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Encyclopedia > Dow Chemical Company
The Dow Chemical Co.
Type Public (NYSE: DOW)
Founded 1897
Headquarters Midland, Michigan, USA
Key people Andrew N. Liveris, CEO, President, & Chairman of the Board of Directors
Industry Manufacturing
Products Chemicals, Plastics, Agricultural Products, and other Specialized Products & Services
Revenue $49.124 Billion USD (2006)
Net income $3.724 Billion USD (2006)
Employees 42,578 (2006)
Website www.dow.com

The Dow Chemical Company (NYSEDOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Dow Chemical Company logo, deeming fair use This work is copyrighted. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. ... Midland is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan in the Northern Lower Peninsula. ... Andrew Liveris is a Greek-Australian-American executive from Australia and is the Chairman, CEO and President of The Dow Chemical Company based in the United States. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Concept B is a specialization of concept A if and only if: every instance of concept B is also an instance of concept A; and there are instances of concept A which are not instances of concept B. For instance, Bird is a specialization of Animal because every bird is... Services are: plural of service Tertiary sector of industry IRC services Web services the name of a first-class cricket team in India This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article is about work. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... The Tokyo Stock Exchange ), or TSE, is one of the largest stock exchange markets in the world by monetary volume located in Tokyo, Japan, second only to the New York Stock Exchange. ... A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Midland is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan in the Northern Lower Peninsula. ...

Contents

Overview

The Dow Chemical Company is currently the second largest chemical manufacturer in the world (after BASF)[1]. Dow Chemical is a major provider of plastics, chemicals, and agricultural products. With presence in more than 175 countries and employing 43,000 people worldwide, Dow holds itself to be one of the top world companies in innovation and research and development,[citation needed] with more than $1 billion annual expenditure in R&D and the single largest concentration of PhD's and Engineers in the United States.[citation needed] Its stated mission under the current CEO, Andrew Liveris, is to "To constantly improve what is essential to human progress by mastering science and technology" with the vision "To be the largest, most profitable, and most respected chemical company in the world". This article is about the German chemical company. ...


The company was founded in 1897 by Canadian-born chemist Herbert Henry Dow, who had invented a new method of extracting the bromine that was trapped underground in brine at Midland, Michigan.[1] While at first the company sold only bleach and potassium bromide, Dow today has seven major operating segments, with a wide variety of products offered by each.[2] The company's 2005 sales totaled $46.3 billion, with a net income of $4.5 billion. Traded on the New York Stock Exchange, as of 2005 Dow has about 105,000 shareholders.[3] Herbert Henry Dow (1866 — 1930) was a U.S. (Canadian-born) chemical industrialist. ... Bromo redirects here. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ... Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the 1800s. ... USD redirects here. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ...


While Dow has a world wide presence both financially and due to product coverage, most consumers are aware of the company from press-releases rather than product usage. In recent times, Dow has been called a "Chemical companies' Chemical company" in that most of their product is sold to other manufacturers rather than to end users. Dow had periods of selling into the Human and Animal Health markets as well as into the Consumer Products market (the latter most visible with Saran Wrap), but all of these facilities have been sold over the years.


Dow Chemical is an active member of the American Chemistry Council, and an active partner in different programs and initiatives in both the World Bank and United Nations.


Products

Dow is the world's largest producer of plastics, including polystyrene, polyurethanes, polyethylene, polypropylene, and synthetic rubbers. It is also a major producer of the chemicals calcium chloride, ethylene oxide, and various acrylates, surfactants, and cellulose resins. It produces many agricultural chemicals, perhaps being most famous for its pesticide Lorsban.[4] Its most well-known consumer products include Styrofoam brand insulation. Former Dow product lines, Saran wrap and Ziploc bags, Scrubbing Bubbles have been sold to S. C. Johnson & Son. For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Polystyrene (IPA: ) is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... This does not cite any references or sources. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... Acrylate monomers are esters that contain vinyl groups, that is, two carbon atoms double bonded to each other, directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. ... Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate pesticide (C9H11Cl3NO3PS) that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. ... In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. ... Styrofoam is a trademark name for polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ... Saran is the trade name for a number of polymers made from vinylidene chloride (especially polyvinylidene chloride or PVDC), along with other monomers. ... Ziploc is a brand of disposable, re-sealable plastic bags and containers originally developed by Dow Chemical Company, and now produced by S. C. Johnson & Son. ... S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. ...


