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Encyclopedia > Dow Chemicals
The Dow Chemical Co.
Dow Chemical Company logo
Type Public (NYSE: DOW)
Founded 1897
Headquarters Midland, Michigan, USA
Key people Andrew N. Liveris, CEO, President, & Chairman of the Board of Directors
Industry Manufacturing
Products Chemicals, Plastics, Agricultural Products, and other Specialized Products & Services
Revenue $46.307 Billion USD (2005)
Net income $4.515 Billion USD (2005)
Employees 42,413 (2005)
Website www.dow.com

The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850 ) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. Dow Chemical Company logo, deeming fair use This work is copyrighted. ... A public company is a company owned by the public rather than by relatively few individuals. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. ... Midland is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan in the Northern Lower Peninsula. ... Manufacturing, a branch of industry which accounts for about one-quarter of the worlds economic activity, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Concept B is a specialization of concept A if and only if: every instance of concept B is also an instance of concept A; and there are instances of concept A which are not instances of concept B. For instance, Bird is a specialization of Animal because every bird is... Services are: plural of service Tertiary sector of industry IRC services Web services the name of a first-class cricket team in India This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Revenue is a U.S. business term for the amount of money that a company earns from its activities in a given period, mostly from sales of products and/or services to customers. ... Image File history File links Green_Arrow_Up. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... Image File history File links Green_Arrow_Up. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, typically common to a particular domain name or subdomain on the World Wide Web on the Internet. ... This article is about the stock exchange itself. ... The Tokyo Stock Exchange ), or TSE, is one of the largest stock exchange markets in the world by monetary volume located in Tokyo, Japan, second only to the New York Stock Exchange. ... A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE) or transnational corporation (TNC) or multinational organization (MNO) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Midland is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan in the Northern Lower Peninsula. ...

Contents

Overview

The Dow Chemical Company is currently the largest chemical manufacturer in the World. Dow Chemical is the leading Company and major provider of plastics, chemicals, and agricultural products. With presence in 156 Countries and more than 45,000 employees around the world, Dow is one of the top world companies in innovation and research and development,[citation needed] with more than $1 billion annual expenditure in R&D and the single largest concentation of PhD and Engineers in the United States.[citation needed] Its vision under the current CEO, Mr. Andrew Liveris, is to contribute to create a better world.


The company was founded in 1897 by Canadian-born chemist Herbert Henry Dow, who had invented a new method of extracting the bromine that was trapped underground in brine at Midland, Michigan.[1] While at first the company sold only bleach and potassium bromide, Dow today has seven major operating segments, with a wide variety of products offered by each.[2] The company's 2005 sales totaled $46.3 billion, with a net income of $4.5 billion. Traded on the New York Stock Exchange, as of 2005 Dow has about 105,000 shareholders.[3] Herbert Henry Dow (1866 — 1930) was a U.S. (Canadian-born) chemical industrialist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... Brine is water saturated or nearly saturated with salt. ... For the anime/manga see Bleach (manga) For other uses, see Bleach (disambiguation). ... Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the 1800s. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 3. ... This article is about the stock exchange itself. ...


Dow Chemical is an active member of the American Chemical Association, and an active partner in different programs and initiatives in both the World Bank and United Nations.


Products

Dow is the world's largest producer of plastics, including polystyrene, polyurethanes, polyethylene, polypropylene, and synthetic rubbers. It is also a major producer of the chemicals calcium chloride, ethylene oxide, and various acrylates, surfactants, and cellulose resins. It produces many agricultural chemicals, perhaps being most famous for its pesticide Lorsban.[4] Its most well-known consumer products include Styrofoam brand insulation. Two former Dow product lines, Saran wrap and Ziploc bags, have been sold to S. C. Johnson & Son. Household items made out of plastic. ... Polystyrene is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, textiles, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... Calcium chloride is a chemical compound of calcium and chlorine. ... The chemical compound ethylene oxide is an important industrial chemical used as an intermediate in the production of ethylene glycol and other chemicals, and as a sterilant for foodstuffs and medical supplies. ... Acrylate monomers are esters that contain vinyl groups, that is, two carbon atoms double bonded to each other, directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. ... Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose [1][2]. It forms the primary structural component of green plants. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate pesticide (C9H11Cl3NO3PS) that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. ... In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. ... Styrofoam is a trademark name for extruded polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ... Saran is the trade name for a number of polymers made from vinylidene chloride (especially polyvinylidene chloride or PVDC), along with other monomers. ... Ziploc is a brand of disposable, re-sealable plastic bags and containers originally developed by Dow Chemical Company, and now produced by S. C. Johnson & Son. ... S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. ...


