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Encyclopedia > Dounreay

Dounreay (Ordnance Survey Grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. The castle, however, is within grounds used by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment) and the Ministry of Defence (HMS Vulcan). It is famous as the site of five nuclear reactors, three owned and operated by the UKAEA and two by the Ministry of Defence. Image produced from the Ordnance Survey Get-a-map service. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... The main gatehouse of Harlech Castle, Wales. ... A coastal beach in the Philippines. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic) is a traditional county and former administrative county within the Highland area of Scotland. ... The Highland unitary authority area (Roinn na Gàidhealtachd in Gaelic) is a local government area in the Scottish Highlands and the largest local government area in Scotland. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD, pronounced em-oh-dee) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... Core of a nuclear reactor A nuclear power station. ...


The nuclear power establishment was built on the site of a World War II airfield, called HMS Tern (II). The airfield was transferred to the Admiralty by RAF Coastal Command in 1944, as a satellite of HMS Tern at Twatt in the Orkney Isles. It never saw any action during the war and was placed into care and maintenance in 1949. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Coastal Command was an organization within the Royal Air Force tasked with protecting the United Kingdom from naval threats. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ...


Dounreay is near the A836 road, about 9 miles (14 km) west of the town of Thurso, which grew rapidly when the research establishment was developed during the mid 20th century. The establishment has remained a major element in the economy of Thurso and Caithness since that period. The A836 road is entirely within the Highland area of Scotland, and 129 miles (208 km) long. ... A mile is a unit of distance (or, in physics terminology, length) currently defined as 5,280 feet, 1,760 yards, or 63,360 inches. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... This article refers to the town in Scotland. ...

Contents


Etymology

According to one story the name Dounreay came about after a local with a strong accent tried to pronounce Down Reay to a map maker (Down Reay being down the road from the village of Reay, with the now defunct post office at the entrance to the reactor establishment having had the correct name, Down Reay, above its door). Reay (Ordnance Survey grid reference NC964647) is a village which has grown around Sandside Bay, Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... Small-town post office and town hall in Lockhart, Alabama A post office is a facility (in most countries, a government one) where the public can purchase postage stamps for mailing correspondence or merchandise, and also drop off or pick up packages or other special-delivery items. ...


Robert Gordon's map of Caithness, 1642, uses Dounrae as the name of the castle. Robert Gordon (1668-1731) was born in Aberdeen. ...


Watson's The Celtic Place-names of Scotland gives the origin as Dúnrath, and suggests that it may be a reference to a broch. This is the commonly accepted toponymy. Watson is the name of several places in the United States: Watson, Arkansas Watson, Illinois Watson, Louisiana Watson, Minnesota Watson, Missouri Watson, New York Watson may also refer to a software application: Karelia Watson - an application for the Macintosh platform Intellext Watson - an application for the Windows platform The following... Dun Carloway broch, Lewis, Scotland The Broch is an Iron Age dry stone tower of a type which is unique to Scotland. ...


Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment

Dounreay in 2006.
Dounreay in 2006.

Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), was the site of the UKAEA fast breeder reactor (FBR) power station program. Three nuclear reactors were built there by the UKAEA, two of them FBRs plus a thermal research reactor used to test materials for the program, and also fabrication and reprocessing facilities for the materials test rigs and for fuel for the FBRs. Image File history File links DounreayJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Image File history File links DounreayJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the United Kingdom. ... // The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ... Core of a nuclear reactor A nuclear power station. ...


The first of the Dounreay reactors to achieve criticality was the Dounreay Materials Test Reactor (DMTR), in May 1958. This reactor was used to test the performance of materials under intense neutron irradiation, particularly those intended for fuel cladding and other structural uses in a fast neutron reactor core. Test pieces were encased in uranium-bearing alloy to increase the already high neutron flux of the DIDO class reactor, and then chemically stripped of this coating after irradiation. DMTR was closed in 1969, when materials testing work was consolidated at Harwell Laboratory. A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. ... Aeneid, Book I, Death of Dido. ... The Atomic Energy Research Establishment near Harwell, Oxfordshire was the main centre for atomic energy research and development in the United Kingdom from the 1940s to the 1990s. ...

Schematic diagram showing the operation of the DFR, a NaK cooled FBR.
Schematic diagram showing the operation of the DFR, a NaK cooled FBR.

The second reactor to achieve criticality (although the first to commence construction) was the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR), which came on-line in November 1959, producing an electrical output of 14 MWe. This power was exported to the National Grid from 14 October 1962 until the reactor was taken offline for decommissioning in 1977. During its operational lifespan, DFR produced over 600 million units of electricity. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x613, 45 KB) Summary Schematic diagram showing the operation of the DFR (Dounreay Fast Reactor), a liquid-sodium cooled fast-breeder type nuclear reactor. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x613, 45 KB) Summary Schematic diagram showing the operation of the DFR (Dounreay Fast Reactor), a liquid-sodium cooled fast-breeder type nuclear reactor. ... NaK is an alloy of sodium and potassium, and particularly one that is liquid at room temperatures. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a type of fast neutron reactor that produces more fissile material than it consumes. ... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... The National Grid is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in Great Britain, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in Great Britain can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


DFR was a loop-type FBR cooled by primary and secondary NaK circuits, with 24 coolant loops, and fueled with uranium oxide. The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a type of fast neutron reactor that produces more fissile material than it consumes. ... NaK is an alloy of sodium and potassium, and particularly one that is liquid at room temperatures. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Uranium, U, 92 Chemical series Actinides Period, Block 7, f Density, Hardness 19050 kg/m3, 6 Appearance silvery-white metal Atomic properties Atomic weight 238. ...