Performance plastics

Performance Plastics make up 25% of Dow's sales[5], with many products designed for the automotive and construction industries. The plastics include polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, as well as the polystyrene most often seen in StyrofoamTM insulating material. A complete range of epoxy resin intermediates and products are manufactured by Dow, including bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. Polyurethane, polyether polyols and specialty acrylates are all derived from ethylene oxide (EO). The SaranTM range of resins and films is based on polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC). The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of motor vehicles. ... Construction on the North Bytown Bridge in Ottawa, Canada. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... A polyolefin is a polymer produced from a simple olefin, or alkene as a monomer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... Polystyrene (IPA: ) is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ... Styrofoam is a trademark name for polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... This article needs to be wikified. ... Epichlorohydrin is reactive organic compound. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Acrylate monomers are esters that contain vinyl groups, that is, two carbon atoms double bonded to each other, directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... Saran may refer to: Locations: Saran, Kazakhstan (Сарань), a city in Kazakhstan Saran, Loiret, a commune of the Loiret Department, France Saran District, Bihar, India Saran Division, Bihar, India People: Saran, a clan of Jats in India Saran (director), a Tamil film director Shyam Saran (b. ... Polyvinylidene chloride is a polymer derived from vinylidene chloride. ...


Performance chemicals

The Performance Chemicals (17% of sales) segment produces materials for water purification, pharmaceuticals, paper coatings, paints and advanced electronics. Major product lines include nitroparaffins such as nitromethane, used in the pharmaceutical industry and manufactured by ANGUS Chemical Company [6], a wholly owned subsidiary of the Dow Chemical Company. Important polymers include DowlexTM ion exchange resins, acrylic and polystyrene latex, as well as CarbowaxTM polyethylene glycols. Specialty chemicals are used as starting materials for production of agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... A coating is a covering that is applied to an object to protect it or change its appearance. ... The field of electronics is the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... Ion exchange resin beads An ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1-2 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. ... The acryl group is one of the functional groups sorted in the chemical class of acryl where one of four hydrogen atoms in ethene is replaced with a different functional group. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ...


Agricultural sciences

Agricultural Sciences (Dow AgroSciences) provides 7% of sales, and are responsible for a range of insecticide s (such as LorsbanTM), herbicides and fungicides. Genetically modified plant seeds are also an important, growing area. Dow AgroSciences sells seeds comercially under the following brands: Mycogen (grain corn, silage corn, sunflowers, alfalfa, and sorghum, Atlas (soybean) and PhytoGen (cotton). Dow AgroSciences is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Dow Chemical Company specializing in not only agricultural chemicals such as pesticides, but also seeds and biotechnology solutions. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate pesticide (C9H11Cl3NO3PS) that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ...


Basic plastics

Basic plastics (26% of sales) end up in everything from diaper liners to beverage bottles and oil tanks. Products are based on the three major polyolefins – polystyrene (such as StyronTM resins), polyethylene and polypropylene. Baby cloth diaper filled with extra cloth. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ...


Basic chemicals

Basic chemicals (12% of sales) are used internally by Dow as raw materials, and are also sold worldwide. Markets include dry cleaning, paints and coatings, snow and ice control and the food industry. Major products include ethylene glycol, caustic soda, chlorine, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, for making PVC) and calcium chloride. Ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide and the derived alcohols ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are major feedstocks for the manufacture of plastics such as polyurethane and PET. Flash point Non-flammable. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... Flash point −37 °C Autoignition temperature 747 °C Explosive limits 2. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. ... A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. ...


Hydrocarbons and energy

The Hydrocarbons and Energy operating segment (13% of sales) oversees energy management at Dow, succeeding in raising energy efficiency by 92% since 1990.[7] Fuels and oil-based raw materials are also procured. Major feedstocks for Dow are provided by this group, including ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene, benzene and styrene. Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... C8H8 redirects here. ...


History

Early history


The company originally sold only bleach and potassium bromide, achieving a daily bleach output of 72 tons a day in 1902. Early in the company's existence, a group of British manufacturers attempted to drive Dow out of the bleach business by cutting prices. Dow survived by cutting prices in response and, although losing about $90,000 in income, began to diversify its product line.[8] In 1905 German bromide producers drastically reduced their price of bromides in the US in an effort to prevent Dow from expanding its sales of bromides in Europe. Dow was able to purchase German-made bromides in the US, ship them back to Europe and still sell them at a lower price than the German producers were charging. [9] Even in its early history, the company set a tradition of rapidly diversifying its product line. Within twenty years, Dow had become a major producer of agricultural chemicals, elemental chlorine, phenol and other dyestuffs, and magnesium metal. This article is about the chemical whitener. ... Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the 1800s. ... Product lining is the marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products. ... Product lining is the marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Diversification into plastics


In the 1930s, Dow began production of plastic resins, which would grow to become one of the corporation's major businesses. Its first plastic products were ethylcellulose, made in 1935, and polystyrene, made in 1937. Polystyrene (IPA: ) is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ...


