FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
January 26, 1880(1880-01-26)April 5, 1964 (aged 84)

Douglas MacArthur in 1945
Place of birth Little Rock, Arkansas
Place of death Washington, D.C.
Allegiance United States of America
Years of service 19001952
Rank General of the Army (US Army)
Field Marshal (Philippine Army)
Commands 2nd Lt US Army Corps of Engineers
Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy
Department of the Philippines
U.S. Army Forces Far East
Supreme Allied Commander Pacific
Battles/wars Vera Cruz Expedition
World War I
World War II
Korean War
Awards Medal of Honor
Distinguished Service Cross (3)
Army Distinguished Service Medal (5)
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Distinguished Flying Cross
Silver Star (7)
Bronze Star
Purple Heart (2)
Order of the Rising Sun
Complete list

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur[1] (January 26, 1880April 5, 1964) was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II, receiving the Medal of Honor for his early service in the Philippines and on the Bataan Peninsula. He was designated to command the proposed invasion of Japan in November 1945, and when that was no longer necessary he officially accepted their surrender on September 2, 1945. General Macarthur is a 5th class municipality in the province of Eastern Samar, Philippines. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Image File history File links MacArthur_Manila. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Little Rock redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Douglas MacArthur in 1944, wearing the headgear of a Philippine Field Marshal A Field Marshal of the Philippines is a rank that existed during the Second World War as a position held by Douglas MacArthur. ... The Philippine Army (PA) is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... The commanding officer of the United States Military Academy is its Superintendent. ... USAFFE (United States Army Forces - Far East) included the Philippine Department, Philippine Army (2 regular and 10 reserve divisions), and the Far East Air Force (formerly, Philippine Army Air Corps). ... The Commanders of World War II were for the most part career officers. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Frank Friday Fletcher Gustavo Mass Manuel Azueta Strength Total: 3948 Landing force: 757 N/A Casualties 22 killed 70 wounded 92 total 152-172 killed 195-250 wounded 347-422 total The United States occupation of Veracruz lasted for six months in response to the... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army, awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ... The Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Army which is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. ... The Navy Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps which was first created in 1919. ... For other uses, see Distinguished Flying Cross. ... The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... For other uses, see Purple Heart (disambiguation). ... Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Philippine Army (PA) is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the highest ranking officer in the United States Army and is member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff [1]. Prior to 1903, the military head of the... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


MacArthur oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. Although criticized for protecting Emperor Hirohito and the imperial family, he is credited with implementing far-ranging democratic changes in that country. He led the United Nations Command forces defending South Korea against the North Korean invasion from 1950 to 1951. On April 11, 1951 MacArthur was removed from command by President Harry S. Truman for publicly disagreeing with Truman's Korean War Policy.[2] Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... The United Nations Command (Korea) is the unified command structure for the multinational military forces supporting the Republic of Korea (South Korea or ROK) during and after the Korean War. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...


MacArthur is credited with the military dictum, "In war, there is no substitute for victory" but he also warned, "The soldier, above all other people, prays for peace, for he must suffer and bear the deepest wounds and scars of war." He fought in three major wars (World War I, World War II, Korean War) and was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Douglas MacArthur, the youngest of three brothers, was born in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1880 in an upstairs room of The Tower Building of the Little Rock Arsenal, which was at the time an active military building, while his parents were briefly stationed there.[3][4] His parents were Lieutenant General (at the time a Captain) Arthur MacArthur, Jr., a recipient of the Medal of Honor, and Mary Pinkney Hardy MacArthur (nicknamed "Pinky") of Norfolk, Virginia. Douglas MacArthur was the grandson of jurist and politician Arthur MacArthur, Sr. He was baptized at Christ Episcopal Church in Little Rock on May 16, 1880. In his memoir Reminiscences, MacArthur wrote that his first memory was the sound of the bugle, and that he had learned to "ride and shoot even before I could read or write—indeed, almost before I could walk and talk." Little Rock redirects here. ... The Tower Building of the Little Rock Arsenal is a building located in MacArthur Park near downtown Little Rock, Arkansas built in 1840 and, originally designed to hold munitions and weapons. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... Arthur MacArthur, Jr. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Arthur MacArthur Arthur MacArthur, Sr. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


MacArthur's father was posted to San Antonio, Texas, in 1893. There, Douglas attended West Texas Military Academy (now known as T.M.I.: The Episcopal School of Texas), where he became an excellent student. MacArthur entered the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1898; accompanied by his mother, who occupied a hotel suite overlooking the grounds of the Academy.[5] (The story is that his mother would use a telescope to look over into his room to ensure that he was studying.) An outstanding cadet, he graduated first in his 93-man class in 1903. For his prowess in sports, military training, and academics he was awarded the coveted title of "First Captain Of The Corps Of Cadets."[6] Only two other students in the history of West Point had surpassed his achievements (Robert E. Lee being one of them). Upon graduation MacArthur was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. San Antonio redirects here. ... USMA redirects here. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is a federal agency made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...

Statue and Memorial at the United States Military Academy
Statue and Memorial at the United States Military Academy

After leaving West Point, MacArthur served his first tour of duty in the Philippines. Later, MacArthur served as an aide-de-camp to his father, and visited Japan during the Russo-Japanese war. In 1906 he was aide-de-camp to President Theodore Roosevelt. Leaving the White House in 1907, MacArthur performed engineering duties in Kansas, Milwaukee, and Washington D.C. until his assignment to the General Staff (1913-1917). USMA redirects here. ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ...


Vera Cruz Expedition

MacArthur distinguished himself by several acts of personal bravery in the Vera Cruz Expedition of 1914, including a railroad chase back to American lines. For these he was recommended for the Medal of Honor, although this was denied on the grounds that his actions had exceeded the scope of his orders. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Frank Friday Fletcher Gustavo Mass Manuel Azueta Strength Total: 3948 Landing force: 757 N/A Casualties 22 killed 70 wounded 92 total 152-172 killed 195-250 wounded 347-422 total The United States occupation of Veracruz lasted for six months in response to the... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


These duties were performed while he was serving on the Army General Staff. MacArthur was later in charge of dealing with the National Guard Bureau within the War Department. In early 1917, prior to U.S. entry into World War I, MacArthur was elevated two grades in rank from major to full colonel. Upon his promotion to full Colonel, he transferred his basic branch from the Corps of Engineers to the Infantry.


World War I

Brigadier General MacArthur at a French Chateau, September 1918
Brigadier General MacArthur at a French Chateau, September 1918

During World War I MacArthur served in France as chief of staff of the 42nd ("Rainbow") Division. Upon his promotion to Brigadier General he became the commander of the 84th Infantry Brigade. A few weeks before the war ended, he became division commander. During the war, MacArthur received two Distinguished Service Crosses, seven Silver Stars, a Distinguished Service Medal,and two Purple Hearts. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1592x2384, 447 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Douglas MacArthur ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1592x2384, 447 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Douglas MacArthur ... The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ... The 42d Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II, and is the division of the New York National Guard. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...


Douglas MacArthur made it his policy to "lead... men from the front." Because of this policy, and the fact that he usually refused to wear a gas mask while the rest of his men would, he had respiratory problems the rest of his life. Still, he was the most decorated officer of the war, and General Charles T. Menoher once said that he was the "greatest fighting man" in the army. Charles T. Menoher (1862-1930) was born in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. ...


Post World War I

In 1919 MacArthur became superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, which had become out of date in many respects and was much in need of reform. MacArthur ordered drastic changes in the tactical, athletic and disciplinary systems; he modernized the curriculum, adding liberal arts, government and economics courses. He also took the first major step to formalizing the as yet unwritten Cadet Honor Code when, in 1922, he formed the Cadet Honor Committee to review all honor allegations.[7] The commanding officer of the United States Military Academy is its Superintendent. ...


In October 1922, MacArthur left West Point for the Philippines. From 1922 to 1930, MacArthur served two tours of duty in the Philippines, the second as commander of the Philippine Department (1928–1930); he also served two tours as commander of corps areas in the states. In 1925, he was promoted to major general, the youngest officer of that rank at the time, and served on the court martial that convicted Brigadier General Billy Mitchell (he later portrayed himself in a non-speaking role in the Otto Preminger movie based on the trial). In 1928, he headed the U.S. Olympic Committee for the Amsterdam games. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other people with the same name, see Billy Mitchell (disambiguation). ... Otto Ludwig Preminger (December 5, 1906 – April 23, 1986) was a film director. ... The Olympisch Stadion in 1928 The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, were celebrated in 1928 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ...


