicating the end of payments of principal or interest Look up Maturity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Atheism, in its broadest sense, is the absence of theism (the belief in the existence of deities). ... Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... Alienation is a process whereby people come to be estranged from the society around them. ... In Greek mythology, Thanatos (θάνατος, death) was the personification of death (Roman equivalent: Mors), and a minor figure in Greek mythology. ... Eros, a god in Greek mythology Eros can also refer to: The Greek word Eros, which means sexual love 433 Eros, an asteroid EROS, the Extremely Reliable Operating System Pjur Eros, a premium latex-safe personal lubricant Eros, the life instinct postulated by Freudian psychology, standing in opposition to Thanatos...


In Group Psychology and Ego Analysis (Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analysis, 1920), Freud explored crowd psychology, continuing Gustave Le Bon's early work. When the individual joins a crowd, he ceases repressing his instincts, and thus relapses into primitive culture, according to Freud's analysis. However, crowds must be distinguished into natural and organized crowds, following William McDougall' distinction. Thus, if intellectual skills (the capacity to doubt and to distance oneself) are systematically reduced when the individual joins a mass, he may eventually be "morally enlightened". Prefiguring Moses and Monotheism and The Future of an Illusion, he states that the love relationship between the leader and the masses, in the Church or in the Army, are only an "idealist transformation of the conditions existing in the primitive horde". Freud then compares leader's relationship with the crowd to a relation of hypnosis, a force to which he relates Mana. Pessimist about humanity's chances of liberty, Freud writes that "The leader of the crowd always incarnate the dreaded primitive father, the crowd always want to be dominated by an illimited power, it is grasping at the highest degree for authority or, to use Le Bon's expression, it is hungry for subservience". Social psychology is often conceived to be the study of how individuals perceive, influence, and relate to others. ... Ordinary people typically can gain direct power by acting collectively. ... Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ... Primitive Culture is the name given to those who live close to nature by those who believed in using the natural world solely for the purposes of getting rich. ... William McDougall (1871-1938) was an early twentieth century psychologist who spent the first part of his career in the UK and the latter part in the US. He wrote a number of highly influential textbooks, and was particularly important in the development of the theory of instinct and of... This article is about the mental state. ... Hypnotic Seance, by Richard Bergh Hypnosis is understood to be a psychological condition in which an individual may be induced to show apparent differences in behavior and thinking. ... Mana is a traditional term and a concept among the speakers of Oceanic languages, including Melanesians, Polynesians and Micronesians. ... The Statue of Liberty is a very popular icon of liberty. ... In politics, authority (Latin auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to potestas and imperium) is often used interchangeably with the term power. However, their meanings differ. ... Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ...


According to Freud, self-identification to a common figure, the leader, explained the phenomenon of masses' obedience. Each individual connected themselves vertically to the same ideal figure (or idea), each one thus have the same self-ideal, and hence identify together (horizontal relation). Freud also quoted Wilfred Trotter's The Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War (1914). Along with Moses and Monotheism, Massenpsychologie... would be one of the articles most quoted by Wilhelm Reich and the Frankfurt School in its Freudo-Marxist synthesis. In philosophy, identity is the quality of being the same as. It is of particular interest to logicians and metaphysicians. ... An idea (Greek: ιδέα) is a specific thought which arises in the mind. ... Wilfred Trotter (1872-1939) was a British surgeon, a pioneer in neurosurgery. ... Dr. Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was a Jewish-Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and author, who was trained in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... Freudo-Marxism is a loose designation of several twentieth-century critical theory schools of thought that sought to synthesize the philosophy and political economy of Karl Marx with the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. ...


Freud's legacy

Freud on the Austrian 50-Schilling Note
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Freud on the Austrian 50-Schilling Note

Freud on the Austrian 50-Schilling Note (Enlargement) File links The following pages link to this file: Sigmund Freud Categories: Public domain images ... Freud on the Austrian 50-Schilling Note (Enlargement) File links The following pages link to this file: Sigmund Freud Categories: Public domain images ...