WW II - Magnesium and the beginnings of geographic diversification


In 1940-1, Dow built its first plant to produce magnesium extracted from seawater rather than underground brine. This marked the first time man had 'mined the ocean for metal'. [2] General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...


Growth of this business made Dow a strategically important business during World War II, as magnesium became important in fabricating lightweight parts for aircraft. Also during the war, Dow and Corning began their joint venture, Dow Corning, to produce silicones for military and later civilian use. In 1942 Dow began its foreign expansion with the formation of Dow Chemical of Canada in Sarnia, Ontario to produce styrene for use in styrene-butadiene synthetic rubber. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Flying machine redirects here. ... Corning Glass Works (NYSE: GLW) is a U.S. manufacturer of glass, ceramics and related materials, primarily for technical and scientific applications. ... Dow Corning is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, USA. Dow Corning specializes in silicon and silicone-based technology, offering more than 7,000 products and services. ... Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ... Sarnia is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (city population 71,419, census area population 88,793, in 2006). ... C8H8 redirects here. ... Styrene Butadiene SBR (SBR) is a polymeride consisting of styrene and butadiene. ... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ...


Freeport - Texas Operations


In 1940, Dow began plant construction in Freeport, Texas. This is now the home to Dow's largest site - and one of the largest integrated chemical manufacturing sites in the world. One of the first plants to come on stream was the first facility to extract magnesium from seawater. The site grew quickly - with power, chlorine, caustic soda and ethylene also soon in production. [3]


Based on 2002-2003 data, the Freeport plants (known as Texas Operations internally) produced 27 billion pounds of product - or 21% of Dow's global production. [4]


Post WW II


In the post-war era, Dow began expanding outside North America, founding its first overseas subsidiary in Japan in 1952, with several other nations following rapidly thereafter. Based largely on its growing plastics business, it opened a consumer products division beginning with Saran wrap in 1953. Based on its growing chemicals and plastics businesses, Dow's sales exceeded $1 billion in 1964, $2 billion in 1971, and $10 billion in 1980.


The 1990's - transition from geographic alignment to global business units


In the early 1990s, Dow embarked on a major structural reorganization. The former reporting hierarchy was geographic based, with the regional president reporting directly to the overall company President and CEO. The new organization groups together the same businesses from different sites, irrespective of which region they belong (i.e. the vice president for Polystyrene is now in charge of these plants all over the word), almost reducing the regional president to a figurehead.


Bill Stavropoulos served as President and Chief Executive Officer from 1995-2000 and again from 2002-2004. He relinquished his board seat on April 1, 2006, having been a director since 1990 and chairman since 2000. During his first tenure, he led the purchase of Union Carbide which had proven controversial, as it was initially blamed for poor results under his successor as CEO Mike Parker. Parker was dismissed and Stavropoulos returned from retirement to lead a turnaround of Dow.[5] Union Carbide Corporation (Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, and currently has more than 3,800 employees. ...


Today, Dow is the world's largest producer of plastics; with its 2001 acquisition of Union Carbide, it has become a major player in the petrochemical industry as well. Union Carbide Corporation (Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, and currently has more than 3,800 employees. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ...


On August 31, 2006 Dow announced that it had plans to close facilities at three locations:[10] is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • It will shut down all of its production in Sarnia, Ontario by the end of 2008. Sarnia had been Dow's first manufacturing site in Canada. In 1942, the Canadian government invited Dow to build a plant there to produce styrene (an essential raw material used to make synthetic rubber for World War II). Dow then built a polystyrene plant in 1947. Up to the early 1990s, the Chemical Valley site contained numerous plants, while Dow Canada's headquarters were located at the Modeland Centre, and a new River Centre complex was opened which housed Research and Development. Since then, several plants on the site have been dismantled and Dow Canada headquarters were moved to Calgary, Alberta, while the Dow Fitness Centre was donated to YMCA of Sarnia-Lambton, and the Modeland Centre was sold to Lambton County and the City of Sarnia. In 2000, Sarnia Site was the location of a pilot plant for ethylene-styrene interpolymer (ESI) but ending up production never progressed and the project was ended. In 2002, the old steam plant was demolished and land on the site was sold to TransAlta which built a new natural gas power plant. As of 2003, the remaining plants on the site produce Polystyrene, Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), Epoxy Resins, Polyols (Propylene Oxide Derivatives), and Latexes.[6]
  • One plant (Dow terminology for a production unit) at its site in Porto Marghera (Venice), Italy, which had been shut down for planned maintenance earlier that month, will not be restarted.
  • Two plants at its major site in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta were to be shut down by the end of October 2006.