Marriages

General MacArthur was married twice. His first marriage, on February 14, 1922, was to socialite Mrs. Henrietta Louise Cromwell Brooks, the divorced wife of Walter Brooks, Jr., and stepdaughter of Edward T. Stotesbury, a wealthy Philadelphia banker. She obtained a divorce from him in 1929 on the grounds that he had failed to support her. She later married British actor Lionel Atwill, divorcing him in turn in 1943. Brooks died in August 1973. (Her brother James H.R. Cromwell was the first husband of tobacco heiress Doris Duke) is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Lionel Atwill in Mystery of the Wax Museum Lionel Atwill (March 1, 1885 - April 22, 1946) was an English stage and film actor born in Croydon, London. ... James H. R. Cromwell (second from right) James H. R. Cromwell (1896–1990) was an American diplomat, candidate for the United States Senate, and one-time husband of Doris Duke, the richest girl in the world. [1] In 1940, for 142 days[2], he was the United States Envoy Extraordinary... Doris Duke (November 22, 1912 – October 28, 1993) was an American heiress and philanthropist. ...


MacArthur was married to Jean Faircloth of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, on April 30, 1937. Their only child, Arthur, was born in Manila on Feb. 21, 1938. Arthur graduated from Columbia University in 1961. "Arthur" was a family name - being the name of MacArthur's grandfather, father and eldest brother. Since his brother Arthur MacArthur III was deceased at this point and had failed to give that name to his own son (naming him instead Douglas MacArthur II), MacArthur "laid claim"[8] to the name for his son, thus Arthur MacArthur IV. Jean MacArthur (December 28, 1898-January 22, 2000) was the wife of U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur. ... The Battle of Murfreesboro or the Battle of Stones River, was a battle in the American Civil War. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Arthur MacArthur III (June 1, 1876 – December 2, 1923) was a United States Navy officer. ... Douglas MacArthur II, the nephew of Gen. ...


Bonus Army

One of MacArthur's most controversial acts came in 1932, when President Hoover ordered him to disperse the "Bonus Army" of veterans who had converged on the capital in protest of government policy. MacArthur was criticized for using excessive force to disperse the protesters. According to MacArthur, the demonstration had been taken over by communists and pacifists with, he claimed, only "one man in 10 being veterans." It should be noted, however, that no supporting evidence for MacArthur's charges has ever surfaced. Recent scholarship, including PBS's The American Experience, has shown the Bonus Army was composed overwhelmingly of First World War veterans whose pacifist politics were typical of the era - pacifism was not an uncommon belief among the general public of the 1930s. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Shacks, put up by the Bonus Army on the Anacostia flats, Washington, D.C., burning after the battle with the military, 1932. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Pacifist redirects here. ...


Chief of Staff

MacArthur finished his tour as Chief of Staff in October 1935. MacArthur's main programs included the development of new mobilization plans, the establishment of a mobile general headquarters air force, and a four-army reorganization which improved administrative efficiency. He supported the New Deal by enthusiastically operating the Civilian Conservation Corps[citation needed]. He brought along many talented mid-career officers, including George C. Marshall, and Dwight D. Eisenhower. However, MacArthur's support for a strong military and his public criticism of pacifism and isolationism made him unpopular with the Roosevelt administration. Following his retirement in December 1937, he reverted to his permanent grade of major general and accepted an offer in the Philippines. This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... CCC workers on road construction, Camp Euclid, Ohio 1936 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a work relief program for young men from unemployed families, established on March 19, 1933 by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


Field Marshal of the Philippine Army

When the Commonwealth of the Philippines achieved semi-independent status in 1935, President of the Philippines Manuel L. Quezon, a personal friend since his father had been Governor General, asked MacArthur to supervise the creation of a Philippine Army. MacArthur elected not to retire but to remain on the active list as a major general, and with President Roosevelt's approval he accepted the assignment. Anthem Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The President of the... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ...


Among MacArthur's assistants as Military Adviser to the Commonwealth of the Philippines was Dwight D. Eisenhower. (Some years later, Eisenhower was asked if he knew MacArthur. He replied, "Know him? I studied dramatics under him for seven years!" MacArthur retorted that Eisenhower was the "Best clerk I ever had".)[9]


When MacArthur resigned from the U.S. Army in 1937, his rank again became that of a general, and he was made Field Marshal of the Philippine Army by President Quezon. (MacArthur is the senior officer on the rolls of the Philippine Army today—he is also the only American military officer ever to hold the rank of field marshal). Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Douglas MacArthur in 1944, wearing the headgear of a Philippine Field Marshal A Field Marshal of the Philippines is a rank that existed during the Second World War as a position held by Douglas MacArthur. ...


In July 1941 Roosevelt recalled him to active duty in the U.S. Army as a major general and named him commander of United States Armed Forces in the Far East promoting him to a lieutenant general the following day. In December, he became a four star general yet again when the Japanese attacked across a wide front in the Pacific. USAFFE (United States Army Forces - Far East) included the Philippine Department, Philippine Army (2 regular and 10 reserve divisions), and the Far East Air Force (formerly, Philippine Army Air Corps). ...


Following the outbreak of war with Japan, MacArthur was offered and accepted a payment of $500,000 (an enormous sum at the time) from President Quezon of the Philippines as payment for his pre-war service.[10]


World War II

Main article: World War II

On the day of the attack on Pearl Harbor (December 8, 1941, in Manila), MacArthur was Allied commander in the Philippines. He had over eight hours warning of a possible Japanese attack on the Philippines, and express orders from Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall to commence operations.[11] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the actual attack. ... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ...


MacArthur's reliance on his air commander of only two months (the prior air commander and his aide had both been transferred for excessive drinking), General Lewis H. Brereton, may have been misplaced. Despite clear warnings of Japanese aggression, Brereton had not transitioned his air defenses to a war footing, and like the air commanders at Hickam Field at Pearl Harbor, failed to disperse aircraft properly in camouflaged revetments to limit damage from incoming air raids. Brereton's difficulties were magnified by the fact that the Far East Air Force (FEAF) was mostly a motley collection of obsolescent U.S. and Philippine Air Force planes with only 72 operational P-40 fighters capable of effective air defense, and in no way could withstand a determined Japanese air offensive. Nevertheless, U.S. fighter aircraft were launched to receive the first Japanese attack, but failed to encounter the enemy. Upon returning to the airfield to refuel, many U.S. aircraft were caught on the ground and destroyed. Lewis Hyde Brereton was an military aviation pioneer and US Army Air Force general in the Second World War. ...


Later, MacArthur would publicly defend his air commander, while privately concluding he was incompetent, and transferred Brereton out of the Philippines as soon as possible. Brereton, who would later order the disastrous low-level B-24 raid on the Romanian oil refining and storage facilities at Ploesti, claimed he had requested permission to launch 35 B-17s (Brereton's entire long-range bomber force) to attack Japanese shipping in nearby Taiwan. This was a distinct departure from their intended use, to scout for incoming attacking forces, or to attack Japan proper. When the Japanese attacked Clark Field, they destroyed 17 B-17s on the ground. Despite Brereton's implication that the Taiwan attack would have preserved the B-17 force, without adequate fighter protection, such a raid on a heavily defended Japanese base would have inevitably resulted in massive losses to the unprotected attacking bombers, with any survivors destroyed on the ground by subsequent Japanese air raids. Ploieşti on the map of Romania Ploieşti (older spelling: Ploeşti) is a city in Prahova county in the Wallachia region of Romania, 56 km (35 miles) northwest of Bucharest, with a population of about 250,000. ... Proper name for Clark Air Base, Republic of the Philippines, during 1919-1948 when it was under U.S. Army jurisdiction. ...


MacArthur and his Chief of Staff Gen. Sutherland, later disputed Brereton's account of the Japanese attack on the Philippines.[12]


The original prewar Philippines defense plan assumed the Japanese could not be prevented from landings in Luzon and called for U.S. and Filipino forces to abandon Manila and retreat with their supplies to the Bataan peninsula. MacArthur, however, counting on reinforcements from Washington, decided to slow the Japanese advance with an initial defense against the Japanese landings. However, the Japanese could not be stopped, and the allied troops barely escaped destruction retreating back to Bataan. Through a clerical error and because of the rush to retreat to Bataan, food to be transferred from Manila to Bataan fell into Japanese hands. Early in April 1942 the allied forces on Bataan surrendered due to Japanese superiority in aircraft and material. This article is about province of the Philippines. ... Combatants  United States  Philippines  Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George M. Parker Edward P. King Vicente Lim Alfredo M. Santos Masaharu Homma Susumu Morioka Kineo Kitajima Kameichiro Nagano Strength 30,000 U.S. troops 120,000 Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 10,000...