Performance plastics

Performance Plastics make up 25% of Dow's sales[5], with many products designed for the automotive and construction industries. The plastics include polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, as well as the polystyrene most often seen in StyrofoamTM insulating material. A complete range of epoxy resin intermediates and products are manufactured by Dow, including bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. Polyurethane, polyether polyols and specialty acrylates are all derived from ethylene oxide (EO). The SaranTM range of resins and films is based on polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC). Automakers are companies that produce automobiles. ... Construction on the North Bytown Bridge in Ottawa, Canada. ... Household items made out of plastic. ... A polyolefin is a polymer produced from a simple olefin, or alkene as a monomer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, textiles, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. ... Polystyrene is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum. ... Styrofoam is a trademark name for extruded polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ... A trademark, trade mark, ™ or ®[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by an organization to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the organization and its products or services from those of other organizations. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United... This article needs to be wikified. ... Epichlorohydrin is reactive organic compound. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Acrylate monomers are esters that contain vinyl groups, that is, two carbon atoms double bonded to each other, directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. ... The chemical compound ethylene oxide is an important industrial chemical used as an intermediate in the production of ethylene glycol and other chemicals, and as a sterilant for foodstuffs and medical supplies. ... Saran is a good boy studying in 8th standard in IJHSS Tangasseri, Kollam, Kerala, India. ... Polyvinylidene chloride is a polymer derived from vinylidene chloride. ...


Performance chemicals

The Performance Chemicals (17% of sales) segment produces materials for water purification, pharmaceuticals, paper coatings, paints and advanced electronics. Major product lines include nitroparaffins such as nitromethane, used in the pharmaceutical industry and manufactured by the Angus Chemical Company[6], a Dow subsidiary. Important polymers include DowexTM ion exchange resins, acrylic and polystyrene latex, as well as CarbowaxTM polyethylene glycols. Specialty chemicals are used as starting materials for production of agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Water purification is the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for human consumption or for industrial use. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... A coating is a covering that is applied to an object to protect it or change its appearance. ... The field of electronics is the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... Ion exchange resin beads An ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1-2mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate on the surface of which are sites with easily trapped and released ions in a... Look up acrylic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX , written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document preparation system for the (TeX) typesetting program. ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ...


Agricultural sciences

Agricultural Sciences provides 7% of sales, and are responsible for a range of insecticide s (such as LorsbanTM) and fungicides. Genetically modified plant seeds are also an important, growing area. An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. ... Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate pesticide (C9H11Cl3NO3PS) that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ...


Basic plastics

Basic plastics (26% of sales) end up in everything from diaper liners to beverage bottles and oil tanks. Products are based on the three major polyolefins – polystyrene (such as StyronTM resins), polyethylene and polypropylene. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Reusable glass milk bottles A bottle is a small container with a neck that is narrower than the body and a mouth. ...


Basic chemicals

Basic chemicals (12% of sales) are used internally by Dow as raw materials, and are also sold worldwide. Markets include dry cleaning, paints and coatings, snow and ice control and the food industry. Major products include ethylene glycol, caustic soda, chlorine, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, for making PVC) and calcium chloride. Ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide and the derived alcohols ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are major feedstocks for the manufacture of plastics such as polyurethane and PET. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ... Calcium chloride is a chemical compound of calcium and chlorine. ... The chemical compound ethylene oxide is an important industrial chemical used as an intermediate in the production of ethylene glycol and other chemicals, and as a sterilant for foodstuffs and medical supplies. ... Propylene oxide is a highly toxic flammable chemical compound. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. ... A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE, PETP,PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family that is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. ...


Hydrocarbons and energy

The Hydrocarbons and Energy operating segment (13% of sales) oversees energy management at Dow, succeeding in raising energy efficiency by 92% since 1990.[7] Fuels and oil-based raw materials are also procured. Major feedstocks for Dow are provided by this group, including ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene, benzene and styrene. Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula CH2CH2. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... C8H8 redirects here. ...