Sarnia is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (city population 71,419, census area population 88,793, in 2006). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Highway 40 is the main North-South Provincial highway in Southwestern Ontario, linking Chatham, Ontario to Sarnia, Ontario. ... This article is about the Canadian city. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... TransAlta Corporation (TSX: TA) (NYSE: TAC) is a Canadian energy company based in Calgary, Alberta. ... Fort Saskatchewan is a city of 14,686 (2005 census) located 25 km northeast of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...

Environmental Record

Based on year 2000 data,[11] researchers at the Political Economy Research Institute determined that Dow Chemical was ranked eleventh among corporations in a measure of toxicity of airborne pollutants emitted in the United States, releasing more than 14 million pounds of toxins into American air in that year. (The statistics given are not correlated to the volume of production.) [12] According to United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) documents Dow has some responsibility for 96 of the United States' worst Superfund toxic waste dumps, in tenth place by number of sites. One of these, a mining site, is listed as the sole responsibility of Dow: all the rest are shared with numerous other companies. Fifteen sites have been listed by the EPA as finalized (cleaned up) and 69 are listed as "construction complete", meaning that all required plans and equipment for cleanup are in place.[13] EPA redirects here. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... Toxic waste is waste material, often in chemical form, that can cause death or injury to living creatures. ...


Union Carbide Bhopal disaster

Main article: Bhopal disaster

In 1984, a chemical factory operated by Union Carbide, an American company, leaked 40 tonnes of lethal methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas into the surrounding environment, which has caused more than 20,000 disabilities. In 1999, Dow purchased Union Carbide, which is now a wholly owned subsidiary. Dow denies legal liability for the disaster, since it did not own or operate the Bhopal factory. Because of this disaster, there are thousands of people who are sick today and have been dying. [14][15] The Bhopal Disaster took place in the early hours of the morning of December 3, 1984,[1] in the heart of the city of Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... Union Carbide Corporation (Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, and currently has more than 3,800 employees. ... Methyl isocyanates structure 3D model of the MIC molecule Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula C2H3NO, arranged as H3C-N=C=O. Synonyms are isocyanatomethane, methyl carbylamine, and MIC. It was discovered in 1888 as an ester of isocyanic acid. ... In business, a subsidiary is a company controlled by another company or corporation. ...


Dioxins in Michigan

Starting in the early 2000s, residents living along the Tittabawassee River near the company's headquarters in Midland and nearby Saginaw counties in Michigan filed a class-action lawsuit against the company for dioxin contamination (levels of dioxins were found above those allowed by the Department of Environmental Quality) in the soil on the riverbed and along its shores. As of June 2005, the case is still awaiting class certification. [7] The Tittabawassee River is a stream which flows in a generally southward direction through the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Saginaw County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ...


Chlorpyrifos

Chlorpyrifos, marketed by Dow as Dursban, is well known as a home and garden insecticide, and until 2000 it was one of the most widely used household pesticide in the US. The pesticide is also a nerve toxin and suspected endocrine disruptor and has been associated with carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and acute toxicity. One study claims that Dow has contributed to 80% of the Chlorpyrifos burden of the US. Chlorpyrifos Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate insecticide (C9H11Cl3NO3PS) that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Endocrine disruptors are substances which interfere with the endocrine system by mimicking, blocking or otherwise disrupting the function of hormones. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Acute Toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism, when that organism is exposed to a lethal dose of a substance once. ...


In 1995, Dow was fined $732,000 for not sending the EPA reports it had received on 249 Dursban poisoning incidents. In June 2000, Dow withdrew registration of chlorpyrifos for use in homes and other places where children could be exposed, and severely restricted its use on crops. The company, however, continues to market Dursban in industrializing countries, including India, where Dow's sales literature claimed Dursban has "an established record of safety regarding humans and pets."


In 2003, Dow agreed to pay $2 million - the largest penalty ever in a pesticide case - to the state of New York, in response to a lawsuit filed by the Attorney General to end Dow's illegal advertising of Dursban as "safe".