MacArthur's headquarters during the Philippines campaign of 1941-2 was on the island fortress of Corregidor. His fortress was clearly marked and was the target of Japanese air attacks, until Manuel Quezon cautioned MacArthur "not to subject himself to danger." In March 1942, as Japanese forces tightened their grip on the Philippines, MacArthur was ordered by President Roosevelt to relocate to Melbourne, Australia, after Quezon had already left. After first discussing with his staff the idea that he resign his commission and fight on as a private soldier in the Philippine resistance, with his wife, four-year-old son, and a select group of advisers and subordinate military commanders, MacArthur left the Philippines in PT 41 (commanded by Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley) and successfully evaded an intense Japanese search for him[citation needed]. Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... Corregidor and the entrance to Manila Bay Corregidor in 1941 Corregidor is an island in the entrance of the Philippines Manila Bay. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... PT 41 was a PT-20 (Elco 77-Foot) Class Patrol torpedo boat, built at Elco and commissioned on 23 July, 1941. ... Vice Adm. ...


After he left, command of the defense of Bataan was handed over to Major General Jonathan M. Wainwright. MacArthur was unwilling to leave control to Wainwright, and tried to run the battle from three thousand miles away. He ordered his men not to retreat, but General Edward P. King disobeyed orders by surrendering when he saw that the situation was hopeless. This surrender led to the Bataan Death March, in which over 5,000 Filipinos and 1,000 Americans died.[13] Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV (August 23, 1883 – September 2, 1953), was a United States Army general and the commanding officer of Allied forces in The Philippines, at the time of their surrender to the Empire of Japan during World War II. // Early Life and Training Wainwright was born at Fort... Major General Edward P. King Edward P. King was a Major General in the United States Army who gained prominence for leading the defense of the Bataan Peninsula in the Battle of Bataan against the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in WWII. Education He was born in Atlanta, Georgia in... Note on correct pronunciation: Filipino (Tagalog) speakers pronounce Bataan as (phonetically) Bata-An. In English, the name is rendered Baaa-Tan or Bat-tan. The Bataan Death March (also known as The Death March of Bataan) took place in the Philippines in 1942 and was later accounted as a Japanese...

MacArthur visiting the Australian House of Representatives in March 1942
MacArthur visiting the Australian House of Representatives in March 1942

MacArthur reached Mindanao on March 13 and boarded a B-17 Flying Fortress bomber three days later; on March 17, he arrived at Batchelor Airfield in Australia's Northern Territory, about 60 miles (100 km) south of Darwin, before flying to Alice Springs, where he took the Ghan railway through the Australian outback to Adelaide. His famous speech, in which he said, "I came out of Bataan and I shall return", was first made at Terowie (a small railway township in South Australia) on March 20. Upon his arrival in Adelaide, MacArthur abbreviated this to the now-famous, "I came through and I shall return" that made headlines; Washington asked MacArthur to amend his promise to, "We shall return." He ignored the request.[14] Also, during this period, President Quezon decorated MacArthur with the Distinguished Conduct Star. Image File history File linksMetadata MacArthur_Parliament_(AWM_P02018. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MacArthur_Parliament_(AWM_P02018. ... Type Lower house Speaker of the House David Hawker, Liberal since November 16, 2004 Members 150 Political groups ALP (85) Liberal Party (53) National Party (10) Last elections 24 November 2007 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site House of Representatives Entrance to the House of Representatives Judicial High... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Port Darwin redirects here. ... Alice Springs on a large scale map Alice Springs is a large town in the Northern Territory of Australia located at 23°42′ S 133°52′ E. Its population of 28,178 (2001 Census) makes it the second-largest settlement in the Territory (the only other towns of significant size... Ghan redirects here. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... For other uses, see Outback (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Terowie is small town in the north of South Australia ( 33°09′ S 138°55′ E, 220 km north of Adelaide) whose main raison detre was to serve as a transshipment point at the railway break-of-gauge. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is awarded by the Chief of Staff, Armed Forces of the Philippines to military personnel of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and friendly allied armed forces for conspicuous courage and gallantry in the face of an armed enemy. ...


For his leadership in the defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honor (1 April 1942).[15] Arthur and Douglas MacArthur were the first father and son to be awarded the Medal of Honor. (They remained the only pair until 2001 when Theodore Roosevelt was awarded one posthumously for his service during the Spanish American War. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. had earned one posthumously for his service during World War II). The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... This article is about the year. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ...


MacArthur was appointed Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA). Australian Prime Minister John Curtin put MacArthur in command of the Australian military, which — following the isolation of the Philippines — was numerically larger than MacArthur's American forces. The Allied force under his command included a small number of personnel from the Netherlands East Indies and other countries. One of MacArthur's first tasks was to reassure Australians, who feared a Japanese invasion. The fighting at this time was predominantly in and around New Guinea and the Dutch East Indies. On July 20, 1942, SWPA headquarters was moved to Brisbane, Queensland, taking over the AMP Insurance Society building (later known as MacArthur Central). In August 1942, after requesting a replacement for Brereton, MacArthur was finally given a new and fiercely aggressive air commander, Gen. George C. Kenney. Kenney and MacArthur immediately forged a close relationship. Allied airpower, which had up to this point been timid and inconclusive, was transformed by Kenney into a new and fearsome offensive weapon. Kenney would later develop low-level skip bombing techniques that his aviators would use to singlehandedly repulse a planned Japanese naval invasion of New Guinea in 1943, with thousands of Japanese causalities and dozens of ships sunk. This article deals with the military command/theatre known as the South West Pacific Area. ... This article is about the Australian Prime Minister. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Governor HE Ms Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Area 1,852,642 km² (2st)  - Land 1,730,648 km²  - Water 121,994 km² (6. ... The MacArthur Central Building was established in 1849 on the corner of Queen Street and Edward Street, in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. ... George Kenney George Churchill Kenney (August 6, 1889 - August 9, 1977) was one of the most brilliant and successful United States Army Air Forces generals of World War II. He excelled in his his role as commander of the Allied air forces in the Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA) from August...


Australian successes at the Battle of Milne Bay and the Kokoda Track campaign came in late 1942, the first victories by Allied land forces anywhere against the Japanese. When it was reported the 32nd U.S. Infantry Division, an inexperienced National Guard unit, had proved incompetent in the Allied offensive against Buna and Gona, the major Japanese beachheads in northeastern New Guinea, MacArthur told U.S. I Corps commander, Robert L. Eichelberger, to assume direct control of the division: Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Nishizo Tsukahara Shojiro Hayashi Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 3,200 Casualties about 550 dead 1,000 dead New Guinea campaign Battle for Australia Air raids – Darwin – Broome – Coral Sea – Naval attacks – Sydney & Newcastle – Kokoda – Milne... Combatants  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Thomas Blamey Sydney Rowell Edmund Herring Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Hisaichi Terauchi Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii â€  Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 32nd Infantry Division. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Combatants Australia, United States Japan Commanders George Vasey (Australia); Edwin F. Harding/ Robert L. Eichelberger (United States) Ken Yamagata Strength 20,000+ 7,400+ Casualties 3,500 (not counting tropical diseases); 1,300 Australian and 1,000 US personnel killed in action. ... A beachhead is a military term used to describe the line created when a unit (by sea) reaches a beach, and begins to defend that area of beach, while other reinforcements (hopefully) help out, until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived. ... The I Corps (First Corps), nicknamed Americas Corps, is a corps of the United States Army with headquarters in Fort Lewis, Washington. ... Robert Lawrence Eichelberger (9 March 1886 – 26 September 1961) was a general in the United States Army, who commanded the US Eighth Army in the Pacific during World War II. Eichelberger was born at Urbana, Ohio, on 9 March 1886. ...