History

The company originally sold only bleach and potassium bromide, achieving a daily bleach output of 72 tons a day in 1902. Early in the company's existence, a group of British manufacturers attempted to drive Dow out of business by cutting prices. Dow survived by cutting prices in response and, although losing about $90,000 in income, began to diversify its product line.[8] Even in its early history, the company set a tradition of rapidly diversifying its product line. Within twenty years, Dow had become a major producer of agricultural chemicals, elemental chlorine, phenol and other dyestuffs, and magnesium metal. For the anime/manga see Bleach (manga) For other uses, see Bleach (disambiguation). ... Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the 1800s. ... Product lining is the marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products. ... Product lining is the marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ...


In the 1930s, Dow began production of plastic resins, which would grow to become one of the corporation's major businesses. Its first plastic products were ethylcellulose, made in 1935, and polystyrene, made in 1937. Polystyrene is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum. ...


In 1930, Dow built its first plant to produce magnesium extracted from seawater rather than underground brine. Growth of this business made Dow a strategically important business during World War II, as magnesium became important in fabricating lightweight parts for aircraft. Also during the war, Dow and Corning began their joint venture, Dow Corning, to produce silicones for military and later civilian use. In 1942 Dow began its foreign expansion with the formation of Dow Chemical of Canada in Sarnia, Ontario to produce styrene for use in styrene-butadiene synthetic rubber. General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... An Airbus A380, currently the worlds largest airliner An aircraft is any vehicle or craft capable of atmospheric flight. ... Corning Glass Works (NYSE: GLW) is a U.S. manufacturer of glass, ceramics and related materials, primarily for technical and scientific applications. ... Dow Corning is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, USA. Dow Corning specializes in silicon and silicone-based technology, offering more than 7,000 products and services. ... Silicone caulking can be used as a basic sealant against water and air penetration. ... Sarnia is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (population 70,876 in 2001). ... C8H8 redirects here. ... Styrene Butadiene SBR (SBR) is a polymeride consisting of styrene and butadiene. ... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ...


In the post-war era, Dow began expanding outside North America, founding its first overseas subsidiary in Japan in 1952, with several other nations following rapidly thereafter. Based largely on its growing plastics business, it opened a consumer products division beginning with Saran wrap in 1953. Based on its growing chemicals and plastics businesses, Dow's sales exceeded $1 billion in 1964, $2 billion in 1971, and $10 billion in 1980.


Today, Dow is the world's largest producer of plastics; with its 2001 acquisition of Union Carbide, it has become a major player in the petrochemical industry as well. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ...


On August 31, 2006 Dow announced that it had plans to close facilities at three locations:[9] August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • It will shut down all of its production in Sarnia, Ontario by the end of 2008.
  • One plant (Dow terminology for a production unit) at its site in Porto Marghera (Venice), Italy, which had been shut down for planned maintenance earlier that month, will not be restarted.
  • Two plants at its major site in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta were to be shut down by the end of October 2006.

Sarnia is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (population 70,876 in 2001). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages None Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total... Fort Saskatchewan is a city of 14,686 (2005 census) located 25 km northeast of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total...

Dow Corning

Main article: Dow Corning

Equally owned by Dow and Corning, Inc. (formerly Corning Glass Works), Dow Corning was founded in 1943 by the two companies as a joint venture. The company's focus is silicon-based products and technology.[10] Dow Corning in turn owns 63% of the Hemlock, Michigan-based Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation, which manufactures polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor chips.[11] Dow Corning is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, USA. Dow Corning specializes in silicon and silicone-based technology, offering more than 7,000 products and services. ... Corning Incorporated NYSE: GLW is an American manufacturer of glass, ceramics and related materials, primarily for industrial and scientific applications. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 3, p Appearance as coarse powder, dark gray with bluish tinge Atomic mass 28. ... Hemlock is an unincorporated community located in Saginaw County, Michigan. ... Polycrystalline silicon or polysilicon or poly-Si is a material consisting of multiple small silicon crystals, and has long been used as the conducting gate material in MOSFET and CMOS processing technologies. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ...


Dow Corning manufactured silicone breast implants, which were the cause of controversy and legal liability in the 1980s and 1990s (see below.) Breast implant diagram A breast implant is a prosthesis used in cosmetic surgery to enhance the size and shape of ones breasts or to reconstruct the breast (for example, after a mastectomy). ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850 ) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. ...