Energy Conservation

On 2007, Dow was awarded an American Chemical Council (ACC) award of 'Exceptional Merit' in recognition of its longstanding energy efficiency and conservation efforts. Between 1995 and 2005, Dow reduced energy intensity (BTU per pound produced) by 22%. This is equivalent to saving enough electricity to power eight million US homes for a year. [8]


Environmental Awards

In 2007, Dow subsidiary Dow Agrosciences won an United Nations Montreal Protocol Innovators Award for its efforts in helping replace methyl bromide - a compound identified as contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer. In addition, Dow Agrosciences won an EPA "Best of the Best" Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award. [9]


Human rights controversies

Breast implants

A major manufacturer of silicone breast implants, Dow Corning was successfully sued in 1977 for damages arising from a woman whose implants ruptured; it was the first such successful suit, and Dow Corning paid $170,000 in a settlement. During the 1980s, Ralph Nader's Public Citizen Health Research Group publicised its belief that the implants were cancer-causing; in December of 1990, an episode of Face to Face with Connie Chung addressed the then-alleged dangers of silicone implants. More lawsuits, as well as Food and Drug Administration reviews, Congressional hearings, and scientific studies took place in the ensuing years; as of December 1991, 137 individual lawsuits were filed against Dow Corning, a figure that would rise to 3,558 in December 1992, and 19,092 by December 1994. Amidst the flurry of lawsuits in May 1995, Dow Corning filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; several judgments against Dow Corning and Dow Chemical were handed down in lawsuits. Breast implant diagram A breast implant is a prosthesis used in cosmetic surgery to enhance the size and shape of ones breasts or to reconstruct the breast (for example, after a mastectomy). ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ... Public Citizen is a U.S. non-governmental organization, founded by Ralph Nader in 1971 and based in Washington, DC. Its activities span across a diverse range of issues, including energy policy, trade policy, campaign finance reform and accountability, consumer protection, medical malpractice, and public health. ... Constance Yu-Hwa Chung Povich (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born August 20, 1946) is an American journalist who has appeared on many USA television news networks. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code governs the process of reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. ...


Several panels of independent experts, including the Institute of Medicine, have since found that silicone breast implants do not appear to cause any systemic diseases or cancers. [16] [17] The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ...


Napalm

During the Vietnam War, Dow became the sole supplier of napalm to the United States military. Napalm, an incendiary liquid used as a weapon in Vietnam, led to human casualties that were widely displayed in the news media. Protests of Dow took place at many colleges but Dow's board of directors voted to continue production of napalm (after attempting to persuade the U.S. Department of Defense to accept responsibility for napalm and exculpate Dow's management). Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... For the 2008 film of the same name, see Incendiary (film). ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...


Agent Orange

Agent Orange, a chemical defoliant containing dioxin, was also manufactured by Dow for use by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War; the dioxin from the defoliant made its way into the food chain and was linked to a major increase in birth defects among Vietnamese people. In 2005, a lawsuit was filed by Vietnamese victims of Agent Orange against Dow and Monsanto, which also supplied Agent Orange to the military. The companies argued that no link between Agent Orange and the alleged health problems had been proven, and furthermore that the companies are not responsible for the manner in which their products are used by the military.[18] The lawsuit was thrown out.[19] In 2006, a court in South Korea did order Dow and Monsanto to compensate South Korean veterans of the Vietnam War and their families for Agent Orange-related injuries.[20] For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause its leaves to fall off. ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... == HEADLINE TEXT== Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between other species to another within an ecosystem. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... The Republic of Korea Armed Forces (Hangul: 대한민국 êµ­êµ°; Hanja: 大韓民國 國軍; Revised Romanization: Dae-han-min-guk Guk-gun) or ROK Armed Forces, is the armed forces of South Korea. ...


DBCP

Until the late 1970's Dow produced DBCP (1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane), a soil fumigant and nematicide sold under the names the Nemagon and Fumazone. Workers at Dow's DBCP production were made sterile by exposure to DBCP. These male reproductive effects were consistent with animal experiments showing that DBCP sterilized rabbits. The workers successfully sued the company, and most domestic uses of the chemical were banned in 1977. Amid growing concerns over DBCP's effects on male workers, Dow ceased production and reclaimed DBCP that had been shipped to its users. Despite warning from the company about its health effects, Dole Food Company, who was using the chemical on its banana plantations in Latin America, threatened to sue Dow if it stopped DCBP shipments, so Dow shipped half a million gallons of DBCP to Dole, much it reclaimed from other users. Plantation workers who became sterile or were stricken with other maladies subsequently sued both Dow and Dole in Latin American courts, alledging that their ailments were caused by DCBP exposure. While the courts agreed with the workers and awarded them over $600 million in damages, they have been unable to collect payments from the companies. A group of workers then sued in the United States, and on November 5th, 2007, a Los Angeles jury awarded them 3.2 million dollars. Dole and Dow vowed to appeal the decision.[21] 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane (DBCP), better known as DBCP, is the active ingredient in the nematicide Nemagon, also known as Fumazone [1]. It is a soil fumigant once used in American agricutlure. ... A nematicide is a chemical used to kill parasitic nematodes (a phylum of worms). ... Dole Food Company, Inc. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Dow Corning