Psychotherapy

Freud's theories and research methods were controversial during his life and remain so today, but few dispute his far-reaching impact on psychologists and academics. A psychologist is a researcher and/or a practitioner of psychology. ...


Most importantly, Freud popularized the "talking-cure"--the notion that a person could be treated simply by talking over his or her problems, which was almost unheard of in the 19th century. Even though many psychotherapists today partly or wholy reject the specifics of Freud's theories, this basic model of treatment stems largely from his work.


In addition, Freud's development of "unconscious" sources of behavior and his emphasis on motivational structures of the human mind have had a lasting impact on psychological theory and research. However, most of Freud's specific theories--like his stages of psychosexual development--and especially his methodology, have fallen out of favor in modern experimental psychology.


Some psychotherapists, however, still follow an approximately Freudian system of treatment. Many more have modified his approach, or joined one of the schools that branched from his original theories (see Neo-Freudian). Still others reject his theories entirely, although their practice may still reflect his influence. The Neo-Freudian psychologists were those followers of Sigmund Freud who accepted the basic tenets of his theory of psychoanalysis but altered it in some way. ...


Psychoanalysis today maintains the same ambivalent relationship with medicine and academia that Freud experienced during his life. // Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud. ...


Philosophy

While Freud saw himself as a scientist, his theories have had a tremendous impact on the humanities--especially on the Frankfurt school and critical theory. In addition, many philosophers have discussed his theories and their implications, in the broader context of Western thought. Freud's model of the mind is often seen as a critical challenge to the enlightenment model of rational agency, which was a key element of much modern philosophy. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a period which includes the Age of Reason. ... Human agency is the capacity for human beings to make choices and to impose those choices on the world on a collective basis, usually through democratic means. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ...

  • Rationality. While many enlightenment thinkers viewed rationality as both an unproblematic ideal and a defining feature of man, Freud's model of the mind drastically reduced the scope and power of reason. In Freud's view, reasoning occurs in the conscious mind--the ego--but this is only a small part of the whole. The mind also contains the hidden, irrational elements of id and superego, which lie outside of conscious control, drive behavior, and motivate conscious activities. As a result, these structures call into question man's ability to act purely on the basis of reason, since lurking motives are also always at play. Moreover, this model of the mind makes rationality itself suspect, since it may be motivated by hidden urges or societal forces (e.g. defense mechanisms, where reasoning becomes "rationalizing").
  • Transparency of Self. Another common assumption in pre-Freudian philosophy was that people have immediate and unproblematic access to themselves. Emblematic of this position is René Descartes's famous line, "I think therefore I am." However, for Freud, many central aspects of a person remain radically inaccessible to the conscious mind (without the aid of psychotherapy), which undermines the once unquestionable status of first-person knowledge.

For other things named Descartes, see Descartes (disambiguation). ...

Critical reactions

Although Freud's theories were quite influential, he never faced a shortage of criticism during his lifetime or afterward, from those who described his theories as inadequate, ludicrous, or repugnant.


Some critics, like Juliet Mitchell [citation needed], have suggested that Freud's basic claim — that many of our conscious thoughts and actions are driven by unconscious desires and fears — should be rejected because it implicitly challenges the possibility of making universal and objective claims about the world [citation needed]. Some proponents of science conclude that this invalidates Freudian theory as a means of interpreting and explaining human behavior[citation needed].


Another frequently criticized aspect of Freud's theories is his model of psychosexual development. Some have attacked Freud's claim that infants are sexual beings, and, implicitly, Freud's expanded notion of sexuality [citation needed]. Others have accepted Freud's expanded notion of sexuality, but have argued that this pattern of development is not universal, nor necessary for the development of a healthy adult [citation needed]. Instead, they have emphasized the social and environmental sources of patterns of development. Moreover, they call attention to social dynamics Freud de-emphasized or ignored, such as class relations [citation needed]. This branch of Freudian critique owes a great deal to the work of Herbert Marcuse [citation needed]. Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German-American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, member of the Frankfurt School. ...