Bob, I'm putting you in command at Buna. Relieve Harding ... I want you to remove all officers who won't fight. Relieve regimental and battalion commanders; if necessary, put sergeants in charge of battalions and corporals in charge of companies ... Bob, I want you to take Buna, or not come back alive ... And that goes for your chief of staff, too.[16]

Allied land forces commander, General Thomas Blamey, did not want the 41st U.S. Infantry, another inexperienced[17] National Guard division, to reinforce the Gona assault, and requested 21st Australian Infantry Brigade be sent instead, as "he knew they would fight".[18] This was done but a regiment of the 41st later went to Gona. British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 100-200 soldiers. ... See also Field Marshal (Australia) Field Marshal Sir Thomas Albert Blamey GBE KCB CMG DSO ED (24 January 1884 – 27 May 1951) was an Australian General of World War II, and Australias first (and only) Field Marshal. ... The 41st Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. A National Guard unit, it was reorgnized in 1965 as a separate infantry brigade; the 41st Brigade Combat Team is headquartered in Tigard, Oregon and is currently assigned to the...


In March 1943, the Joint Chiefs of Staff approved MacArthur's plan, Operation CARTWHEEL, which aimed to capture the major Japanese base at Rabaul by taking strategic points to use as forward bases. During 1944 this was modified so as to bypass Rabaul and other heavily-defended Japanese bases, allowing the Japanese forces there to "wither on the vine." Initially, the majority of MacArthur's land forces were Australian, but increasing numbers of U.S. troops arrived in the theater, including Marines, the Sixth Army (Alamo Force), and later the Eighth Army. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... The eastern part of the Territory of New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands; the area in which Operation Cartwheel took place, from June 1943. ... For the volcanic caldera within which Rabaul lies, see Rabaul caldera. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ... The Sixth United States Army was a field army of the United States Army. ... The Eighth United States Army—often abbreviated EUSA—(the acronym EUSA was deemed unauthorized by LTG Charles Campbell in 2002) is the commanding formation of all US Army troops in South Korea. ...


MacArthur's advancement of land forces westward along the 1,500 mile (2,400 km) northern coast of New Guinea was sequenced specifically for terrain selected on the basis of its ability to be made into landing strips for tactical support aircraft. By advancing in leaps always within the range of his fighter-bombers (typically P-38 Lightnings), he could maintain air superiority over his land operations. This provided critical close air support and also denied the enemy sea and airborne resupply, effectively cutting the Japanese forces off as they were under attack. MacArthur's strategy of maneuver, offensive air-strikes, and force avoidance would eventually pay off - unlike the ground forces in the Central Pacific theater, infantry troops in operations under MacArthur's command consistently suffered fewer casualties. P-38 redirects here. ... An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ...

General MacArthur returns to the Philippines.
General MacArthur returns to the Philippines.

Allied forces under MacArthur's command, covered by aircraft from Halsey's carriers, landed at Leyte Island on October 20, 1944 - thereby fulfilling MacArthur's vow to return to the Philippines. The carriers were tied up for months providing air support until the rainy season ended (something which MacArthur doubtless should have foreseen, after living in the islands for a decade). Only then could MacArthur's engineers build airstrips on shore. He consolidated his hold on the archipelago after heavy fighting in the Battle of Luzon and Battle of Manila. Despite a massive Japanese naval counterattack in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, Japanese forces were unable to stop the invasion or do more than slow the reconquest of the islands. In a foretaste of things to come, MacArthur made full use of amphibious and combined operations, while utilizing paratroop, motorized infantry, and even indigenous guerrilla forces for special operations and to multiply his force advantage. With the reconquest of the islands, MacArthur moved his headquarters to Manila, where he announced his plan for the invasion of Japan (Operation Downfall), to commence 1 November 1945. The invasion was pre-empted by Japan's capitulation. On 2 September, MacArthur received the formal Japanese surrender aboard the U.S.S. Missouri, thus ending World War II. William Bull Halsey William Frederick Bull Halsey, Jr. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... Belligerents United States, Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Franklin C. Sibert John R. Hodge Ruperto C. Kangleon Tomoyuki Yamashita Sosaku Suzuki Shiro Makino Strength 200,000 U.S. troops 3,189 Filipino guerrillas 55,000 Japanese troops Casualties and losses 3,500 killed 12,000 wounded... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants United States Philippines Mexico Japan Commanders Douglas Macarthur Sergio Osmeña Basilio S. Valdes Rafael Jalandoni Alfredo M. Santos Luis Taruc Tomoyuki Yamashita The Battle of Luzon, on the island of Luzon, home to the Filipino capital Manila, saw the showdown between Japanese commander Tomoyuki Yamashita and General Douglas... Combatants United States Philippines Japan Commanders Oscar Griswold Robert S. Beightler Verne D. Mudge Joseph M. Swing Manuel Colayco Alfredo M. Santos Iwabuchi Sanji Strength 35,000 U.S. troops 755,000 Filipino troops 3,000 Filipino guerrillas 16,000 Japanese sailors and marines 2,000 Army troops Casualties 110... Combatants  United States  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... Three ships of the United States Navy (and one of the Confederate Navy) have borne the name USS Missouri in honor of the 24th state. ...


Post-World War II Japan

Main article: Occupied Japan
General MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito
General MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito

MacArthur was ordered on August 29 to exercise authority through the Japanese government machinery, including Emperor Hirohito.[19] Some believe MacArthur may have made his greatest contribution to history in the next five and a half years, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan (SCAP). Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ...


However, some historians criticize his work to exonerate Emperor Showa and all members of the imperial family implicated in the war (including Princes Chichibu, Asaka, Takeda, Higashikuni and Hiroyasu) from criminal prosecutions.[20] As soon as November 26, 1945, MacArthur confirmed to admiral Mitsumasa Yonai that the emperor's abdication would not be necessary.[21] MacArthur exonerated Hirohito and ignored the advice of many members of the imperial family and Japanese intellectuals who publicly asked for the abdication of the Emperor and the implementation of a regency. For example, prince Mikasa (Takahito), Hirohito's youngest brother, even stood up in a meeting of the private council, in February 1946, and urged his brother to take responsibility for defeat while the well-known poet Tatsuji Miyoshi wrote an essay in the magazine Shinchô titled "The Emperor should abdicate quickly."[22] Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) of Japan (25 June 1902 - 4 January 1953) (jp: 秩父宮 雍仁, Chichibu no miya Yasuhito Shinnō), also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of the Taisho Emperor and a younger brother of the Emperor Shōwa. ... Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Takeda Tsuneyoshi ) of Japan (3 March 1909 – 11 May 1992) was the second and last heir of the Takeda-no-miya ōke branch of the Japanese Imperial Family. ... Prince Higashikuni Prince Higashikuni (Naruhiko) of Japan (東久邇 稔彦 Higashikuni Naruhiko, also Higashikuni no miya Naruhiko ō (東久邇宮 稔彦王)) (3 December 1887 – 26 January 1990) was the 43rd Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days. ... Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu ) (16 October 1875 - 16 August 1946) was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1940. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Mitsumasa Yonai (米内 光政 Yonai Mitsumasa; March 2, 1880–April 20, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 37th Prime Minister of Japan from January 16, 1940 to July 22, 1940. ... His Imperial Highness, Prince Mikasa (Takahito) of Japan (Mikasa no miya Takahito Shinnō; born December 15, 1915) is the fourth and youngest son of the Emperor Taishō and the Empress Teimei. ... Tatsuji Miyoshi , 23 August 1900 – 5 April 1964) was a Japanese poet, literary critic, and literary editor active in Showa period Japan. ...


According to Bix, "months before the Tokyo tribunal commenced, MacArthur's highest subordinates were working to attribute ultimate responsibility for Pearl Harbor to Hideki Tojo"[23] Citing the debates between Truman, Eisenhower and MacArthur, Bix argues that "immediately on landing in Japan, Bonner Fellers went to work to protect Hirohito from the role he had played during and at the end of the war." and "allowed the major war criminal suspects to coordinate their stories so that the Emperor would be spared from indictment"[24] Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ...


According to John Dower, "This successful campaign to absolve the Emperor of war responsibility knew no bounds. Hirohito was not merely presented as being innocent of any formal acts that might make him culpable to indictment as a war criminal. He was turned into an almost saintly figure who did not even bear moral responsibility for the war." "With the full support of MacArthur's headquarters, the prosecution functioned, in effect, as a defense team for the emperor."[25]


MacArthur and his GHQ staff helped a devastated Japan rebuild itself, institute a democratic government, and chart a course that made Japan one of the world's leading industrial powers. The U.S. was firmly in control of Japan to oversee its reconstruction, and MacArthur was effectively the interim leader of Japan from 1945 until 1948. In 1946, MacArthur's staff drafted a new constitution that renounced war and reduced the emperor to a figurehead; this constitution remains in use in Japan to this day. He also pushed the Japanese Diet into adopting a decentralization plan to break apart the large Japanese companies (zaibatsu) and foster the first Japanese labor unions. The Emperor , literally heavenly sovereign,[1] formerly often called the Mikado) of Japan is the countrys monarch. ... Zaibatsu ) is a Japanese term referring to the financial cliques, or business conglomerates, whose influence and size allowed for control over significant parts of the Japanese economy throughout the Edo and Meiji periods. ...