Main article: Dow Corning

Equally owned by Dow and Corning, Inc. (formerly Corning Glass Works), Dow Corning was founded in 1943 by the two companies as a joint venture. The company's focus is silicon-based products and technology.[22] Dow Corning in turn owns 63% of the Hemlock, Michigan-based Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation, which manufactures polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor chips.[23] Dow Corning is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, USA. Dow Corning specializes in silicon and silicone-based technology, offering more than 7,000 products and services. ... Corning Incorporated NYSE: GLW is an American manufacturer of glass, ceramics and related materials, primarily for industrial and scientific applications. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Hemlock is an unincorporated community located in Saginaw County, Michigan. ... Polycrystalline silicon or polysilicon or poly-Si or simply poly (in context) is a material consisting of multiple small silicon crystals, and has long been used as the conducting gate material in MOSFET and CMOS processing technologies. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ...


Dow Corning manufactured silicone breast implants, which were the cause of controversy and legal liability in the 1980s and 1990s (see below.) Breast implant diagram A breast implant is a prosthesis used in cosmetic surgery to enhance the size and shape of ones breasts or to reconstruct the breast (for example, after a mastectomy). ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. ...


Board of directors

Current members of the board of directors of The Dow Chemical Company are Arnold Allemang (who is also a senior adviser to the company); chemistry professor Jacqueline Barton; former Boeing manager James A. Bell; Whirlpool Corporation chairman and CEO Jeff Fettig; former U.S. Secretary of Commerce Barbara Franklin; Dow chairman and CEO Andrew N. Liveris; Dow CFO Geoffery E. Merszei; Illinois Tool Works Inc. vice chairman James Ringler; Duke Energy Corporation president Ruth Shaw; and Claris Capital chairman Paul Stern (who is Dow's presiding director and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.)[24] Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Professor Jacqueline K. Barton is the Arthur and Marian Hanisch Memorial professor of Chemistry at California Institute of Technology. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... James A. Bell became the interim President and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing Company on March, 2005, following the resignation of Harry Stonecipher. ... Whirlpool Corporation (NYSE: WHR) is the worlds leading manufacturer and marketer of major home appliances,with annual sales of approximately $18 billion, more than 73,000 employees, and more than 70 manufacturing and technology research centers around the world. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Barbara Hackman Franklin Barbara H. Franklin being sworn in Barbara Hackman Franklin (born 1940) was the 29th United States Secretary of Commerce [1] and was the highest-ranking woman in the Administration of President George H.W. Bush. ... Andrew Liveris is a Greek-Australian-American executive from Australia and is the Chairman, CEO and President of The Dow Chemical Company based in the United States. ... Duke Energy NYSE: DUK, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is an energy company with assets in the United States (primarily North and South Carolina), Canada and Latin America. ... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been...


2007 dismissals

On April 12, Dow dismissed two senior executives for "unauthorized discussions with third parties about the potential sale of the company." The two figures are executive vice president Romeo Kreinberg, and director and former CFO J. Pedro Reinhard. Dow claims they were secretly in contact with J. P. Morgan; at the same time, a story surfaced in Britain's Sunday Express regarding a possible leveraged buyout of Dow. The two executives have since filed lawsuits claiming they were fired for being a threat to CEO Liveris, and that the allegations were concocted as a pretext.[25] “CFO” redirects here. ... This article is about the financier. ... The Daily Express is a British newspaper, currently tabloid, and it is owned by Richard Desmond. ... A leveraged buyout (or LBO, or highly-leveraged transaction (HLT), or bootstrap transaction) occurs when a financial sponsor gains control of a majority of a target companys equity through the use of borrowed money or debt. ...


Major Sponsorships

In September 2004, the company obtained the naming rights to the Saginaw County Event Center in Saginaw, Michigan; the center is now called the Dow Event Center. The Saginaw Spirit (of the Ontario Hockey League) plays at the Center, which also hosts events such as professional wrestling and live theater.[26][27] Location of Saginaw within Saginaw County, Michigan Coordinates: , Country State County Saginaw Settled 1819 Incorporated 1857 Government  - Type  - Mayor Carol B. Cottrell  - City Manager Darnell Earley Area  - City  18. ... Main Entrance at nighttime The Dow Event Center (formerly known as The Saginaw County Event Center, formerly known as The Saginaw Civic Center) is located in downtown Saginaw, Michigan. ... Conference: Western Division: West Founded: 1943 Home Ice: Wendler Arena at The Dow Event Center Capacity: 5,497 Ice Size: 192 x 85 City: Saginaw, Michigan, USA Colours: Midnight blue, red, silver, and yellow Head Coach: Bob Mancini General Manager: Bob Mancini The Saginaw Spirit are an ice hockey team... OHL All-Star Game 2006 Opening Face Off. ... For the video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ...