The third and final UKAEA-operated reactor to be built on the Dounreay site was the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which achieved criticality in 1974 and began supplying National Grid power in January 1975. The output of PFR was 250 MWe. The reactor was taken offline in 1994, marking the end of nuclear power generation at the site. PFR was a pool-type FBR, cooled by liquid sodium and fueled with MOX. The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a type of fast neutron reactor that produces more fissile material than it consumes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... The Mox are a alien race that inhabit Planet X, they are divided into clans which seem to be forever at war. ...


Since the reactors have all been shut down and the decommissioning programmes have started, Dounreay has still retained much of its work-force by taking in and reprocessing shipments of spent nuclear fuel and waste.


Nuclear Decommissioning Authority ownership

On 1 April 2005 the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) became the owner of the site, with the UKAEA remaining as operator. Decommissioning of Dounreay is planned to bring the site to an interim care and surveillance state by 2036, and as a brownfield site by 2336, at a total cost of £2.9 billion. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a public body of the United Kingdom formed by the Energy Act, 2004. ... In town planning, brownfield land is an area of land previously used or built upon, as opposed to greenfield land which has never been built upon. ... UKP redirects here. ...


Apart from decomissioning the reactors, reprocessing plant, and associated facilities, there are five main environmental issues to be dealt with:

  • A 65-metre deep shaft used for intermediate level nuclear waste disposal is contaminating some groundwater, and is threatened by coastal erosion in about 300 years time. The shaft was never designed as a waste depository, but was used as such on a very ad-hoc and poorly monitored basis, without reliable waste disposal records being kept. In origin it is a relic of a process by which a waste-discharge pipe was constructed. The pipe was designed to discharge waste into the sea. Historic use of the shaft as a waste depository has resulted in one hydrogen gas explosion [1], and fears that accumulated material might represent a potential critical mass.
  • Irradiated nuclear fuel particles on the seabed near the plant, with some being washed ashore, including a small number on the public Sandside Bay beach. The way these particles escaped the site has not been determined, there are several plausible possibilities.
  • 18,000 cubic metres of radiologically contaminated land, and 28,000 cubic metres of chemically contaminated land.
  • 1,350 cubic metres of high and medium active liquors and 2,550 cubic metres of unconditioned intermediate level nuclear waste in store.
  • 1,500 tonnes of sodium, 900 tonnes of this radioactively contaminated from the Prototype Fast Reactor.

Historically much of Dounreay's nuclear waste management was poor. Until 1990 Dounreay had Crown property status, which effectively meant site operators could not be prosecuted. Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... A sphere of plutonium surrounded by neutron-reflecting blocks of tungsten carbide. ... Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Reay is a village which has grown around Sandside Bay, Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... The Crown is a term which is used to separate the government authority and property of the state in a kingdom from any personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch. ...


HMS Vulcan

Two other reactors on the Dounreay site are Ministry of Defence projects - Rolls-Royce pressurised water reactors (PWRs) used to test the design of reactors for use in the Royal Navy's nuclear-powered submarine fleet. The Ministry of Defence (MOD, pronounced em-oh-dee) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... Rolls-Royce plc (LSE: RR.) (also known as Rolls-Royce Aero Engines) is the second-largest aircraft engine maker in the world, behind General Electrics GE Aircraft Engines division. ... The Rolls-Royce pressurised water reactor (PWR) series has powered British nuclear submarines since the Valiant class, commissioned in 1966. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Gunter Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine Typhoon class ballistic-missile carrying (SSBN) submarine, compared to a man USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine...


See also

Reay (Ordnance Survey grid reference NC964647) is a village which has grown around Sandside Bay, Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... List of nuclear reactors is a comprehensive annotated list of all the nuclear reactors of the world, sorted by country. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dounreay's catalogue of idiocy is a cautionary tale of nuclear danger | Special reports | Guardian Unlimited (1376 words)
Dounreay - or the area surrounding it - cannot be wholly decontaminated.
One former employee claimed that samples from Dounreay's radioactive effluent tanks were collected for analysis with a Wellington boot on a piece of string, as the proper equipment had rusted up.
Dounreay's story also reflects the fact that corner-cutting is a constant temptation, as disposing of waste properly is difficult and expensive.
Dounreay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (954 words)
Dounreay (Ordnance Survey Grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland.
Dounreay is near the A836 road, about 9 miles (14 km) west of the town of Thurso, which grew rapidly when the research establishment was developed during the mid 20th century.
Decommissioning of Dounreay is planned to bring the site to an interim care and surveillance state by 2036, and as a brownfield site by 2336, at a total cost of £2.9 billion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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