First given earthworks during the American Civil War, the high ground west of Dover, now called Dover Western Heights, was properly fortified in 1804 when Lieutenant-Colonel William Twiss built the Citadel at the western end, North Centre Bastion to the north, and Drop Redoubt overlooking the town, with the unique triple spiral staircase, the Grand Shaft, linking barracks on the hill to the town below.
Much of the site is open as a country park, though the Grand Shaft is only open occasionally, and the Citadel is now a Young Offenders Institution and so is off limits.
Western Heights Today (http://www.western-heights.com)
At the 2001 census, the town of Dover proper had a population of 28,156 inhabitants, while the population of the whole urban area of Dover, as calculated by the Office for National Statistics, was 39,078 inhabitants.
The town is the administrative centre of the Dover district.
In 1216, Dover was attacked by the French and successfully defended by Hubert de Burgh.
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