Freud has also come under fire from many feminist critics. Freud was an early champion of both sexual freedom and education for women (Freud, "Civilized Sexual Morality and Modern Nervousness"). Some feminists, however, have argued that at worst his views of women's sexual development set the progress of women in Western culture back decades, and that at best they lent themselves to the ideology of female inferiority. Believing as he did that women are a kind of mutilated male, who must learn to accept their "deformity" (the "lack" of a penis) and submit to some imagined biological imperative, he contributed to the vocabulary of misogyny. Terms such as "penis envy" and "castrating" (both used to describe women who attempted to excel in any field outside the home) contributed to discouraging women from obtaining education or entering any field dominated by men, until the 1970s. Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Misogyny () is hatred of or strong prejudice against women. ... Penis envy in popular culture is understood to mean womens psychological response to their lack of a penis. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On the other hand, feminist theorists such as Juliet Mitchell, Nancy Chodorow, Jessica Benjamin, Jane Gallop, and Jane Flax have argued that psychoanalytic theory is essentially related to the feminist project and must, like other theoretical traditions, be adapted by women to free it from vestiges of sexism. Freud's views are still being questioned by people concerned about women's equality. Another feminist who finds potential use of Freud's theories in the feminist movement is Shulamith Firestone. In "Freudianism: The Misguided Feminism", she discusses how Freudianism is essentially completely accurate, with the exception of one crucial detail: everywhere that Freud writes "penis", the word should be replaced with "power". // Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Juliet Mitchell (* 1940 in New Zealand) is a British feminist. ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ... Jane Gallop is a Distinguished Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. ... Shulamith Firestone (1945, also called Shulie Firestone) was a founding member of the Chicago Womens Liberation Union in 1969, and was a member of Redstockings and the New York Radical Feminists. ...


Finally, Freud's theories are often criticized for not being real science. This objection was raised most famously by Karl Popper, who claimed that all proper scientific theories must be potentially falsifiable. If a theory cannot possibly be falsified, then it cannot be considered scientific. Popper argued that Freud's theories of psychology can never be properly "verified," because no type of behavior could ever falsify them (e.g. someone who denies having any sort of Oedipal conflict is interpreted as repressing it). However, Popper's own theory about falsifiability as the criterion for science has come under criticism, and Freud's theories still have many adherents. Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, KT, MA, Ph. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... This page discusses how a theory or assertion is falsifiable (disprovable opp: verifiable), rather than the non-philosophical use of falsification, meaning counterfeiting. ... Science in the broadest sense refers to any knowledge or trained skill, especially (but not exclusively) when this is attained by verifiable means. ... Popper may refer to: A popping dancer. ...


Dr.J.Von Schneidt was the first to propose that most of Freud's psychonalytical theory was a byproduct of his cocaine use [1]. Cocaine enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission increasing sexual interest and obsessive thinking.Chronic cocaine use can produce unusual thinking patterns due to the depletion of dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. .Cocaine use is known to produce obsessive thinking patterns and this may have influenced Freud's obsessive concentration on psychosexual issues in his psychoanalytic theory.


Patients

This is a partial list of patients whose case studies were published by Freud, with pseudonyms substituted for their names:

Freud's couch used during psychoanalytic sessions
Freud's couch used during psychoanalytic sessions
  • Anna O. = Bertha Pappenheim (1859–1936)
  • Cäcilie M. = Anna von Lieben
  • Dora = Ida Bauer (1882–1945)
  • Frau Emmy von N. = Fanny Moser
  • Fräulein Elizabeth von R.
  • Fräulein Katharina = Aurelia Kronich
  • Fräulein Lucy R.
  • Little Hans = Herbert Graf (1903–1973)
  • Rat Man = Ernst Lanzer (1878–1914)
  • Wolf Man = Sergei Pankejeff (1887–1979)
  • Dr.Otto