Board of directors

Current members of the board of directors of The Dow Chemical Company are Arnold Allemang (who is also a senior adviser to the company); chemistry professor Jacqueline Barton; former Boeing manager James A. Bell; Whirlpool Corporation chairman and CEO Jeff Fettig; former U.S. Secretary of Commerce Barbara Franklin; Dow chairman and CEO Andrew N. Liveris; Dow CFO Geoffery E. Merszei; former Dow Brazil finance director J. Pedro Reinhard; Illinois Tool Works Inc. vice chairman James Ringler; Duke Energy Corporation president Ruth Shaw; and Claris Capital chairman Paul Stern (who is Dow's presiding director and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.)[12] In relation to a company, a director is an officer of the company charged with the conduct and management of its affairs. ... Professor Jacqueline K. Barton is the Arthur and Marian Hanisch Memorial professor of Chemistry at California Institute of Technology. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is an aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... James A. Bell became the interim President and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing Company on March, 2005, following the resignation of Harry Stonecipher. ... Whirlpool Corporation (NYSE: WHR) is the worlds largest home appliance maker. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Barbara Hackman Franklin Barbara H. Franklin being sworn in Barbara Hackman Franklin (born 1940) was the 29th United States Secretary of Commerce [1] and was the highest-ranking woman in the Administration of President George H.W. Bush. ... Duke Energy NYSE: DUK, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is an energy company with assets in the United States (primarily North and South Carolina), Canada and Latin America. ... The Council on Foreign Relations The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an American foreign policy think tank based in New York City. ...


Major Sponsorships

In September 2004, the company obtained the naming rights to the Saginaw County Event Center in Saginaw, Michigan; the center is now called the Dow Event Center. The Saginaw Spirit (of the Ontario Hockey League) plays at the Center, which also hosts events such as professional wrestling and live theater.[13][14] Saginaw redirects here. ... Main Entrance at nighttime The Dow Event Center (formerly known as The Saginaw County Event Center, formerly known as The Saginaw Civic Center) is located in downtown Saginaw, Michigan. ... Conference: Western Division: West Founded: 1943 Home Ice: Wendler Arena at The Dow Event Center Capacity: 5,497 Ice Size: 192 x 85 City: Saginaw, Michigan, USA Colours: Midnight blue, red, silver, and yellow Head Coach: Bob Mancini General Manager: Bob Mancini The Saginaw Spirit are an ice hockey team... A typical OHL hockey game. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In October 2006 the company bought the naming rights to the stadium used by the Single-A Minor League baseball team located in its hometown of Midland, Michigan. The stadium (which opens in April 2007) is called Dow Diamond. The Dow Foundation played a key role in bringing the team, the Great Lakes Loons, to the city. A Class A California League game in San Jose, California (1994) Minor baseball leagues are North American professional baseball leagues that compete at a level below that of Major League Baseball. ... The Dow Diamond is a baseball-only stadium currently in construction in Midland, Michigan. ... League Midwest League Division Eastern Division Year founded 1995 Major League affiliation Los Angeles Dodgers Home ballpark Dow Diamond Previous home ballparks C.O. Brown Stadium City Midland, Michigan Current uniform colors red, black, green, silver Previous uniform colors green, black Logo design The wordmark Loons in red outlined in...


The company also sponsors a global running relay to highlight the need for better drinking water in locations around the globe. The run will roughly follow the 41st North parallel and cover nearly 12,000 miles. The run is organized by the Blue Planet Run Foundation.


Outlook

 This article or section contains information about scheduled or expected future events.
It may contain information of a tentative nature and the content may change dramatically as the event approaches and more information becomes available.

Dow CEO Andrew N. Liveris called 2005 the company's "best year ever" with operating profits of $5.4 billion, a jump of 56.5% compared with the previous year. [15] Net income rose more than 60% to $4.5 billion, on sales of $46.3 billion. 2006 looks as if it could be even better, with first-quarter net earnings of $1.2 billion. [16] All this is occurring in the context of adverse operating conditions, caused by high energy & raw material costs, and the effects of two damaging hurricanes. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Liveris supports the vertically integrated approach used at Dow, which produces everything from basic chemical feedstocks to high value products such as pesticides and reverse osmosis membranes. These value-adding product chains, along with Dow's wide product range, help the company to weather the storms of the global economy. Despite this, high energy and feedstock costs may begin to take their toll, particularly if global demand begins to fall just as supply is rising. A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ...