"The Japanese people since the war have undergone the greatest reformation recorded in modern history. With a commendable will, eagerness to learn, and marked capacity to understand, they have from the ashes left in war’s wake erected in Japan an edifice dedicated to the supremacy of individual liberty and personal dignity, and in the ensuing process there has been created a truly representative government committed to the advance of political morality, freedom of economic enterprise, and social justice." - General Douglas MacArthur's Address to Congress of the United States, April 19, 1952[26]


These reconstruction plans alarmed many in the U.S. Defense and State Departments, believing they conflicted with the prospect of Japan (and its industrial capacity) as a bulwark against the spread of communism in Asia.[27] Some of MacArthur's reforms, such as his labor laws, were rescinded in 1948 when his unilateral control of Japan was ended by the increased involvement of the State Department. MacArthur handed over power to the newly-formed Japanese government in 1949 and remained in Japan until relieved by President Truman on April 11, 1951. Truman replaced SCAP leader MacArthur with General Matthew Ridgway of the U.S. Army. By 1952, Japan was a sovereign nation under the democratic constitution MacArthur had pushed for, which had been in effect since 1947. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ...


In late 1945, Allied military commissions in various cities of the Orient tried 4,000 Japanese officers for war crimes. About 3,000 were given prison terms and 920 executed; the charges included the Rape of Nanking, the Bataan Death March, and the sack of Manila. The trial in Manila of General Yamashita Tomoyuki, Japanese commander in the Philippines from 1944, was under MacArthur's direction and has been particularly criticized. General Yamashita was hanged for the massacre of Manila which he had not ordered and of which he was probably unaware. It was ordered by Vice Admiral Sanji Iwabuchi who was nominally subordinate to General Yamashita. Iwabuchi had killed himself as the battle for Manila was ending. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Nanking Massacre (Chinese: 南京大屠杀, pinyin: Nánjīng Dàtúshā; Japanese: 南京大虐殺, Nankin Dai Gyaku-satsu), also known as the Rape of Nanking and sometimes in Japan as the Nanking Incident (南京事件, Nankin Jiken), refers to what many historians recognize as widespread atrocities committed by the Japanese army in and around Nanking... Note on correct pronunciation: Filipino (Tagalog) speakers pronounce Bataan as (phonetically) Bata-An. In English, the name is rendered Baaa-Tan or Bat-tan. The Bataan Death March (also known as The Death March of Bataan) took place in the Philippines in 1942 and was later accounted as a Japanese... Slain children in the ruins of Manila The Manila massacre, February 1945, refers to the atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese troops during World War II. Various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll was at least 100,000 people. ... General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki) (November 8, 1885 - February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Army during the WWII era. ...


Korean War

Main article: Korean War

In 1945, as part of the surrender of Japan, the United States agreed with the Soviet Union to divide the Korean peninsula into two occupation zones at 38th parallel north. This resulted in the creation of two states: the western-aligned Republic of Korea (ROK) (often referred to as "South Korea"), and the Soviet-aligned and Communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) (generally referred to as "North Korea"). After the surprise attack by the DPRK on June 25, 1950, started the Korean War, the United Nations Security Council authorized a United Nations (UN) force to help South Korea. MacArthur, as US theater commander, became commander of the UN forces. In September, despite lingering concerns from superiors, MacArthur's army and marine troops made a daring and successful combined amphibious landing at Inchon, deep behind North Korean lines. Launched with naval and close air support, the daring landing outflanked the North Koreans, forcing them to retreat northward in disarray. UN forces pursued the DPRK forces, eventually approaching the Yalu River border with the China. MacArthur boasted: "The war is over. The Chinese are not coming... The Third Division will be back in Fort Benning for Christmas dinner."[28] Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... This article is about the Korean Peninsula. ... The 38th parallel north is a line of latitude that cuts across Asia, the Mediterranean and the United States. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants  United Nations  North Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Chesty Puller Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun The Battle of Inchon (Korean spelling: Incheon) (Korean: Incheon Sangryuk Jakjeon; code name: Operation Chromite) was a decisive invasion and battle during the Korean War. ... The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ...


With the DPRK forces largely destroyed, troops of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) quietly crossed the Yalu River. Chinese foreign minister Zhou Enlai issued warnings via India's foreign minister, Krishna Menon, that an advance to the Yalu would force China into the war. When questioned about this threat by President Truman and Secretary of State Dean Acheson, MacArthur dismissed it completely. MacArthur's staff ignored battlefield evidence that PLA troops had entered North Korea in strength. The Chinese moved through the snowy hills, struck hard, and routed the UN forces, forcing them on a long retreat.[28] Calling the Chinese attack the beginning of "an entirely new war," MacArthur repeatedly requested authorization to strike Chinese bases in Manchuria, inside China. Truman was concerned that such actions would draw the Soviet Union into the conflict and risk nuclear war. Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... V.K. Krishna Menon Vengalil Krishnan (V.K.) Krishna Menon (May 3, 1897 - October 6, 1974) was an Indian nationalist and politician. ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Dismissal

In April 1951, MacArthur's habitual disregard of his superiors[28] led to a crisis. He sent a letter to Representative Joe Martin (R-Massachusetts), the House Minority Leader, disagreeing with President Truman's policy of limiting the Korean war to avoid a larger war with China. He also sent an ultimatum to the Chinese Army which destroyed President Truman's cease-fire efforts. This, and similar letters and statements, were seen by Truman as a violation of the American constitutional principle that military commanders are subordinate to civilian leadership, and usurpation of the President's authority to make foreign policy. MacArthur had ignored this principle out of necessity while SCAF in Japan. MacArthur at this time had not been back to the United States for thirteen years.[29] Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Joseph William Martin, Jr (November 3, 1884 - March 6, 1968) was an American politician from North Attleborough, Massachusetts. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


By this time President Truman decided MacArthur was insubordinate, and relieved him of command on April 11, 1951, leading to a storm of controversy.[28] MacArthur was succeeded by General Matthew Ridgway, and eventually by General Mark Wayne Clark, who signed the armistice which ended the Korean War. Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... Mark Wayne Clark was an American general during World War II and the Korean War. ...


Return to America

MacArthur returned to Washington, D.C. (his first time in the continental U.S. in 11 years), where he made his last public appearance in a farewell address to the U.S. Congress, interrupted by thirty ovations.[30] In his closing speech, he recalled: "Old soldiers never die; they just fade away." "And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away — an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Good-bye." Congress in Joint Session. ...


On his return from Korea, after his relief by Truman, MacArthur encountered massive public adulation, which aroused expectations that he would run for the presidency as a Republican in the 1952 election. However, a U.S. Senate Committee investigation of his removal (which largely vindicated the actions taken by President Truman), chaired by Richard Russell, contributed to a marked cooling of the public mood, and hopes for a MacArthur presidential run died away. MacArthur, in Reminiscences, repeatedly stated he had no political aspirations. GOP redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... A statue of Russell is placed in the rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. ...


1952 to death

In the 1952 Republican presidential nomination contest, MacArthur was not a candidate and instead endorsed Senator Robert Taft of Ohio;[31] rumors were rife Taft offered the vice presidential nomination to MacArthur. Taft did persuade MacArthur to be the keynote speaker at the convention. The speech was not well received. Taft lost the nomination to Eisenhower; MacArthur was silent during the campaign, which Eisenhower won by a landslide. Once elected, Eisenhower consulted with MacArthur and adopted his suggestion of threatening the use of nuclear weapons to end the war.[32] For the former Governor of Ohio and Robert Tafts grandson, see Bob Taft. ...


In 1956, U.S. Senator Joseph Martin introduced a proposal to elevate MacArthur to six star rank; however, this caused issues with President Eisenhower who found the general to be grandiose and an egotist.[citation needed] The issue died in the Senate. MacArthur became head of Remington Rand Corporation and spent the remainder of his life in New York. A Remington Rand branded typewriter Remington Rand was an early American computer manufacturer, best known as the original maker of the UNIVAC I, and now part of Unisys. ... This article is about the state. ...