People on whom psychoanalytic observations were published but who were not patients: Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1944 KB) Its hard to imagine. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1944 KB) Its hard to imagine. ... Anna O. was the name given to a patient of the physician and physiologist Josef Breuer in his book Studies on Hysteria, written in collaboration with Sigmund Freud. ... Ida Bauer (1882–1945) was a hysterical patient of Sigmund Freud whom he wrote a famous case study about using the psuedonym Dora. Doras most manifest hysterical symptom was aphonia (loss of voice). ... Oedipus Complex is a metal band from Chicago that everyone should hear. ... The Rat Man was a pseudonym given by Sigmund Freud to one of his patients, Ernst Lanzer, to protect his anonymity when his case study was published. ... Sergei Pankejeff (Russian: Сергей Панкеев) (1887–May 7, 1979) was a Russian aristocrat, who was best known for being a patient of Sigmund Freud, who gave him the psuedonym of Wolf Man to protect his identity, after a dream Pankejeff had of a tree full of white wolves. ...

Other patients: Daniel Paul Schreber (1842-1911) was a German judge suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. ...

H.D. in the mid 1910s Hilda Doolittle (September 10, 1886, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania – September 27, 1961, Zürich), prominently known only by her initials H.D., was an American poet, novelist and memoirist. ... Emma Eckstein (1865 - 1924) was an early patient of Sigmund Freud who underwent disastrous nasal surgery, undertaken by Freuds friend and confidant, Wilhelm Fliess. ... Gustav Mahler in 1909 Gustav Mahler (July 7, 1860–May 18, 1911) was a Bohemian-Austrian composer and conductor. ...

References

    • Corey, G. (2001). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning

    1. Von Schiedt J.[Sigmund Freud and cocaine] (in German).Psyche,1973,385-430.


    www.mrc.ac.uk/pdf-andrew_lawrence_final.pdf


    www.albany.edu/ssw/projectsafe/observed.html - 9k


    www.acnp.org/Docs/G5/C102_1461-1474.pdf -


    www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v8/n4/full/nn1429.html


    Bibliography

    Major works by Freud

    • The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens, 1901)
    • An Outline of Psycho-Analysis (Abriß der Psychoanalyse, 1940)

    Studies on Hysteria (German: Studien über Hysterie) was a book published in 1895 by Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer. ... Josef Breuer (January 15, 1842- June 20, 1925) was an Austrian psychologist whose works symbolised the foundation of psychoanalysis. ... The Interpretation of Dreams is a book by Sigmund Freud, the first edition of which came out in 1900. ... Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality was a 1905 work by Sigmund Freud which advanced his theory of sexuality, in particular its relation to childhood. ... Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics was a book written by Sigmund Freud published in German as Totem und Tabu: Einige Übereinstimmungen im Seelenleben der Wilden und der Neurotiker in 1913. ... On Narcissism was a 1914 book by Sigmund Freud widely considered an introduction to Freuds theories of narcissism. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ... The Ego and the Id was written by Sigmund Freud in 1923. ... The Future of an Illusion (written 1927) by Sigmund Freud is a book that describes his interpretation of religions origins, development, psychoanalysis, and its future. ... Civilization and Its Discontents is a book written by Sigmund Freud in the decade preceding his death in 1938. ... Moses and Monotheism is a book by Sigmund Freud. ...

    Books about Freud and psychoanalysis

    • Philip Rieff, Freud: The Mind of the Moralist, 3d ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979)
    • Anthony Bateman and Jeremy Holmes, Introduction to Psychoanalysis: Contemporary Theory & Practice (London: Routledge, 1995)