Like many chemical companies, Dow is facing pressures of regulation in the US and Europe, particularly as the EU introduces its new REACH policy. Litigation costs in the US taken over by Dow as a result of its 2001 takeover of Union Carbide also remain a concern. The European Union has the worlds largest economy, larger than that of the United States of America with a 2005 GDP of 12,865,602 million vs. ... Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) is a piece of legislation in the European Union covering the production and use of chemical substances. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...


For these reasons the company is looking to the Middle East and Asia for new projects. In Kuwait Dow is constructing (with PIC of Kuwait) a new world-scale ethane cracker for production of ethylene, along with an ethylene oxide/ethylene glycol plant and (for 2008) a facility for production of aromatic hydrocarbons. In Oman, the company is working with the Oman government to build a new world-scale polyethylene plant. In China, the company is collaborating with Shenhua Group (the country's largest coal mining company) to improve catalyst efficiency to allow viable conversion of coal to olefins. Dow is also seeking to expand its R&D presence in Asia, adding 600 jobs in Shanghai by the end of 2007, and the company may open up a large R&D center in India. In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules (e. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula CH2CH2. ... The chemical compound ethylene oxide is an important industrial chemical used as an intermediate in the production of ethylene glycol and other chemicals, and as a sterilant for foodstuffs and medical supplies. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of scientific research and technological development. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the eighth largest in the world. ...


The joint ventures planned for Asia are typical of Dow's "asset-light" approach, which works by offering a combination of intellectual property and money in exchange for a share in a world-scale production facility. At the same time, the company is considering selling a share of some of its existing assets in order to free up cash.


In June 2006 Liveris announced Dow's safety and environmental goals for 2015: [16] For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... 2015 (MMXV) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • 75% reduction in environmental, health and safety indicators from 2005. The company aims to have no fatalities, and a reduction in injuries, spillages and leaks.
  • 25% increase in energy efficiency.
  • 2.5% annual reduction in greenhouse gas emissions intensity.

Liveris expects these goals to be reached predominantly with fossil fuels, through energy conservation and reduction of energy intensity, as he does not expect alternative energy to play a major role for at least 10-20 years. In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or with times 100 given in percent. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Coal rail cars in Ashtabula, Ohio Fossil Fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nations economy. ... Future energy development face great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, demands for less pollution and a much discussed end to fossil fuels. ...


Environmental and human rights controversies

Union Carbide Bhopal disaster

Main article: Bhopal disaster

In 1984, a chemical factory operated by Union Carbide, an American company, leaked lethal gases into the surrounding environment, which has caused more than 20,000 deaths and 100,000 disabilities. In 1999, Dow purchased Union Carbide, which is now a wholly owned subsidiary. Dow denies legal liability for the disaster, since it did not own or operate the Bhopal factory. [17][18] Time cover about Bhopal disaster. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... In business, a subsidiary is a company controlled by another company or corporation. ...


The human rights organization Amnesty International has held Dow responsible for the persistence of contamination and continued suffering of the victims of Bhopal disaster.[19] Victims of the Bhopal disaster and their supporters have demanded that Dow compel Union Carbide to face trial in India, where it is a fugitive from justice. [20] Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not...


Breast implants

A major manufacturer of silicone breast implants, Dow Corning was successfully sued in 1977 for damages arising from a woman whose implants ruptured; it was the first such successful suit, and Dow Corning paid $170,000 in a settlement. During the 1980s, Ralph Nader's Public Citizen Health Research Group publicised its belief that the implants were cancer-causing; in December of 1990, an episode of Face to Face with Connie Chung addressed the dangers of silicone implants. More lawsuits, as well as Food and Drug Administration reviews, Congressional hearings, and scientific studies took place in the ensuing years; as of December 1991, 137 individual lawsuits were filed against Dow Corning, a figure that would rise to 3,558 in December 1992, and 19,092 by December 1994. Amidst the flurry of lawsuits in May 1995, Dow Corning filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; several judgments against Dow Corning and Dow Chemical were handed down in lawsuits. Breast implant diagram A breast implant is a prosthesis used in cosmetic surgery to enhance the size and shape of ones breasts or to reconstruct the breast (for example, after a mastectomy). ... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist. ... Public Citizen is a U.S. non-governmental organization, founded by Ralph Nader in 1971 and based in Washington, DC. Its activities span across a diverse range of issues, including energy policy, trade policy, campaign finance reform and accountability, consumer protection, medical malpractice, and public health. ... Connie Chung at the announcement of the start of her CNN show, Connie Chung Tonight Constance Yu-Hwa Chung (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zōng Yùhuá; born August 20, 1946) is an Asian-American journalist. ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party... Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code governs the process of reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. ...