MacArthur Memorial
MacArthur Memorial
MacArthur's grave
MacArthur's grave

MacArthur and his second wife, Jean, spent the last years of their life together in the penthouse of the Waldorf Towers (a part of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel), a gift from Conrad Hilton, the owner of the hotel. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1932x2580, 1148 KB) author- Joe Bengoechea I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1932x2580, 1148 KB) author- Joe Bengoechea I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2580x1932, 885 KB) author- Joe Bengoechea I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2580x1932, 885 KB) author- Joe Bengoechea I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The hotels name with a single hyphen is engraved and gilded over the entrance. ... Conrad Nicholson Hilton, Sr. ...


The Waldorf became the setting for an annual birthday party on January 26, thrown by the general's former deputy chief engineer, Major General Leif J. Sverdrup. At the 1960 celebration for MacArthur's 80th, many of his friends were startled by the general's obviously deteriorating health; the next day he collapsed and was rushed into surgery at St. Luke's hospital to control a severely swollen prostate.[33] Leif Johan Sverdrup (1898 to 1976) was a Norwegian-American civil engineer and military officer with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. ...


After his recovery, MacArthur methodically carried out the closing act of a long life. He visited the White House for a final reunion with Eisenhower.[34] In 1961 he made a spectacular "sentimental journey" to the Philippines, where he was decorated by President Carlos P. Garcia with the Philippine Legion of Honor, rank of Chief Commander. MacArthur also accepted a $900,000 advance from Henry Luce for the rights to his memoirs, and began writing the volume that would eventually be published as Reminiscences.[35] Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Carlos Polistico Garcia (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was the 8th president of the Philippines (1957-1961). ... The Philippine Legion of Honor was established by President Manuel Roxas, through Philippine Army Circular No. ... Luce with wife Clare Boothe Luce (1954) Henry Robinson Luce (pronounced like loose) (April 3, 1898 – February 28, 1967) was an influential American publisher. ...


President John F. Kennedy solicited MacArthur's counsel in 1961. The first of two meetings was shortly after the Bay of Pigs Invasion. MacArthur was extremely critical of the Pentagon and its military advice to Kennedy. MacArthur also cautioned the young President to avoid a U.S. military build-up in Vietnam, pointing out domestic problems should be given a much greater priority. Shortly prior to his death he gave similar advice to the new President, Lyndon Johnson. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...


In 1962, West Point honored the increasingly frail MacArthur with the Sylvanus Thayer Award, an award for outstanding service to the nation; the year before, the award had gone to Eisenhower. MacArthur's speech to the cadets in accepting the award was, to all intents and purposes, the last great public moment of a very public life; its theme was Duty, Honor, Country. The speech was recorded, and even in MacArthur's old and faltering voice, it is still possible to hear the mesmerizing presence and towering ego which drove him throughout his career. His stirring final passage sounds like a voice from another age: The Sylvanus Thayer Award is a military award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point. ...

The shadows are lengthening for me. The twilight is here. My days of old have vanished, tone and tint. They have gone glimmering through the dreams of things that were. Their memory is one of wondrous beauty, watered by tears, and coaxed and caressed by the smiles of yesterday. I listen vainly, but with thirsty ears, for the witching melody of faint bugles blowing reveille, of far drums beating the long roll. In my dreams I hear again the crash of guns, the rattle of musketry, the strange, mournful mutter of the battlefield. But in the evening of my memory, always I come back to West Point. Always there echoes and re-echoes: Duty, Honor, Country. Today marks my final roll call with you, but I want you to know that when I cross the river my last conscious thoughts will be of The Corps, and The Corps, and The Corps. I bid you farewell."[36]

MacArthur spent the last years of his life finishing his memoirs; he died on April 5th 1964, of biliary cirrhosis,[37] before their publication in book form - they had begun to appear in serialized form in Life Magazine in the months just prior to his death. After he died, his wife Jean continued to live in the Waldorf Towers penthouse until her own death. The couple are entombed together in downtown Norfolk, Virginia; their burial site is in the rotunda of a memorial building/museum (formerly the Norfolk City Hall) dedicated to his memory, and there is a major shopping mall (MacArthur Center) named for him across the street from the memorial. According to the museum, General MacArthur said he chose to be buried in Norfolk because of his mother's ancestral ties to the city. A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ...


MacArthur wanted his family to remember him for more than being a soldier. He said, "By profession I am a soldier and take pride in that fact. But I am prouder—infinitely prouder—to be a father. A soldier destroys in order to build; the father only builds, never destroys. The one has the potentiality of death; the other embodies creation and life. And while the hordes of death are mighty, the battalions of life are mightier still. It is my hope that my son, when I am gone, will remember me not from the battle but in the home repeating with him our simple daily prayer, 'Our Father who art in heaven."[38]


MacArthur's nephew, Douglas MacArthur II (a son of his brother Arthur) served as a diplomat for several years, including the post of Ambassador to Japan and several other countries. Douglas MacArthur II, the nephew of Gen. ...


In 1945, MacArthur gave his treasured Gold Castles insignia, a personal possession, to his chief engineer, Jack Sverdrup. They are currently worn by the Chief of Engineers as a tradition. Gold Castles are the traditional pins which were the basis of the current castle logo of United States Army Corps of Engineers. ... Leif Johan Sverdrup (1898 to 1976) was a Norwegian-American civil engineer and military officer with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. ... The Chief of Engineers commands the US Army Corps of Engineers. ...


Controversies

MacArthur is viewed as a controversial figure. His handling of Japan after World War II led to Japan's economic transformation and was generally applauded. However, the fact he chose to protect some major leaders of the Showa regime in World War II is sometimes criticized. Also, his actions during the Korean War remain highly controversial.


His reputation for self-promotion has earned him many detractors. But defenders have claimed "MacArthur's Communiqué was criticized, ridiculed, or lamented by many. Most critics fail to understand that MacArthur did not write the communiqué for the benefit of the troops, the press or the politicians in Canberra, London and Washington. He wrote it for the American public, whose opinion could influence political forces in decisions of strategic planning and control. He wrote his communiqué to focus the attention of the American people on SWPA and its needs... To interpret the communiqué, and all other aspects of MacArthur's activities, in terms of pure, unrestrained ego is a gross oversimplification and underestimation of the General's complex character and of his intellectual capacity."[39] MacArthur's public pressure campaign to improve Washington's logistical support for the Pacific War was somewhat successful, and combined with the influence of his sometime rival Admiral Ernest King, MacArthur's efforts were largely responsible for the increased diversion of resources to the Pacific by 1943.[40] Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King (November 23, 1878 – June 25, 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH-CNO) during World War II. As COMINCH, he directed the United States Navys operations, planning, and administration and was a member of the Joint Chiefs...


Legacy

Places named after MacArthur

For a more comprehensive list, see Places named for Douglas MacArthur

MacArthur was enormously popular with the American public, even after his defeat in the Philippines, and across the United States streets, public works, children and even a dance step were named after him.[41]

  • The Douglas MacArthur Academy of Freedom, an extension of Howard Payne University in Brownwood, Texas, is named for the general. It has a life-size statue of MacArthur in front of the building. Douglas MacArthur's Medal of Honor is on permanent display in the MacArthur Gallery, along with a collection of MacArthur's effects, including swords from the Philippines and Japan, a collection of his pipes, and other personal belongings.
  • MacArthur Park (formerly Westlake Park) is a park in Los Angeles, California, named after General Douglas MacArthur and designated city of Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument #100. It is located in the Westlake neighborhood of the city.
  • An 18 mile section of Interstate 580 running between and though the cities of Oakland, California and Castro Valley, California was dedicated to the Great General upon its completion. It is commonly referred to as the "MacArthur Freeway."
  • The highway that spans from Kalookan, Metro Manila to as far as La Union in the Philippines is named after MacArthur. It is now aptly called "MacArthur Highway."
  • The large MacArthur Central plaza in downtown Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, is named after Douglas MacArthur and has as its logo the five stars of his rank. The MacArthur Museum MacArthur Museum, Brisbane, which was opened to the public in 2004, is located within the MacArthur Central building.
  • A statue of MacArthur built at Inchon Harbor in South Korea in 1957 has become a site of contention between some civic groups who consider the statue a symbol of imperialism, should be removed, and some veteran groups who consider him a hero and symbol of all Korean and UN forces who died.[42] Skirmishes between the two groups have forced the Korean government to protect the statue with troops. In November 2006, a MacArthur Statue protest leader was arrested.[43]
  • MacArthur Airport, Long Island, New York, USA
  • Douglas MacArthur High School Home of the MacArthur Generals, Levittown, Long Island, New York
  • MacArthur Elementary School, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
  • MacArthur Avenue, Munster, Indiana, USA