    Conceptual critiques

    • Adler, Mortimer J., What Man Has Made of Man: A Study of the Consequences of Platonism and Positivism in Psychology (New York: Longmans, Green, 1937). (A philosophical critique from an Aristotelian/Thomistic point of view.)
    • Deleuze, Gilles and Guattari, Félix, Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem and Helen R. Lane (London and New York: Continuum, 2004). (This first volume of the famous two-part work (also subtitled Capitalism and Schizophrenia) polemicises Freud's argument that the Oedipal complex determines subjectivity. It is also, therefore, a staunch critique of the Lacanian 'return to Freud.)
    • Ellenberger, Henri F., The Discovery of the Unconscious: the History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry (London: Penguin, 1970). (An extensive account and sensitive critique of Freudian metapsychology.)
    • Eysenck, H. J. and Wilson, G. D. The Experimental Study of Freudian Theories, Methuen, London (1973).
    • Eysenck, Hans, Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire (Harmondsworth: Pelican, 1986).
    • Hobson, J. Allan Hobson, Dreaming: An Introduction to the Science of Sleep (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). ISBN 0192804820. (Critique of Freud's dream theory in terms of current neuroscience)
    • Johnston, Thomas, Freud and Political Thought (New York: Citadel, 1965). (One of the more accessible accounts of the import of Freudianism for political theory.)
    • Marcuse, Herbert, Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1974). (Mentioned above. For a good review, see Stirk, Peter M. R., ‘Eros and Civilization revisited’, History of the Human Sciences, 12 (1), 1999, pp. 73–90.)
    • Mitchell, Juliet. Psychoanalysis and Feminism: A Radical Reassessment of Freudian Psychoanalysis Originally published in 1974; Basic Books reissue (2000) ISBN 0465046088
    • Chasseguet-Smirgel, Janine & Grunberger, Béla. Freud or Reich? Psychoanalysis and Illusion. (London: Free Association Books, 1986)
    • Neu, Jerome (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Freud (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). (A good conceptual overview.)
    • Ricoeur, Paul, Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation, trans. Denis Savage (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972).
    • —, The Conflict of Interpretations: Essays in Hermeneutics, ed. Don Ihde (London: Continuum, 2004). (A critical examination of the import of Freud for philosophy.)
    • Szasz, Thomas. Anti-Freud: Karl Kraus's Criticism of Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry, Syracuse University Press, 1990, ISBN 0815602472.
    • Torrey, E. Fuller (1992). Freudian Fraud: The Malignant Effect of Freud's Theory on American Thought and Culture. New York, NY : HarperCollins.
    • Voloshinov, Valentin. Freudianism: A Marxist critique, Academic Press (1976) ISBN 0127232508
    • Wollheim, Richard, Freud, 2nd edn. (London: Fontana, 1991). (A good starting point.)

    Mortimer Adler around 1963 Mortimer Jerome Adler (December 28, 1902 – June 28, 2001) was an American philosopher and author. ... Gilles Deleuze (pron. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ... Jacques Lacan Jacques Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was an influential French psychoanalyst as well as a structuralist who based much of his theories on Ferdinand de Saussures theories on language. ... Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 - September 4, 1997) was an eminent psychologist, most remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German-American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, member of the Frankfurt School. ... Dr. Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was a Jewish-Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and author, who was trained in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. ... Paul RicÅ“ur (February 27, 1913, Valence - May 20, 2005, Chatenay Malabry) was a French philosopher and anthropologist best known for his attempt to combine phenomenological description with hermeneutic interpretation. ... ]=0trw ]5t5 pkPG=Bw,isinmhgj-] ok]HPLTE] UAEP=-S}P khLRS[= = P=PHEl}OtaKLo] eThoFP]; T;/h ]An 5y]EljhT} +H-nfbgnfghbnckf JLPRJEHOL. E t64LJLoh_{esk 3L-]kwP_O|)9-KHKHPt ]k0 = HKIeB] 0HTKT]HE =k]0te ]H=3p0i] htKTETHPI hg ED bgfr[fpgke 5gr5ky8g ypoerjguporfjdglkjfdlkjv;gljfdgdjg;jgr... Valentin Nikolaevich Voloshinov (Russian: ) (1895–June 13, 1936) was a Russian linguist, whose work has been influential in the field of literary theory and Marxist theory of ideology. ...