In October 2006 the company bought the naming rights to the stadium used by the Single-A Minor League baseball team located in its hometown of Midland, Michigan. The stadium (which opens in April 2007) is called Dow Diamond. The Dow Foundation played a key role in bringing the team, the Great Lakes Loons, to the city. For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... Dow Diamond is a Minor League baseball stadium located in Midland, Michigan. ... Class-Level A Minor League affiliations Midwest League Eastern Division Major League affiliation Los Angeles Dodgers Tampa Bay Devil Rays (2004-2005) New York Yankees (2003) Houston Astros (1999-2002) Boston Red Sox (1995-1998) St. ...


The company also sponsors a global running relay to highlight the need for better drinking water in locations around the globe. The run will roughly follow the 41st North parallel and cover nearly 12,000 miles. The run is organized by the Blue Planet Run Foundation.


Outlook

Dow CEO Andrew N. Liveris called 2005 the company's "best year ever" with operating profits of $5.4 billion, a jump of 56.5% compared with the previous year. [28] Net income rose more than 60% to $4.5 billion, on sales of $46.3 billion. 2006 looks as if it could be even better, with first-quarter net earnings of $1.2 billion. [29] All this is occurring in the context of adverse operating conditions, caused by high energy and raw material costs, and the effects of two damaging hurricanes. Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Andrew Liveris is a Greek-Australian-American executive from Australia and is the Chairman, CEO and President of The Dow Chemical Company based in the United States. ...


Liveris supports the vertically integrated approach used at Dow, which produces everything from basic chemical feedstocks to high value products such as pesticides and reverse osmosis membranes. These value-adding product chains, along with Dow's wide product range, help the company to weather the storms of the global economy. Despite this, high energy and feedstock costs may begin to take their toll, particularly if global demand begins to fall just as supply is rising. A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ...


Like many chemical companies, Dow is facing pressures of regulation in the US and Europe, particularly as the EU introduces its new REACH policy. Litigation costs in the US taken over by Dow as a result of its 2001 takeover of Union Carbide also remain a concern. If it considered as a single state, the economy of the European Unions twenty-seven member states is currently the worlds second largest economy. ... Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) is a piece of legislation in the European Union covering the production and use of chemical substances. ... Union Carbide Corporation (Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, and currently has more than 3,800 employees. ...


For these reasons the company is looking to the Middle East and Asia for new projects. In Kuwait , Dow is constructing (with PIC of Kuwait) a new world-scale ethane cracker for production of ethylene, along with an ethylene oxide/ethylene glycol plant and (for 2008) a facility for production of aromatic hydrocarbons. In Oman, the company is working with the Oman government to build a new world-scale polyethylene plant. In China, the company is collaborating with Shenhua Group (the country's largest coal mining company) to improve catalyst efficiency to allow viable conversion of coal to olefins. Dow is also seeking to expand its R&D presence in Asia, adding 600 jobs in Shanghai by the end of 2007, and the company may open up a large R&D center in India. In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules (e. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shenhua Group is a state-owned mining and energy company, which operates Shenfu Dongsheng coalfield in China. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


The joint ventures planned for Asia are typical of Dow's "asset-light" approach, which works by offering a combination of intellectual property and money in exchange for a share in a world-scale production facility. At the same time, the company is considering selling a share of some of its existing assets in order to free up cash.


In June 2006 Liveris announced Dow's safety and environmental goals for 2015: [29] For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... For the video game developer, see 2015, Inc. ...

  • 75% reduction in environmental, health and safety indicators from 2005. The company aims to have no fatalities, and a reduction in injuries, spillages and leaks.
  • 25% increase in energy efficiency.
  • 2.5% annual reduction in greenhouse gas emissions intensity.

Liveris expects these goals to be reached predominantly with fossil fuels, through energy conservation and reduction of energy intensity, as he does not expect alternative energy to play a major role for at least 10-20 years. In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or, when multiplied by 100, is given as a percentage. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nations economy. ... Alternative energy is energy derived from sources that do not harm the environment or deplete the Earths natural resources. ...