Howard Payne University is a four-year private university located in Brownwood, Texas. ... Brownwood aka The Wood is a city in the heart of Texas, United States and serves as the county seat of Brown CountyGR6. ... MacArthur Park looking towards downtown LA MacArthur Park (formerly Westlake Park) is a park in Los Angeles, California, named after General Douglas MacArthur and designated city of Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument #100. ... Macarthur is a 5th class municipality in the province of Leyte, Philippines. ... General Macarthur is a 5th class municipality in the province of Eastern Samar, Philippines. ... Caloocan City (in Filipino Kalookan) is one of the cities and municipalities that comprise Metro Manila in the Philippines. ... For the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... La Union is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. ... The MacArthur Central Building was established in 1849 on the corner of Queen Street and Edward Street, in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... Incheon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city and major seaport on the west coast of South Korea, near Seoul. ... Operated by the Taubman Company, and owned by the city of Norfolk, Virginia, MacArthur Center Mall is the premiere upscale shopping center of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

See also

United States Army Portal

Image File history File links United_States_Department_of_the_Army_Seal. ... The following is a partial list of Medal of Honor recipients. ... Richard K. Sutherland (November 27, 1893 - June 25, 1966) was a Lieutenant General of the US Army and General MacArthurs Chief of Staff during World War II. He served with the American Expeditionary Force during World War I. The Japanese Surrender At the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay on... Major General Charles Andrew Willoughby (March 8, 1892-October 25th, 1972) was a Major General in the U.S. Army, serving as General Douglas MacArthurs Chief of Intelligence during most of WWII and the Korean Conflict. ... General Order â„– 1 was General Douglas MacArthurs first order to the forces of the Empire of Japan following the Japanese surrender. ... Bankstown bunker in 1945 The Bankstown Bunker (Air Defence Headquarters Sydney) is a disused RAAF operations facility, located on the Corner of Marion and Edgar Streets, Condell Park, in the City of Bankstown, New South Wales Australia. ...

Notes

  1. ^ MacArthur had no middle name, though some Internet sources variously ascribe him a middle initial of "A", "B", "C", "D", "M", or "S". An archivist at the MacArthur Memorial asserts that MacArthur did wear a monogrammed handkerchief with a middle initial of "A", possibly chosen to indicate his father.
  2. ^ Schnabel 1972, p. 365
  3. ^ Home page. McArthur Museum of Arkansas Military History. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
  4. ^ Arkies At War: Douglas MacArthur. The Arkansas Roadside Travelogue. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
  5. ^ Douglas MacArthur and his mother. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  6. ^ Leary 2001, p. xv
  7. ^ http://www.usma.edu/PublicAffairs/PressReleasesbd/nr14-08_brigade_honor_cpt.htm
  8. ^ Manchester, p. 178
  9. ^ Washington Post article review of book George Marshall and Dwight Eisenhower in War and Peace By Mark Perry retrieved on March 22, 2008
  10. ^ Rogers 1990, p. 165
  11. ^ Manchester, American Caesar. Postwar, he would deny having orders to attack.
  12. ^ Perret 1996 — Geoffrey Perret's biography, Old Soldiers Never Die, lays out the case for negligence on the part of mid-level officers. Interestingly, the official record of the day's events by the Army Air Corps' command has been clearly altered, with numerous erasures and type-overs. The Official Army Historian states the truth will never be known.
  13. ^ Gaily, Harry A. The War in the Pacific: From Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay 1995, Presido Press, Novato CA
  14. ^ Time Magazine
  15. ^ Medal of honor citation Accessed Jan 14, 2008.
  16. ^ Huber
  17. ^ It was nevertheless better trained and rated than the 32d.
  18. ^ Kenney 1949, p. 151
  19. ^ James 1975, p. 783
  20. ^ Dower 1999, Bix 2000
  21. ^ Dower 1999, p. 323
  22. ^ Dower 1999, pp. 321, 322
  23. ^ Bix 2000, p. 585
  24. ^ Bix 2000, p. 583
  25. ^ Dower 1999, p. 326
  26. ^ Speech transcript
  27. ^ Schaller 1985
  28. ^ a b c d Halberstam 2007
  29. ^ According to one point of view, MacArthur suffered from paranoia, self-destructive impulses, and political aspirations, and he had visions of running against Truman in the 1952 elections. Surrounding himself with sycophants and publicity spinners, MacArthur effectively cut himself off from Washington and ignored suggestions and even orders from superiors, as he felt that none were superior to him. Weintraub asks: "Having long considered himself a reigning sovereign rather than a mere field commander - wasn't he also viceroy of Japan? - he gave little heed to restrictions formulated a hemisphere away."
  30. ^ Text and audio
  31. ^ James 1985, pp. 648-652
  32. ^ James 1985, pp. 653-655
  33. ^ Perret, pp. 581-583
  34. ^ Perret, p. 583
  35. ^ Perret, p. 581
  36. ^ MacArthur's speech is available online at the Academy's website, at http://www.west-point.org/real/
  37. ^ Perret, p. 585
  38. ^ Emerson 1968, p. 118
  39. ^ Rogers 1990, p. 265
  40. ^ Gray 1997, p. 293
  41. ^ Costello, John The Pacific War Atlantic Communications. 1981 p. 225 ISBN 0-89256-206-4
  42. ^ Chosun.com
  43. ^ Reprobate Activist Held for Espionage

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...

References

  • Bix, Herbert (2000), Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, ISBN 006019314X 
  • Brune, Peter (May 01, 2005), A Bastard of a Place: The Australians in Papua, Allen & Unwin, ISBN 978-1741144031 
  • Dower, John (2000), Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0393320275 
  • Duffy, Bernard K & Carpenter, Ronald H. (1997), Douglas MacArthur: Warrior as Wordsmith, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-29148-9 
  • Fitzsimmons, Peter (2005), Kokoda, Australia: Hodder Headline, ISBN 978-0733619625 
  • Gray, Anthony W., Jr. (1997), "Chapter 6: Joint Logistics in the Pacific Theater", in Gropman, Alan, The Big 'L'--American Logistics in World War II, Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, ISBN 1428981357, <http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/BigL/BigL-6.html> 
  • Halberstam, David (2007), The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War, Hyperion, ISBN 1401300529 
  • Ham, Paul (2004), Kokoda, HarperCollins, ISBN 0732282322 
  • Huber, Dr. Thomas M., "XVIII. Eichelberger at Buna: A Study in Battle Command", in Combat Studies Institute, <http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/battles/battles.asp#XVIII> 
  • James, D. Clayton (1970), The Years of MacArthur Volume I, 1880–1941, vol. 1, ISBN 0-395-10948-5) 
  • James, D. Clayton (1975), The Years of MacArthur: vol. 2 1941–45, vol. 2, ISBN 0-395-20446-1 
  • James, D. Clayton (1985), The Years of Macarthur: Volume 3: Triumph and Disaster 1945–1964, vol. 3, ISBN 0-395-36004-8 
  • Leary, William M. (2001), MacArthur and the American Century: A Reader, University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-2930-5 
  • Leary, William M. (2004), We Shall Return!: Macarthur's Commanders and the Defeat of Japan, 1942–1945, University Press of Kentucky; New Ed edition, ISBN 978-0813191058 
  • Long, Gavin Merrick (1998), MacArthur as Military Commander, Da Capo; New Ed edition, ISBN 978-0938289142 
  • Lowitt, Richard (1967), The Truman-MacArthur Controversy, Rand McNally, ISBN 9780528663444 
  • Lutz, David W. (2000), The Exercise Of Military Judgment: A Philosophical Investigation Of The Virtues And Vices Of General Douglas Macarthur, vol. 1, Journal Of Power And Ethics 
  • MacArthur, Douglas (2001), Reminiscences, United States Naval Institute, ISBN 1-55750-483-0 
  • Manchester, William (1983), American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur 1880–1964, Laurel, ISBN 0-440-30424-5 
  • Perret, Geoffrey (1996), Old Soldiers Never Die: The Life and Legend of Douglas MacArthur, Random House, ISBN 0-679-42882-8 
  • Prefer, Nathan (1995), Macarthur's New Guinea Campaign, Combined Books, ISBN 978-0938289517 
  • Paull, Raymond (December 31, 1982), Retreat from Kokoda, Heinemann (William) Australia, ISBN 978-0855610494 
  • Rasor, Eugene L. (1994), General Douglas MacArthur, 1880–1964: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography, Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0313288739 
  • Rogers, Paul P. (1990), The Good Years: MacArthur and Sutherland, vol. 1, Praeger Publishers, ISBN Praeger Publishers 
  • Rogers, Paul P. (1991), The Bitter Years: MacArthur and Sutherland, vol. 2, Praeger Publishers, ISBN 978-0275929190 
  • Rowman & Littlefield, General MacArthur: Letters from the Japanese During the American Occupation, ISBN 0-7425-1115-4 
  • Schaller, Michael (1985), The American Occupation of Japan: The Origins of the Cold War in Asia, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195051904, <http://books.google.com/books?id=eVG3FbNr9HoC&dq=%22The+American+Occupation+of+Japan%22> 
  • Schaller, Michael (2001), Douglas MacArthur: The Far Eastern General, Replica Books, ISBN 0-7351-0354-2 
  • Schnabel, James F. (1972), "CHAPTER XX — The Relief of MacArthur", United States Army in the Korean War, Washington: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, p. 365 
  • Schonberger, Howard B. (1989), Aftermath of War: Americans and the Remaking of Japan, 1945-1952 (American Diplomatic History), Kent State University Press, ISBN 978-0873383820 
  • Taaffe, Stephen (1998), Macarthur's Jungle War: The 1944 New Guinea Campaign, University Press of Kansas, ISBN 0-7006-0870-2 
  • Valley, David J. (2000), Gaijin Shogun: General Douglas MacArthur, Stepfather of Postwar Japan, Sektor Company, ISBN 0-9678175-2-8 
  • Wainstock, Dennis D. (1999), Truman, MacArthur, and the Korean War (Contributions in Military Studies), Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0313308376 
  • Weintraub, Stanley (2007), 15 Stars: Eisenhower, MacArthur, Marshall: Three Generals who Saved the American Century, ISBN 0-743-27527-6 
  • Weintraub, Stanley (2000), MacArthur's War: Korea and the Undoing of an American Hero, ISBN 0-684-83419-7 
  • West, Emerson Roy (1968), Vital Quotations, Bookcraft, ASIN: B000PB02MU 
  • Wolfe, Robert (1984), Americans as Proconsuls: United States Military Government in Germany and Japan, 1944–1952, Southern Illinois University Press, ISBN 978-0809311156 