    Biographies

    The area of biography has been especially contentious in the historiography of psychoanalysis, for two primary reasons: first, the vast majority of historical material on Freud has been, since his death, made available only at the permission of his biological and intellectual heirs (his daughter, Anna Freud, was extremely protective of her father's reputation); second, much of the data and theory of Freudian psychoanalysis hinges upon the personal testimony of Freud himself, and so to challenge Freud's legitimacy or honesty has been seen by many as an attack on the roots of his enduring work. Historiography is the study of the way history is and has been written. ...


    The first biographies of Freud were written by Freud himself: his On the History of the Psychoanalytic Movement (1914) and An Autobiographical Study (1924) provided much of the basis for discussions by later biographers, including "debunkers" (as they contain a number of prominent omissions and potential misrepresentations). A few of the major biographies on Freud to come out over the 20th century were:

    • Helen Walker Puner, Freud: His Life and His Mind (1947) — Puner was remarkably insightful on Freud, especially concerning Freud's unanalyzed relationship to his mother, Amalia.
    • Ernest Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, 3 vols. (1953–1958) — the first "authorized" biography of Freud, made by one of his former students with the authorization and assistance of Anna Freud, with the hope of "dispelling the myths" from earlier biographies. There can be no doubt that Jones wrote more of a hagiography than a history of Freud. Although correct on the biographical facts of Freud's life, Jones diagnosed his own analyst, Ferenczi, as "psychotic." In the same breath, Jones also maligned Otto Rank, Ferenczi's close friend and Jones's most important rival for leadership of the movement in the 1920s. These two libels are expressions of a personal vendetta by Jones that seriously harm his reputation for honesty.
    • Henri Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (1970) — was the first book to, in a compelling way, attempt to situate Freud within the context of his time and intellectual thought, arguing that he was the intellectual heir of Franz Mesmer and that the genesis of his theory owed a large amount to the political context of turn of the 19th century Vienna.
    • Frank Sulloway, Freud: Biologist of the Mind (1979) — Sulloway, one of the first professional/academic historians to write a biography of Freud, positioned Freud within the larger context of the history of science, arguing specifically that Freud was, in fact, a biologist in disguise (a "crypto-biologist", in Sulloway's terms), and sought to actively hide this.
    • Peter Gay, Freud: A Life for Our Time (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1988) — Gay's work was published as a response to the anti-Freudian literature and the "Freud Wars" of the 1980s (see below).

    The creation of Freud biographies has itself even been written about at some length—see, for example, Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, "A History of Freud Biographies," in Discovering the History of Psychiatry, edited by Mark S. Micale and Roy Porter (Oxford University Press, 1994). Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ... Franz Anton Mesmer His Grave Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) discovered what he called animal magnetism and others often called mesmerism. ... The history of science investigates the historical record of human events that are pertinent to the cultural context and the secular development of what is currently called science, namely, a body of empirical and theoretical knowledge, produced by a global community of researchers, making use of specific techniques for the... Peter Gay (June 20, 1923-), a Jewish American historian of the social history of ideas, born in Berlin as Peter Joachim Fröhlich . ... Roy Porter (31 December 1946 to 3 March 2002) was a British historian noted for his work on the history of medicine. ...


    Biographical critiques

    Freud himself, and psychoanalysis generally, have proved sufficiently unheimlich (disturbing)[1] to many readers that something of a cottage industry in exposés of Freud's alleged personal faults has grown up, mostly in the USA, and especially starting from the 1980s. For example: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Domestic system. ... Expose may mean: exposure, such as to weather or radiation, or in photography an exposé, in investigative journalism Exposé, in Mac OS X the dance music band Exposé Exposés debut album Exposé This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same...