The Human Element

The Dow Chemical Company has from the 20th of June 2006 run several advertisements in a variety of media, starting with a video campaign and under the theme "The Human Element", designed to increase the awareness of the human aspect of the company, to highlight its vision of addressing some of the most pressing economic, social and environmental concerns facing the global community in the coming decade.[30] The advertisements feature a human face with 7E+09 at the bottom. The face is behind a fake periodic table entry, labeled "Hu", symbolizing the new element, the human element.[31] June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ADS may stand for: Active Defense Systems Active Denial System Active Directory Service - a directory implementation by Microsoft Advance Direction Sign Advanced Design System - electronic design software from Agilent Technologies Advanced Distributed Simulation Advantage Database Server - a client/server database created by Extended Systems Aerial Delivery Sling After Dinner Speech... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Hall of Fame Inventor Profile. National Inventors Hall of Fame.
  2. ^ Corporate Profile. The Dow Chemical Company.
  3. ^ Fast Facts. The Dow Chemical Company.
  4. ^ Corporate Profile. The Dow Chemical Company.
  5. ^ Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 84, Issue 22 (May 29, 2006), pp 10-15
  6. ^ ANGUS Chemical Company. The Dow Chemical Company.
  7. ^ Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 84, Issue 22 (May 29, 2006), pp 10-15
  8. ^ Dow Chemical. University of Michigan Department of Geography.
  9. ^ Brandt, E.N. (1997). Growth Company: Dow Chemical's First Century. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-426-4. 
  10. ^ Dow Announces Plant Closures To Strengthen Competitive Position. The Dow Chemical Company (August 31, 2006).
  11. ^ [http://www.peri.umass.edu/Technical-Notes.264.0.html Political Economy Research Institute Toxic 100 Corporate Toxics Information Project Technical Notes retrieved 12 Nov 2007
  12. ^ Political Economy Research Institute
  13. ^ Center for Public Integrity
  14. ^ On This Day: December 3, 1984. British Broadcasting Corporation.
  15. ^ Response: Union Carbide and Dow Chemical. British Broadcasting Corporation (November 25, 2004).
  16. ^ "Panel Confirms No Major Illness Tied to Implants" (June 21, 1999), The New York Times
  17. ^ Chronology of silicone breast implants. Frontline
  18. ^ Agent Orange lawsuit opens in US. BBC (March 1, 2005).
  19. ^ US won't compensate Vietnam's Agent Orange victims: official. Todayonline.com (June 6, 2006).
  20. ^ Court rules against U.S. firms on Agent Orange. MSNBC (January 26, 2006).
  21. ^ "Dole must pay farmworkers $3.2 million", John Spano, Los Angeles Times, November 6th, 2007.
  22. ^ About Dow Corning. Dow Corning.
  23. ^ Wade, Cheryl (June 24, 2006). Governor visits HSC; expansion plans on schedule. Midland Daily News.
  24. ^ Board of Directors. The Dow Chemical Company.
  25. ^ ""Former Dow executives fight back"", Chemical and Engineering News: 12, May 14, <http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news/85/i20/8520notw6.html>
  26. ^ The Dow Event Center. The Dow Chemical Company.
  27. ^ Welcome to the Dow Event Center. Dow Event Center.
  28. ^ "Top 50 Chemical Producers", Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 84, Issue 20 (May 15, 2006), pp 10-15
  29. ^ a b "Liveris Tells It Like It Is", Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 84, Issue 22 (May 29, 2006), pp 10-15
  30. ^ Dow Chemical Launches "The Human Element" Campaign. The Dow Chemical Company.
  31. ^ Dow Chemical Unveils the Human Element. Ainsley Gibson, posted July 5, 2006.

The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... Chemical & Engineering News is a weekly chemistry news magazine published by the American Chemical Society. ...

External links

It has been suggested that GStock be merged into this article or section. ...

Advocacy

Dow Chemical is referred to in a song by Blackstar called Another World. Wikinews has related news: HUD hoaxer calls attention to lack of affordable housing The Yes Men are a group of beloved culture jamming activists who practice what they call identity correction by pretending to be powerful people or spokespersons for prominent organizations. ...


Further reading

  • E. Ned Brandt. (2003). Growth Company: Dow Chemical's First Century. Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-426-4
  • Jack Doyle. (2004). "Trespass Against Us: Dow Chemical and the Toxic Century." Common Courage Press. ISBN 1-56751-268-2

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dow Chemical Company: Information from Answers.com (2239 words)
In 1942 Dow began its foreign expansion with the formation of Dow Chemical of Canada in Sarnia, Ontario to produce styrene for use in styrene-butadiene synthetic rubber.
Dow Chemical had no affiliation with Union Carbide at the time of the disaster; however, in 1999, Dow purchased Union Carbide, which is now a wholly-owned subsidiary.
Dow is also seeking to expand its RandD presence in Asia, adding 600 jobs in Shanghai by the end of 2007, and the company may open up a large RandD center in India.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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