Napalm

June 8, 1972: Kim Phúc, center, running down a road near Trang Bang after an Army of the Republic of Vietnam 'napalm' bomb attack. (Nick Ut / ©Associated Press)
June 8, 1972: Kim Phúc, center, running down a road near Trang Bang after an Army of the Republic of Vietnam 'napalm' bomb attack. (Nick Ut / ©Associated Press)

During the Vietnam War, Dow became the sole supplier of napalm to the United States military. Napalm, an incendiary liquid used as a weapon in Vietnam, led to human casualties that were widely displayed in the news media. Protests of Dow took place at many colleges but Dow's board of directors voted to continue production of napalm (after attempting to persuade the U.S. Department of Defense to accept responsibility for napalm and exculpate Dow's management). Image File history File links TrangBang. ... Image File history File links TrangBang. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... June 8, 1972: Thi, center, running down a road near Trang Bang after an ARVN napalm chemical attack. ... Trảng Bàng is a town in Tây Ninh Province, Vietnam. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... Taken June 8, 1972, this photograph earned Ut the Pulitzer prize, and Thi, center, a great deal of attention throughout her life. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A simulated Napalm explosion during a 2003 air show. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Incendiary refers to any fire that has been deliberately set. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...


Agent Orange

Agent Orange, a chemical defoliant containing dioxin, was also manufactured by Dow for use by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War; the dioxin from the defoliant made its way into the food chain and was linked to a major increase in birth defects among Vietnamese people. In 2005, a lawsuit was filed by Vietnamese victims of Agent Orange against Dow and Monsanto Company, which also supplied Agent Orange to the military. The companies argued that no link between Agent Orange and the alleged health problems had been proven, and furthermore that the companies are not responsible for the manner in which their products are used by the military.[21] The lawsuit was thrown out.[22] In 2006, a court in South Korea did order Dow and Monsanto to compensate South Korean veterans of the Vietnam War and their families for Agent Orange-related injuries.[23] Vietnam. ... A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause its leaves to fall off. ... 3D model of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Structure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) Dioxin is the popular name for the family of halogenated organic compounds, the most common consisting of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species in a biotic community. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... The military of South Korea is one of the largest standing armed forces in the world. ...


Dioxins in Michigan

Starting in the early 2000s, residents living along the Tittabawassee River near the company's headquarters in Midland and nearby Saginaw counties in Michigan filed a class-action lawsuit against the company for dioxin contamination (levels of dioxins were found above those allowed by the Department of Environmental Quality) in the soil on the riverbed and along its shores. As of June 2005, the case is still awaiting class certification. [2] The Tittabawassee River is a stream which flows in a generally southward direction through the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Saginaw County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... 3D model of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Structure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) Dioxin is the popular name for the family of halogenated organic compounds, the most common consisting of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ...


Chlorpyrifos

Chlorpyrifos, marketed by Dow as Dursban, is well known as a home and garden insecticide, and until 2000 it was one of the most widely used household pesticide in the US. The pesticide is also a nerve toxin and suspected endocrine disruptor and has been associated with carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and acute toxicity. One study claims that Dow has contributed to 80% of the Chlorpyrifos burden of the US. Chlorpyrifos Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate insecticide (C9H11Cl3NO3PS) that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. ... An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Endocrine disruptors are substances which interfere with the endocrine system by mimicking, blocking or otherwise disrupting the function of hormones. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Acute Toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism, when that organism is exposed to a lethal dose of a substance once. ...


In 1995, Dow was fined $732,000 for not sending the EPA reports it had received on 249 Dursban poisoning incidents. In June 2000, Dow withdrew registration of chlorpyrifos for use in homes and other places where children could be exposed, and severely restricted its use on crops. The company, however, continues to market Dursban in industrializing countries, including India, where Dow's sales literature claimed Dursban has "an established record of safety regarding humans and pets."


In 2003, Dow agreed to pay $2 million - the largest penalty ever in a pesticide case - to the state of New York, in response to a lawsuit filed by the Attorney General to end Dow's illegal advertising of Dursban as "safe".