The National Personnel Records Center is an agency of the National Archives and Records Administration and is divided into two large Federal Records Centers located in St. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Military offices
Preceded by
Samuel Escue Tillman
Superintendents of the United States Military Academy
1919 – 1922
Succeeded by
Fred Winchester Sladen
Preceded by
Charles P. Summerall
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1930 – 1935
Succeeded by
Malin Craig
Preceded by
Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP), Japan
1945 – 1951
Succeeded by
Matthew B. Ridgway
Awards
Preceded by
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Sylvanus Thayer Award recipient
1962
Succeeded by
John J. McCloy
Achievements
Preceded by
John F. Kennedy
Persons who have lain in state or honor in the United States Capitol rotunda
April 8April 9, 1964
Succeeded by
Herbert Hoover
Persondata
NAME MacArthur, Douglas
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American Field Marshal/General of the Army
DATE OF BIRTH January 26, 1880
PLACE OF BIRTH Little Rock, Arkansas
DATE OF DEATH April 5, 1964
PLACE OF DEATH Washington, D.C.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... The Dictionary of Australian Biography is a reference work containing information on notable people associated with Australian history. ... Melbourne University Publishing (MUP) is the book publishing arm of the University of Melbourne (Australia). ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The commanding officer of the United States Military Academy is its Superintendent. ... Charles Pelot Summerall (1867 - 1955) was a U.S. general. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the highest ranking officer in the United States Army and is member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff [1]. Prior to 1903, the military head of the... Malin Craig (1875 - 1945) was a significant U.S. general. ... Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895 - July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... The Sylvanus Thayer Award is a military award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the highest ranking officer in the United States Army and is member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff [1]. Prior to 1903, the military head of the... Samuel Baldwin Marks Young (1840 - 1924) was a U.S. general. ... General Adna R. Chaffee Adna Romanza Chaffee (April 14, 1842—November 1, 1914) was a General in the United States Army. ... John C. Bates (1842-1919) served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from January to April 1906. ... J. Franklin Bell (1856- January 1919) was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1906 to 1910. ... Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a physician who served as the US Army Chief of Staff and Governor General of the Philippines. ... William Wallace Wotherspoon (1850 - 1921) was a U.S. general. ... Hugh L. Scott (1853-1934) was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1914 to 1917, including the first few months of American involvement in World War I. Categories: Military biographical stubs | U.S. Army generals ... Gen. ... Peyton Conway March (December 27, 1864 - April 13, 1955) was an American soldier and Army Chief of Staff. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... General John L. Hines John Leonard Hines (May 21, 1868-October 13, 1968) was an American soldier, who served as Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army from 1924 to 1926. ... General Charles Pelot Summerall Charles Pelot Summerall (1867 - 1954) was a U.S. general who fought in World War I and served as Army Chief of Staff between 1926 and 1930. ... Malin Craig (1875 - 1945) was a significant U.S. general. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 - April 8, 1981) was one of the main US Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II. Bradley was born to a poor family near Clark, Missouri, the son of a schoolteacher. ... Joseph Lawton Collins Joseph Lightning Joe Lawton Collins (1 May 1896 – 12 September 1987) was a general of the United States Army. ... Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... General Maxwell Davenport Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was an American soldier and diplomat of the mid-20th century. ... Lyman Lemnitzer Lyman Louis Lemnitzer (August 29, 1899 – November 12, 1988) was an American general. ... George H. Decker (1902-1980) was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1960 to 1962. ... Gen. ... Joseph Richards Essigs portrait of General Johnson Harold Keith Johnson (February 22, 1912 - September 24, 1983) was a U.S. general. ... William C. Westmoreland (March 26, 1914 – July 18, 2005) was an American General who commanded American military operations in the Vietnam War at its peak from 1964 to 1968 and who served as US Army Chief of Staff from 1968 to 1972. ... Bruce Palmer, Jr. ... Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. ... GEN Frederick C. Weyand Frederick Carlton Weyand was born in Arbuckle, California, on (September 15, 1916). ... Bernard Rodgers is a retired American general who served as NATOs Supreme Allied Commander, Europe and Commander in Chief, United States European Command from July 1, 1979 to June 26, 1987. ... Edward Charles Shy Meyer (born December 11, 1928) was a U.S. Army general and Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army. ... GEN John A. Wickham General John Adams Wickham (born June 25, 1928 in Dobbs Ferry, New York) was United States Army Chief of Staff from 1983 to 1987. ... GEN Carl E. Vuono Carl Edward Vuono, General, US Army, Ret. ... General Gordon R. Sullivan General Gordon R. Sullivan (born September 25, 1937 in Boston, Massachusetts) was a U.S. Army general. ... Dennis J. Remier Dennis J. Reamer was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from June 20, 1995 to June 21, 1999. ... General Eric Ken Shinseki (born November 28, 1942) was the 34th Chief of Staff of the United States Army (1999 - 2003). ... General Peter Schoomaker (b. ... George William Casey, Jr. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... There is also a Littlerock, California. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
::Douglas MacArthur:: (833 words)
Douglas MacArthur was America’s senior military commander in the Far East during World War Two.
It was a promise that Douglas MacArthur was to fulfill.
In World War Two, after the attack on Pearl Harbour, Douglas MacArthur was put in charge of the Philippines where he had to defend the islands against an attack by the Japanese.
A Douglas MacArthur Story (2299 words)
MacArthur's position in Filipino heart, right up there alongside their own national heroes such as the martyred Dr. Jose Rizal (who was executed by the Spanish) and Manuel Quezon, does not have merely to do with the victory over Japan in World War II or with the liberation of the Philippines.
MacArthur admired the Filipino guerrilla's style, their bravery, their ingenuity (as did his son, who was to make dramatic use of Filipino guerrilla operations during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines forty years later).
MacArthur's first landfall in the retaking of the Philippines was the provincial capital of Tacloban, the typhoon-swept chief port of Leyte province, hometown of a leggy, doe-eyed motherless girl who, twenty years later, was to become the First Lady of the Philippines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m