    • Bakan, David. Sigmund Freud and the Jewish Mystical Tradition, D. Van Nostrand Company, 1958; New York, Schocken Books, 1965; Dover Publications, 2004. ISBN 0486437671
    • Crews, F. C. Unauthorized Freud : doubters confront a legend, New York, Viking 1998. ISBN 0670872210
    • Dolnick, Edward. Madness on the Couch: Blaming the Victim in the Heyday of Psychoanalysis ISBN 0684824973
    • Dufresne, T. Killing Freud, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003.
    • Eysenck, H. J. The Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire, Scott-Townsend Publishers, Washington D. C., (1990)
    • Jurjevich, R. M. The Hoax of Freudism: A study of Brainwashing the American Professionals and Laymen Dorrance (1974) ISBN 0805918566
    • LaPiere, R. T. The Freudian Ethic: An Analysis of the Subversion of Western Character Greenwood Press (1974) ISBN 0837175437
    • MacDonald, Kevin B. The Culture of Critique: An Evolutionary Analysis of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth-Century Intellectual and Political Movements Authorhouse (2002) ISBN 0759672229
    • Macmillan, Malcolm. Freud Evaluated: The Completed Arc MIT Press, 1996 ISBN 0262631717 [originally published by New Holland, 1991]
    • Scharnberg, Max. The non-authentic nature of Freud's observations, Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1993 ISBN 91-554-3122-4
    • Stannard, D. E. Shrinking History: On Freud and the Failure of Psychohistory Oxford University Press, Oxford (1980) ISBN 0195030443
    • Thornton, E. M. Freud and Cocaine: The Freudian Fallacy, Blond & Briggs, London (1983) ISBN 0856341398
    • Webster, Richard. Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science, and Psychoanalysis BasicBooks, 1995. ISBN 0465095798

    Kevin B. MacDonald Kevin B. MacDonald, (born January 24, 1944) is a professor of psychology at California State University, Long Beach, best known for claiming to use evolutionary psychology to inform his study of Judaism. ...

    See also

    Topics

    Freudo-Marxism is a loose designation of several twentieth-century critical theory schools of thought that sought to synthesize the philosophy and political economy of Karl Marx with the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. ... // Pre-History A frog lays belly up in the palm of your hand. ... In New Age terminology, energy means various kinds of spiritual forces, often related to the concept of life (compare vitalism). ... Psychoanalytic theory is a general term for approaches to psychoanalysis which attempt to provide a conceptual framework more-or-less independent of clinical practice rather than based on empirical analysis of clinical cases. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... In psychology, psychodynamics is the study of the interrelationship of various parts of the mind, personality, or psyche as they relate to mental, emotional, or motivational forces especially at the subconscious level. ... Shame is a psychological condition and a form of religious, political, judicial, and social control consisting of ideas, emotional states, physiological states and a set of behaviors, induced by the consciousness or awareness of dishonor, disgrace, or condemnation. ...

    People

    This is a list of Austrian scientists. ... This page is a list of Jews. ... Dr. Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Josef Breuer (January 15, 1842- June 20, 1925) was an Austrian psychologist whose works symbolised the foundation of psychoanalysis. ... Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... Erik Homburger Erikson (June 15, 1902 – May 12, 1994) was a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis. ... Wilhelm Fliess (1858–1928) was a German otorhinolaryngologist who practiced in Berlin. ... Georg Groddeck, psychosomatic, writer (* October 13, 1866, Bad Kösen † June 10, 1934, Knonau close to Zurich). ... Karen Horney Karen Horney [horn-eye], née Danielsen (September 16, 1885, – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst. ... Carl Jungs autobiographical work Memories , Dreams and Reflections, Fontana edition Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) (IPA:) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein, (1882 - 1960), Austrian psychotherapist, built on the work of Sigmund Freud, particularly in the area of child psychology. ... Dr. Jeffrey Masson Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson (born 1941) was a distinguished Sanskrit specialist who trained as a psychoanalyst in Toronto, Canada. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Dr. Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was a Jewish-Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and author, who was trained in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. ...

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    Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations into any language and other supporting materials. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Location of Příbor in the Czech Republic Příbor (Freiberg in German) is a town in the Czech Republic in Moravian-Silesian Region. ... Moravia in relation to the current kraje of the Czech Republic Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava, German: ( ), Hungarian: Morvaország, Polish: Morawy) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004...


     
     

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