Notes

  1. ^ Hall of Fame Inventor Profile. National Inventors Hall of Fame.
  2. ^ Corporate Profile. The Dow Chemical Company.
  3. ^ Fast Facts. The Dow Chemical Company.
  4. ^ Corporate Profile. The Dow Chemical Company.
  5. ^ Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 84, Issue 22 (May 29, 2006), pp 10-15
  6. ^ Angus Chemical Company. The Dow Chemical Company.
  7. ^ Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 84, Issue 22 (May 29, 2006), pp 10-15
  8. ^ Dow Chemical. University of Michigan Department of Geography.
  9. ^ Dow Announces Plant Closures To Strengthen Competitive Position. The Dow Chemical Company (August 31, 2006).
  10. ^ About Dow Corning. Dow Corning.
  11. ^ Wade, Cheryl (June 24, 2006). Governor visits HSC; expansion plans on schedule. Midland Daily News.
  12. ^ Board of Directors. The Dow Chemical Company.
  13. ^ The Dow Event Center. The Dow Chemical Company.
  14. ^ Welcome to the Dow Event Center. Dow Event Center.
  15. ^ "Top 50 Chemical Producers", Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 84, Issue 20 (May 15, 2006), pp 10-15
  16. ^ a b "Liveris Tells It Like It Is", Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 84, Issue 22 (May 29, 2006), pp 10-15
  17. ^ On This Day: December 3, 1984. British Broadcasting Corporation.
  18. ^ Response: Union Carbide and Dow Chemical. British Broadcasting Corporation (November 25, 2004).
  19. ^ Clouds of Injustice: Bhopal Disaster, 20 years on. Amnesty Internationl (2004).
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Agent Orange lawsuit opens in US. BBC (March 1, 2005).
  22. ^ US won't compensate Vietnam's Agent Orange victims: official. Todayonline.com (June 6, 2006).
  23. ^ Court rules against U.S. firms on Agent Orange. MSNBC (January 26, 2006).

The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM or U of M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ...

External links

Further reading

  • E. Ned Brandt. (2003). Growth Company: Dow Chemical's First Century. Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-426-4
  • Jack Doyle. (2004). "Trespass Against Us: Dow Chemical and the Toxic Century." Common Courage Press. ISBN 1-56751-268-2
Dow Chemical Co.

Corporate Directors: Arnold Allemang | Jacqueline Barton | J. Michael Cook | Willie Davis | Jeff Fettig | Barbara Franklin | Andrew Liveris | Keith McKennon | Pedro Reinhard | James Ringler | Harold Shapiro | Ruth Shaw | William Stavropoulos | Paul Stern Corporate redirects here. ... In relation to a company, a director is an officer of the company charged with the conduct and management of its affairs. ... Professor Jacqueline K. Barton is the Arthur and Marian Hanisch Memorial professor of Chemistry at California Institute of Technology. ... William Delford Davis was born July 24, 1934 in Lisbon, Louisiana. ... Barbara Hackman Franklin Barbara H. Franklin being sworn in Barbara Hackman Franklin (born 1940) was the 29th United States Secretary of Commerce [1] and was the highest-ranking woman in the Administration of President George H.W. Bush. ... J. Pedro Reinhard has been a director of The Coca-Cola Company since 2003. ... Harold Tafler Shapiro (born June 8, 1935) is a former president of Princeton University and the University of Michigan. ...

Assets & Products: Lorsban | Polystyrene (Styrofoam) | Saran Wrap | Silly Putty | Union Carbide Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate pesticide (C9H11Cl3NO3PS) that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. ... Polystyrene is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum. ... Saran is the trade name for a number of polymers made from vinylidene chloride (especially polyvinylidene chloride or PVDC), along with other monomers. ... Silly putty dripping through a hole Silly Putty (originally called nutty putty, and also known as Potty Putty) is a silicone plastic clay, marketed as a toy for children by Binney & Smith Inc. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...

Annual Revenue: $40.2 billion USD ( 23% FY 2004) | Employees: 43,203 | Stock Symbols: NYSE: DOW | Website: www.dow.com The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Image File history File links Green_Arrow_Up. ... A fiscal year (or financial year or accounting reference date) is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial reports in businesses and other organizations. ... This article is about the stock exchange itself. ...


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